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La Soufrière (film)
LA SOUFRIèRE – WARTEN AUF EINE UNAUSWEICHLICHE KATASTROPHE ("La Soufrière – Waiting for an Inevitable Disaster") is a 1977 West German documentary film in which German director Werner Herzog visits an island on which a volcano is predicted to erupt . The pretext of this film was provided when Herzog "heard about the impending volcanic eruption, that the island of Guadeloupe
Guadeloupe
had been evacuated and that one peasant had refused to leave, knew wanted to go talk to him and find out what kind of relationship towards death he had" (Cronin). Herzog explores the deserted streets of the towns on the island. The crew of three treks up to the caldera , where clouds of sulfurous steam and smoke shift drift like "harbingers of death" (Peucker), an example of the sublime Herzog seeks to conjure in his films. Herzog converses in French with three different men he finds remaining on the island: one says he is waiting for death, and demonstrates his posture for doing so; another says he has stayed to look after the animals. In the end, the volcano did not erupt, thus sparing the lives of those who had remained on the island, including Herzog and his crew. Werner Herzog's films tend to focus on those outside of mainstream society, often on individuals who exhibit a completely egocentric picture of the world
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Werner Herzog
WERNER HERZOG (German: ; born 5 September 1942) is a German screenwriter, film director, author, actor, and opera director. Herzog is considered one of the greatest figures of the New German Cinema , along with Rainer Werner Fassbinder , Margarethe von Trotta , Volker Schlöndorff , Werner Schröter , and Wim Wenders . Herzog's films often feature heroes with impossible dreams, people with unique talents in obscure fields, or individuals who are in conflict with nature. French filmmaker François Truffaut once called Herzog "the most important film director alive." American film critic Roger Ebert said that Herzog "has never created a single film that is compromised, shameful, made for pragmatic reasons, or uninteresting. Even his failures are spectacular." He was named one of the 100 most influential people on the planet by _Time_ magazine in 2009
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Edward Lachman
EDWARD LACHMAN, A.S.C. (born March 31, 1948) is an American cinematographer and director. Lachman is mostly associated with the American independent film movement, and has served as director of photography on films by Todd Haynes (including _ Far From Heaven _ in 2002, which earned Lachman an Academy Award
Academy Award
nomination ), Ulrich Seidl , Wim Wenders , Steven Soderbergh and Paul Schrader . His other work includes Werner Herzog 's _La Soufrière _ (1977), _Desperately Seeking Susan _ (1985), Sofia Coppola 's directorial debut, _The Virgin Suicides _ (1999), Robert Altman 's last picture _A Prairie Home Companion _ (2006), and Todd Solondz 's _Life During Wartime _ (2009). He is a member of the American Society of Cinematographers . In 1989, Lachman co-directed a segment of the anthology film _ Imagining America _. In 2002, Lachman co-directed the controversial _ Ken Park _ with Larry Clark . In 2013, Lachman produced a series of videos in collaboration with French electronic duo Daft Punk , for the duo's album _ Random Access Memories _
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Jörg Schmidt-Reitwein
JöRG SCHMIDT-REITWEIN (born 1939 in Königs Wusterhausen , Germany ) is a German cinematographer . He has collaborated with director Werner Herzog on a number of projects. Among his many collaborations with other directors, Schmidt-Reitwein is notable for his cinematographic achievement in shooting Alan Greenberg 's acclaimed 1982 documentary about Jamaica
Jamaica
and death of Bob Marley , Land of Look Behind . CONTENTS* 1 Biography * 1.1 Early life and family * 1.2 Early career * 1.3 Career as a cinematographer * 2 Personal life * 3 Filmography (incomplete) * 4 Awards * 5 Websites BIOGRAPHYEARLY LIFE AND FAMILY Jörg Schmidt-Reitwein is the son of the painter Karl Schmidt-Reitwein. The first twelve years of his life he has been in Lübeck. EARLY CAREERHe went to Waldorfschool and afterward he studied Physics for a few semester also in Lübeck
Lübeck
. Then he switched on to the Film Industry and went for that in 1959 to Berlin
Berlin
. He did some various practicum in different film management area such as synchron studio, film laboratory, and sound studio. Suddenly his career structure broke up, as he was captured there after building the Berlin
Berlin
wall , on the east communist side, as he tried to help his girlfriend be transported to the west
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Beate Mainka-Jellinghaus
BEATE MAINKA-JELLINGHAUS (born July 27, 1936) is a German film editor who was a member of the New German Cinema movement and is noted particularly for her many films with director Werner Herzog . Between 1966 and 1986, she was credited on more than twenty-five feature films and feature-length documentaries. Beate Mainka-Jellinghaus is the daughter of Hildegard (née Farbowski) and George Mainka, a bank official. She was born in the village of Vogt, near Oppeln , which was then a part of Germany. At the end of the Second World War she and her parents left Oppeln, which became part of Poland
Poland
; they relocated to Ansbach
Ansbach
. She was musically inclined, and her secondary school education from 1946 to 1951 included ballet instruction and acting; following her graduation in 1951, she attended a private film school in Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
to train as a film editor. After schooling, Mainka worked for five months in a copy center, and became involved as an editorial assistant in the production of short documentary films by Harry Piel. In 1955, Mainka moved to Munich
Munich
, where she worked at Bavaria Film
Bavaria Film
as an assistant film editor, working with editor Anna Höllering on several feature films directed by Rolf Hansen
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Werner Herzog Filmproduktion
WERNER HERZOG (German: ; born 5 September 1942) is a German screenwriter, film director, author, actor, and opera director. Herzog is considered one of the greatest figures of the New German Cinema , along with Rainer Werner Fassbinder , Margarethe von Trotta , Volker Schlöndorff
Volker Schlöndorff
, Werner Schröter , and Wim Wenders . Herzog's films often feature heroes with impossible dreams, people with unique talents in obscure fields, or individuals who are in conflict with nature. French filmmaker François Truffaut
François Truffaut
once called Herzog "the most important film director alive." American film critic Roger Ebert said that Herzog "has never created a single film that is compromised, shameful, made for pragmatic reasons, or uninteresting. Even his failures are spectacular." He was named one of the 100 most influential people on the planet by Time magazine in 2009
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West German
WEST GERMANY is the common English name for the FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY or FRG (German : Bundesrepublik Deutschland) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990. During this Cold War
Cold War
era, NATO
NATO
-aligned West Germany
Germany
and Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
-aligned East Germany
Germany
were divided by the Inner German border . After 1961 West Berlin
Berlin
was physically separated from East Berlin
Berlin
as well as from East Germany
Germany
by the Berlin
Berlin
Wall . This situation ended when East Germany
Germany
was dissolved and split into five states, which then joined the ten states of the Federal Republic of Germany
Germany
along with the reunified city-state of Berlin
Berlin
. With the reunification of West and East Germany, the Federal Republic of Germany, enlarged now to sixteen states, became known simply as " Germany
Germany
". This period is referred to as the BONN REPUBLIC (Bonner Republik) by historians, alluding to the interwar Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
and the post-reunification Berlin
Berlin
Republic
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Documentary Film
A DOCUMENTARY FILM is a nonfictional motion picture intended to document some aspect of reality , primarily for the purposes of instruction, education, or maintaining a historical record . Such films were originally shot on film stock —the only medium available—but now include video and digital productions that can be either direct-to-video , made into a TV show, or released for screening in cinemas. "Documentary" has been described as a "filmmaking practice, a cinematic tradition, and mode of audience reception" that is continually evolving and is without clear boundaries
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Germany
Coordinates : 51°N 9°E / 51°N 9°E / 51; 9 Federal Republic of Germany _Bundesrepublik Deutschland_ (German ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit " "Unity and Justice and Freedom" (de facto) ANTHEM: _ Deutschlandlied _ (English: "Song of Germany") (third verse only) Location of Germany (dark green) – in Europe (green "> (green) – Capital and largest city Berlin 52°31′N 13°23′E / 52.517°N 13.383°E / 52.517; 13.383 Official language and national language German ETHNIC GROUPS (2015 ) * 7001790000000000000♠79.0% Germans
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Volcano
A VOLCANO is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object , such as Earth
Earth
, that allows hot lava , volcanic ash , and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface. Earth's volcanoes occur because its crust is broken into 17 major, rigid tectonic plates that float on a hotter, softer layer in its mantle. Therefore, on Earth, volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging , and most are found underwater. For example, a mid-oceanic ridge , such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge , has volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates whereas the Pacific Ring of Fire
Pacific Ring of Fire
has volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates. Volcanoes can also form where there is stretching and thinning of the crust's plates, e.g., in the East African Rift and the Wells Gray-Clearwater volcanic field and Rio Grande Rift in North America. This type of volcanism falls under the umbrella of "plate hypothesis" volcanism. Volcanism away from plate boundaries has also been explained as mantle plumes . These so-called "hotspots ", for example Hawaii, are postulated to arise from upwelling diapirs with magma from the core–mantle boundary , 3,000 km deep in the Earth. Volcanoes are usually not created where two tectonic plates slide past one another. Erupting volcanoes can pose many hazards, not only in the immediate vicinity of the eruption
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Eruption
Several TYPES OF VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS—during which lava , tephra (ash , lapilli , volcanic bombs and volcanic blocks ), and assorted gases are expelled from a volcanic vent or fissure —have been distinguished by volcanologists . These are often named after famous volcanoes where that type of behavior has been observed. Some volcanoes may exhibit only one characteristic type of eruption during a period of activity, while others may display an entire sequence of types all in one eruptive series. There are three different types of eruptions. The most well-observed are magmatic eruptions , which involve the decompression of gas within magma that propels it forward. Phreatomagmatic eruptions are another type of volcanic eruption, driven by the compression of gas within magma, the direct opposite of the process powering magmatic activity. The third eruptive type is the phreatic eruption , which is driven by the superheating of steam via contact with magma ; these eruptive types often exhibit no magmatic release, instead causing the granulation of existing rock. Within these wide-defining eruptive types are several subtypes. The weakest are Hawaiian and submarine , then Strombolian , followed by Vulcanian and Surtseyan . The stronger eruptive types are Pelean eruptions , followed by Plinian eruptions ; the strongest eruptions are called " Ultra-Plinian ." Subglacial and phreatic eruptions are defined by their eruptive mechanism, and vary in strength
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Guadeloupe
Coordinates : 16°15′N 61°35′W / 16.250°N 61.583°W / 16.250; -61.583 GUADELOUPE Overseas regionand department of France
France
FLAG LOGO COUNTRY France
France
PREFECTURE Basse-Terre
Basse-Terre
DEPARTMENTS 1 GOVERNMENT • PRESIDENT OF THE DEPARTMENTAL COUNCIL Josette Borel-Lincertin AREA • TOTAL 1,628 km2 (629 sq mi) POPULATION (JANUARY 2013) • TOTAL 402,119 • DENSITY 250/km2 (640/sq mi) DEMONYM(S) Guadeloupean TIME ZONE ECT ( UTC-04
UTC-04
) ISO 3166CODE GP GDP (2012) Ranked 25th TOTAL €8.03 billion (US$10.3 bn) PER CAPITA €19,810 (US$25,479) NUTS REGION FRA WEBSITE www.guadeloupe.pref.gouv.fr www.cr-guadeloupe.fr www.cg971.fr GUADELOUPE (/ɡwɑːdəˈluːp/ ; French pronunciation: ​ ; Antillean Creole: _Gwadloup_) is an insular region of France
France
located in the Leeward Islands
Leeward Islands
, part of the Lesser Antilles
Lesser Antilles
in the Caribbean . Administratively, it is an overseas region consisting of a single overseas department
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Caldera
A CALDERA is a large cauldron -like depression that forms following the evacuation of a magma chamber /reservoir. When large volumes of magma are erupted over a short time period, structural support for the crust above the magma chamber is lost. The ground surface then collapses downward into the partially emptied magma chamber, leaving a massive depression at the surface (from one to dozens of kilometers in diameter). Although sometimes described as a crater , the feature is actually a type of sinkhole , as it is formed through subsidence and collapse rather than an explosion or impact. Only seven known caldera-forming collapses have occurred since the start of the 20th century, most recently at Bárðarbunga volcano in Iceland. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Caldera
Caldera
formation * 2.1 Mineralization * 2.2 Explosive caldera eruptions * 2.2.1 Toba * 2.3 Non-explosive calderas * 3 Extraterrestrial calderas * 3.1 The Moon
Moon
* 3.2 Mars
Mars
* 3.3 Venus
Venus
* 3.4 Io * 4 List of volcanic calderas * 5 Erosion calderas * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 External links ETYMOLOGYThe word comes from Spanish _caldera_, and Latin
Latin
_caldaria_, meaning "cooking pot"
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Sulfur
SULFUR or SULPHUR (see spelling and etymology ) is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16. It is abundant , multivalent , and nonmetallic . Under normal conditions , sulfur atoms form cyclic octatomic molecules with a chemical formula S8 . Elemental sulfur is a bright yellow crystalline solid at room temperature. Chemically, sulfur reacts with all elements except for gold, platinum, iridium, tellurium, and the noble gases . Though sometimes found in pure, native form, sulfur usually occurs as sulfide and sulfate minerals . Being abundant in native form, sulfur was known in ancient times, being mentioned for its uses in ancient India , ancient Greece , China , and Egypt . In the Bible , sulfur is called BRIMSTONE. Today, almost all elemental sulfur is produced as a byproduct of removing sulfur-containing contaminants from natural gas and petroleum . The greatest commercial use of the element is the production of sulfuric acid for sulfate and phosphate fertilizers , and other chemical processes. The element sulfur is used in matches , insecticides , and fungicides . Many sulfur compounds are odoriferous, and the smells of odorized natural gas, skunk scent, grapefruit, and garlic are due to organosulfur compounds. Hydrogen sulfide gives the characteristic odor to rotting eggs and other biological processes
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Sublime (philosophy)
In aesthetics , the SUBLIME (from the Latin sublīmis) is the quality of greatness, whether physical, moral, intellectual, metaphysical, aesthetic , spiritual, or artistic. The term especially refers to a greatness beyond all possibility of calculation, measurement, or imitation. CONTENTS * 1 Ancient philosophy * 2 18th century * 2.1 British philosophy * 2.2 Edmund Burke * 2.3 German philosophy * 2.3.1 Immanuel Kant * 2.3.2 Schopenhauer * 2.3.3 Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel * 2.3.4 Rudolf Otto * 3 Post-Romantic and 20th century * 4 21st century * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links ANCIENT PHILOSOPHYThe first known study of the sublime is ascribed to Longinus : Peri Hupsous/Hypsous or On the Sublime . This is thought to have been written in the 1st century AD though its origin and authorship are uncertain. For Longinus, the sublime is an adjective that describes great, elevated, or lofty thought or language, particularly in the context of rhetoric . As such, the sublime inspires awe and veneration, with greater persuasive powers. Longinus' treatise is also notable for referring not only to Greek authors such as Homer , but also to biblical sources such as Genesis
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Egocentrism
EGOCENTRISM is the inability to differentiate between self and other. More specifically, it is the inability to untangle subjective schemas from objective reality; an inability to understand or assume any perspective other than their own. Although egocentrism and narcissism appear similar, they are not the same. A person who is egocentric believes they are the center of attention, like a narcissist, but does not receive gratification by one's own admiration. Both egotists and narcissists are people whose egos are greatly influenced by the approval of others, while for egocentrists this may or may not be true. Although egocentric behaviors are less prominent in adulthood, the existence of some forms of egocentrism in adulthood indicates that overcoming egocentrism may be a lifelong development that never achieves completion. Adults appear to be less egocentric than children because they are faster to correct from an initially egocentric perspective than children, not because they are less likely to initially adopt an egocentric perspective. Therefore, egocentrism is found across the life span: in infancy early childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. It contributes to the human cognitive development by helping children develop theory of mind and self-identity formation