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LED Lighting
An LED LAMP is an electric light or light bulb for use in lighting fixtures that produces light using light-emitting diodes (LEDs). LED lamps have a lifespan and electrical efficiency which are several times greater than incandescent lamps , and are significantly more efficient than most fluorescent lamps , with some chips able to emit more than 300 lumens per watt (as claimed by Cree and some other LED manufacturers). The LED lamp market is projected to grow by more than twelve-fold over the next decade, from $2 billion in the beginning of 2014 to $25 billion in 2023, a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 25%. As of 2016, LEDs use only about 10% of the energy an incandescent lamp requires. Like incandescent lamps and unlike most fluorescent lamps (e.g. tubes and compact fluorescent lamps or CFLs), LEDs come to full brightness without need for a warm-up time; the life of fluorescent lighting is also reduced by frequent switching on and off
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Hazardous Waste
HAZARDOUS WASTE is waste that poses substantial or potential threats to public health or the environment . In the United States, the treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous waste are regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Hazardous wastes are defined under RCRA in 40 CFR 261 where they are divided into two major categories: characteristic wastes and listed wastes. * Characteristic hazardous wastes are materials that are known or tested to exhibit one or more of the following four hazardous traits: * ignitability * reactivity * corrosivity * toxicity * Listed hazardous wastes are materials specifically listed by regulatory authorities as hazardous wastes which are from non-specific sources, specific sources, or discarded chemical products . The requirements of RCRA apply to all the companies that generate hazardous waste as well as those companies that store or dispose hazardous waste in the United States
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Fluorescent
FLUORESCENCE is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation . It is a form of luminescence . In most cases, the emitted light has a longer wavelength , and therefore lower energy, than the absorbed radiation. The most striking example of fluorescence occurs when the absorbed radiation is in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum , and thus invisible to the human eye, while the emitted light is in the visible region, which gives the fluorescent substance a distinct color that can only be seen when exposed to UV light . Fluorescent materials cease to glow immediately when the radiation source stops, unlike phosphorescence , where it continues to emit light for some time after
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Metal Halide Lamp
A METAL-HALIDE LAMP is an electrical lamp that produces light by an electric arc through a gaseous mixture of vaporized mercury and metal halides (compounds of metals with bromine or iodine ). It is a type of high-intensity discharge (HID) gas discharge lamp . Developed in the 1960s, they are similar to mercury vapor lamps , but contain additional metal halide compounds in the quartz arc tube, which improve the efficiency and color rendition of the light. The most common metal halide compound used is sodium iodide . Once the arc tube reaches its running temperature, the sodium dissociates from the iodine, adding orange and reds to the lamp's spectrum from the sodium D line as the metal ionizes. As a result, metal-halide lamps have high luminous efficacy of around 75–100 lumens per watt, which is about twice that of mercury vapor lights and 3 to 5 times that of incandescent lights and produce an intense white light. Lamp life is 6,000 to 15,000 hours
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Energy Resources
WORLD ENERGY RESOURCES are the estimated maximum capacity for energy production given all available resources on Earth
Earth
. They can be divided by type into fossil fuel , nuclear fuel and renewable resources
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Global Warming
GLOBAL WARMING, also referred to as CLIMATE CHANGE, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth
Earth
's climate system and its related effects. Multiple lines of scientific evidence show that the climate system is warming. Many of the observed changes since the 1950s are unprecedented in the instrumental temperature record which extends back to the mid-19th century, and in paleoclimate proxy records covering thousands of years. In 2013, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Climate
Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report concluded that "It is extremely likely that human influence has been the dominant cause of the observed warming since the mid-20th century." The largest human influence has been the emission of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide , methane and nitrous oxide
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Mercury (element)
MERCURY is a chemical element with symbol HG and atomic number 80. It is commonly known as QUICKSILVER and was formerly named HYDRARGYRUM (/haɪˈdrɑːrdʒərəm/ ). A heavy , silvery d-block element, mercury is the only metallic element that is liquid at standard conditions for temperature and pressure ; the only other element that is liquid under these conditions is bromine , though metals such as caesium , gallium , and rubidium melt just above room temperature . Mercury occurs in deposits throughout the world mostly as cinnabar (mercuric sulfide ). The red pigment vermilion is obtained by grinding natural cinnabar or synthetic mercuric sulfide
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Glow Discharge
A GLOW DISCHARGE is a plasma formed by the passage of electric current through a low-pressure gas. It is created by applying a voltage between two electrodes in a glass tube containing the low-pressure gas. When the voltage exceeds a certain value called the striking voltage , the gas in the tube ionizes , becoming a plasma, and begins conducting electricity, causing it to glow with a colored light. The color depends on the gas used. Glow discharge
Glow discharge
is widely used as a source of light in devices such as neon lights , fluorescent lamps , and plasma-screen televisions . Analyzing the light produced with spectroscopy can reveal much about the atomic interactions in the gas, so glow discharge is used in plasma physics and analytical chemistry . It is also used in the surface treatment technique called sputtering
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Edison Screw
EDISON SCREW (ES) is a standard socket for light bulbs in the United States. It was developed by Thomas Edison
Thomas Edison
and was licensed in 1909 under the Mazda trademark. Normally, the bulbs have right-hand threaded metal bases (caps) which screw into matching threaded sockets (lamp holders). For bulbs powered by AC current , the thread is connected to neutral and the contact on the bottom tip of the base is connected to hot. In North America
North America
and continental Europe , Edison screws displaced other socket types for general lighting. In the early days of electrification, Edison screws were the only standard connector, and appliances other than bulbs were connected to AC power via light sockets. Today Edison screw
Edison screw
sockets comply with international standards
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Black Body Spectrum
BLACK-BODY RADIATION is the thermal electromagnetic radiation within or surrounding a body in thermodynamic equilibrium with its environment, or emitted by a black body (an opaque and non-reflective body). It has a specific spectrum and intensity that depends only on the body's temperature, which is assumed for the sake of calculations and theory to be uniform and constant. The thermal radiation spontaneously emitted by many ordinary objects can be approximated as black-body radiation. A perfectly insulated enclosure that is in thermal equilibrium internally contains black-body radiation and will emit it through a hole made in its wall, provided the hole is small enough to have negligible effect upon the equilibrium
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Sunlight
SUNLIGHT is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun
Sun
, in particular infrared , visible , and ultraviolet light. On Earth
Earth
, sunlight is filtered through Earth\'s atmosphere , and is obvious as daylight when the Sun
Sun
is above the horizon . When the direct solar radiation is not blocked by clouds , it is experienced as SUNSHINE, a combination of bright light and radiant heat . When it is blocked by clouds or reflects off other objects , it is experienced as diffused light. The World Meteorological Organization
World Meteorological Organization
uses the term "sunshine duration " to mean the cumulative time during which an area receives direct irradiance from the Sun
Sun
of at least 120 watts per square meter . Other sources indicate an "Average over the entire earth" of "164 Watts per square meter over a 24 hour day"
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Ultraviolet
ULTRAVIOLET (UV) is an electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays . UV radiation constitutes about 10% of the total light output of the Sun, and is thus present in sunlight . It is also produced by electric arcs and specialized lights, such as mercury-vapor lamps , tanning lamps , and black lights . Although it is not considered an ionizing radiation because its photons lack the energy to ionize atoms , long-wavelength ultraviolet radiation can cause chemical reactions and causes many substances to glow or fluoresce . Consequently, the biological effects of UV are greater than simple heating effects, and many practical applications of UV radiation derive from its interactions with organic molecules. Suntan , freckling and sunburn are familiar effects of over-exposure, along with higher risk of skin cancer
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Fossil Fuel
A FOSSIL FUEL is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms , containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis . The age of the organisms and their resulting fossil fuels is typically millions of years, and sometimes exceeds 650 million years. Fossil
Fossil
fuels contain high percentages of carbon and include petroleum , coal , and natural gas . Other commonly used derivatives include kerosene and propane . Fossil fuels range from volatile materials with low carbon to hydrogen ratios like methane , to liquids like petroleum, to nonvolatile materials composed of almost pure carbon, like anthracite coal. Methane
Methane
can be found in hydrocarbon fields either alone, associated with oil , or in the form of methane clathrates
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Nichia Corporation
NICHIA CORPORATION (日亜化学工業株式会社, Nichia Kagaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-gaisha) is a Japanese chemical engineering and manufacturing company headquartered in Anan, Japan with global subsidiaries. It specializes in the manufacturing and distribution of phosphors , including light-emitting diodes (LEDs), laser diodes , battery materials , and calcium chloride . The Nichia Corporation comprises two divisions — Division 1, responsible for phosphors and other chemicals, and Division 2, responsible for LEDs. In the field of phosphors the company has 50% of the Japanese market and 25% of the world market. Nichia is the world’s largest supplier of LEDs. It designs, manufactures, and markets LEDs for display, LCD backlighting, automotive and general lighting applications with the many different leds across the entire visible spectrum
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PAR 38
A PARABOLIC ALUMINIZED REFLECTOR LAMP (also PARCAN LIGHT, PARCAN, or simply PAR) is a type of electric lamp that is widely used in commercial, residential, and transportation illumination. Usage includes locomotive headlamps , aircraft landing lights, and residential and commercial recessed lights ("cans" in the United States). They are identical in principle to sealed beam automobile headlights . This article covers only their use in stage lighting . The lamps and their fixtures are widely used in theatre , concerts and motion picture production when a substantial amount of flat lighting is required for a scene . In situations where sunlight or other specular light is available, a white foam reflector is often used to accomplish the same effect as a PAR array. PAR cans are being replaced in some applications by LED PAR cans , which use less electric power and produce a wide array of saturated colors without the use of color filters, when white light is not needed
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Philips
KONINKLIJKE PHILIPS N.V. (KONINKLIJKE PHILIPS N.V. OF THE NETHERLAND, PHILIPS), (stylized as PHILIPS) is a Dutch technology company headquartered in Amsterdam
Amsterdam
with primary divisions focused in the areas of electronics, healthcare and lighting. It was founded in Eindhoven in 1891, by Gerard Philips and his father Frederik. It is one of the largest electronics companies in the world and employs around 105,000 people across more than 60 countries. Philips
Philips
is organized into three main divisions: Philips
Philips
Consumer Lifestyle (formerly Philips
Philips
Consumer Electronics and Philips
Philips
Domestic Appliances and Personal Care), Philips
Philips
Healthcare
Healthcare
(formerly Philips Medical Systems) and Philips
Philips
Lighting
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