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LED Lighting
An LED LAMP is a light-emitting diode (LED) product that is assembled into a lamp (or light bulb ) for use in lighting fixtures . LED lamps have a lifespan and electrical efficiency which are several times greater than incandescent lamps , and are significantly more efficient than most fluorescent lamps , with some chips able to emit more than 300 lumens per watt (as claimed by Cree and some other LED manufacturers). The LED lamp market is projected to grow by more than twelve-fold over the next decade, from $2 billion in the beginning of 2014 to $25 billion in 2023, a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 25%. As of 2016, LEDs use only about 10% of the energy an incandescent lamp requires. Like incandescent lamps and unlike most fluorescent lamps (e.g. tubes and compact fluorescent lamps or CFLs), LEDs come to full brightness without need for a warm-up time; the life of fluorescent lighting is also reduced by frequent switching on and off
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Philips
KONINKLIJKE PHILIPS N.V. (KONINKLIJKE PHILIPS N.V. OF THE NETHERLAND, PHILIPS), (stylized as PHILIPS) is a Dutch technology company headquartered in Amsterdam
Amsterdam
with primary divisions focused in the areas of electronics, healthcare and lighting. It was founded in Eindhoven in 1891, by Gerard Philips
Gerard Philips
and his father Frederik. It is one of the largest electronics companies in the world and employs around 105,000 people across more than 60 countries. Philips
Philips
is organized into three main divisions: Philips
Philips
Consumer Lifestyle (formerly Philips
Philips
Consumer Electronics and Philips
Philips
Domestic Appliances and Personal Care), Philips
Philips
Healthcare
Healthcare
(formerly Philips Medical Systems) and Philips
Philips
Lighting
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PAR 38
A PARABOLIC ALUMINIZED REFLECTOR LAMP (also PARCAN LIGHT, PARCAN, or simply PAR) is a type of electric lamp that is widely used in commercial, residential, and transportation illumination. Usage includes locomotive headlamps , aircraft landing lights, and residential and commercial recessed lights ("cans" in the United States). They are identical in principle to sealed beam automobile headlights . This article covers only their use in stage lighting . The lamps and their fixtures are widely used in theatre , concerts and motion picture production when a substantial amount of flat lighting is required for a scene . In situations where sunlight or other specular light is available, a white foam reflector is often used to accomplish the same effect as a PAR array. PAR cans are being replaced in some applications by LED PAR cans , which use less electric power and produce a wide array of saturated colors without the use of color filters, when white light is not needed
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Chromaticity
CHROMATICITY is an objective specification of the quality of a color regardless of its luminance . Chromaticity
Chromaticity
consists of two independent parameters , often specified as hue (h) and colorfulness (s), where the latter is alternatively called saturation, chroma, intensity, or excitation purity . This number of parameters follows from trichromacy of vision of most humans, which is assumed by most models in color science . CONTENTS * 1 Quantitative description * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links QUANTITATIVE DESCRIPTIONIn color science, the white point of an illuminant or of a display is a neutral reference characterized by a chromaticity; all other chromaticities may be defined in relation to this reference using polar coordinates . The hue is the angular component, and the purity is the radial component, normalized by the maximum radius for that hue
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National Institute Of Standards And Technology
The NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY (NIST) is a measurement standards laboratory, and a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce
United States Department of Commerce
. Its mission is to promote innovation and industrial competitiveness. NIST's activities are organized into laboratory programs that include Nanoscale Science and Technology, Engineering, Information Technology , Neutron Research, Material Measurement, and Physical Measurement
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United Kingdom
The UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND, commonly known as the UNITED KINGDOM (UK) or BRITAIN, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland , the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
includes the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland
Ireland
and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
is the only part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
that shares a land border with another sovereign state‍—‌the Republic of Ireland
Ireland

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Incandescent Lamp
An INCANDESCENT LIGHT BULB, INCANDESCENT LAMP or INCANDESCENT LIGHT GLOBE is an electric light with a wire filament heated to such a high temperature that it glows with visible light (incandescence ). The filament, heated by passing an electric current through it, is protected from oxidation with a glass or fused quartz bulb that is filled with inert gas or evacuated . In a halogen lamp , filament evaporation is slowed by a chemical process that redeposits metal vapor onto the filament, extending its life. The light bulb is supplied with electric current by feed-through terminals or wires embedded in the glass. Most bulbs are used in a socket which provides mechanical support and electrical connections. Incandescent bulbs are manufactured in a wide range of sizes, light output, and voltage ratings, from 1.5 volts to about 300 volts
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L Prize
The L PRIZE (aka the BRIGHT TOMORROW LIGHTING PRIZE) is a competition run by the United States Department of Energy
United States Department of Energy
aimed to "spur lighting manufacturers to develop high-quality, high-efficiency solid-state lighting products to replace the common incandescent light bulb ". The competition, launched in May 2008 at Lightfair, offers two prizes for the replacement of two types of bulb, an A19 60-watt incandescent light bulb and a PAR 38
PAR 38
halogen incandescent bulb. The prize fund for the 60 W replacement is up to a maximum of US$ 10 million and for the PAR 38
PAR 38
up to US$5 million. There is a third category, yet to be publicly defined, called the 21st-century lamp
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Isamu Akasaki
ISAMU AKASAKI (赤崎 勇, Akasaki Isamu, born January 30, 1929) is a Japanese physicist, specializing in the field of semiconductor technology and Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
laureate, best known for inventing the bright gallium nitride ( GaN ) p-n junction blue LED
LED
in 1989 and subsequently the high-brightness GaN blue LED
LED
as well. For this and other achievements Isamu Akasaki
Isamu Akasaki
was awarded the Kyoto Prize in Advanced Technology in 2009 and the IEEE Edison Medal in 2011. He was also awarded the 2014 Nobel prize in Physics, together with Hiroshi Amano
Hiroshi Amano
and Shuji Nakamura , "for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes, which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources"
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Hiroshi Amano
HIROSHI AMANO (天野 浩, Amano Hiroshi, born September 11, 1960) is a Japanese physicist and inventor specializing in the field of semiconductor technology. For his work he was awarded the 2014 Nobel Prize in Physics together with Isamu Akasaki and Shuji Nakamura for "the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources". CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Awards * 3 Honors * 4 Publications * 5 See also * 6 References BIOGRAPHY with Shinzō Abe
Shinzō Abe
(at the Prime Minister\'s Official Residence on October 22, 2014) Amano was born in Hamamatsu, Japan, on September 11, 1960. He received his BE , ME and DE degree in 1983, 1985 and 1989, respectively, from Nagoya University
Nagoya University
. From 1988 to 1992, he was a research associate at Nagoya University
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Nobel Prize In Physics
Takaaki Kajita Arthur B. McDonald (2015) NOBEL LAUREATE(S) IN PHYSICSDavid J. Thouless Duncan Haldane J. Michael Kosterlitz (2016) Wilhelm Röntgen
Wilhelm Röntgen
(1845–1923), the first recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physics. The NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS (Swedish : Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics
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US Department Of Energy
The UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE) is a Cabinet -level department of the United States
United States
Government concerned with the United States ' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material. Its responsibilities include the nation's nuclear weapons program, nuclear reactor production for the United States
United States
Navy , energy conservation , energy-related research, radioactive waste disposal , and domestic energy production . It also directs research in genomics ; the Human Genome Project
Human Genome Project
originated in a DOE initiative. DOE sponsors more research in the physical sciences than any other U.S. federal agency, the majority of which is conducted through its system of National Laboratories
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Energy Saving Trust
ENERGY SAVING TRUST (EST) is a British organization devoted to promoting energy efficiency , energy conservation , and the sustainable use of energy , thereby reducing carbon dioxide emissions and helping to prevent man-made climate change . It was founded in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
as a government-sponsored initiative in 1992, following the global Earth Summit
Earth Summit
. Energy Saving Trust is an independent, not-for-profit organization funded by the government and the private sector. It is a social enterprise , and also has a charitable foundation . The EST has regional offices in England, and country offices in Wales, Northern Ireland, and Scotland. It maintains a comprehensive website, and a network of numerous local advice centres
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Cambridge University
The UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE (informally CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY) is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge
Cambridge
, England
England
. Founded in 1209 and granted a royal charter by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge
Cambridge
is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's third-oldest surviving university . The university grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford
University of Oxford
after a dispute with the townspeople. The two medieval universities share many common features and are often referred to jointly as " Oxbridge
Oxbridge
". Cambridge
Cambridge
is formed from a variety of institutions which include 31 constituent colleges and over 100 academic departments organised into six schools
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United States Dollar
UNITED STATES East Timor Ecuador
Ecuador
El Salvador
El Salvador
Marshall Islands Federated States of Micronesia Palau
Palau
Panama
Panama
Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
3 non-U.S
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Indian Rupee
The INDIAN RUPEE (sign : ₹ ; code : INR), is the official currency of the Republic of India
India
. The rupee is subdivided into 100 paise (singular paisa), though as of 2011, 25 paise is no longer considered legal tender. The issuance of the currency is controlled by the Reserve Bank of India
India
. The Reserve Bank manages currency in India and derives its role in currency management on the basis of the Reserve Bank of India
India
Act, 1934 . The rupee is named after the silver coin, rupiya, first issued by Sultan
Sultan
Sher Shah Suri in the 16th century and later continued by the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
. In 2010, a new symbol '₹', was officially adopted. It was derived from the combination of the Devanagari
Devanagari
consonant " " (ra) and the Latin capital letter "R" without its vertical bar (similar to the R rotunda )
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