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L. L. Zamenhof
LUDWIK LEJZER ZAMENHOF (Polish : Ludwik Łazarz Zamenhof; 15 December 1859 – 14 April 1917), usually credited as L. L. ZAMENHOF, was a Polish - Jewish
Jewish
medical doctor , inventor , and writer . He is most widely known for creating Esperanto
Esperanto
, the most successful constructed language in the world. He grew up fascinated by the idea of a world without war and believed that this could happen with the help of a new international auxiliary language , which he first developed in 1873 while still in school
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Belarusian Language
BELARUSIAN (/bɛləˈruːsiən/ ; беларуская мова belaruskaya mova ) is an official language of Belarus , along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, mainly in Russia , Ukraine , and small parts in far-eastern Poland . Before Belarus gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, the language was known in English as Byelorussian or Belorussian, transliterating the Russian name, белорусский язык, or alternatively as White Ruthenian (/ruːˈθiːniən/ ) or White Russian (with the meaning Rus' but not Russia). Following independence, it also became known as Belarusian. Belarusian is one of the East Slavic languages and shares many grammatical and lexical features with other members of the group. To some extent, Russian , Ukrainian , and Belarusian are mutually intelligible
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French Language
FRENCH (le français ( listen ) or la langue française ) is a Romance language
Romance language
of the Indo-European family . It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance , the spoken Latin
Latin
in Gaul
Gaul
, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d\'oïl —languages historically spoken in northern France
France
and in southern Belgium
Belgium
, which French ( Francien ) has largely supplanted
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Hebrew Language
HEBREW (/ˈhiːbruː/ ; עִבְרִית‬, Ivrit ( listen ) or ( listen )) is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel
Israel
, spoken by over 9 million people worldwide. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name Hebrew in the Tanakh . The earliest examples of written Paleo-Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE. Hebrew belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family. Hebrew is the only living Canaanite language left, and the only truly successful example of a revived dead language . Hebrew had ceased to be an everyday spoken language somewhere between 200 and 400 CE, declining since the aftermath of the Bar Kokhba revolt . Aramaic and to a lesser extent Greek were already in use as international languages, especially among elites and immigrants
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Yiddish
YIDDISH (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, lit. "Jewish ", pronounced ; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, lit. Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews
Jews
. It originated during the 9th century in Central Europe , providing the nascent Ashkenazi community with an extensive Germanic based vernacular fused with elements taken from Hebrew and Aramaic , as well as from Slavic languages and traces of Romance languages . Yiddish
Yiddish
is written with a fully vocalized alphabet based on the Hebrew alphabet . The earliest surviving references date from the 12th century and call the language לשון־אַשכּנז (loshn-ashknaz, "language of Ashkenaz") or טײַטש (taytsh), a variant of tiutsch, the contemporary name for Middle High German . Colloquially, the language is sometimes called מאַמע־לשון (mame-loshn, lit
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Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
The POLISH–LITHUANIAN COMMONWEALTH, formally the CROWN OF THE KINGDOM OF POLAND AND THE GRAND DUCHY OF LITHUANIA, after 1791 the COMMONWEALTH OF POLAND, was a dualistic state , a bi-confederation of Poland
Poland
and Lithuania
Lithuania
ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland
Poland
and the Grand Duke
Duke
of Lithuania
Lithuania
. It was one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th- and 17th-century Europe. At its peak in the early 17th century, the Commonwealth spanned some 450,000 square miles (1,200,000 km2) and sustained a multi-ethnic population of 11 million
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History Of Jews In Lithuania
The HISTORY OF THE JEWS IN LITHUANIA spans the period from the 8th century to the present day. There is still a small community in that country, as well as an extensive Lithuanian Jewish diaspora in Israel, the United States and other countries. For more detail, see Lithuanian Jews
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Jewish
JEWS (/dʒuːz/ ; Hebrew : יְהוּדִים‬ ISO 259-3 Yehudim, Israeli pronunciation ), also known as JEWISH PEOPLE, are an ethnoreligious group and a nation originating from the Israelites , or Hebrews , of the Ancient Near East
Ancient Near East
. Jewish ethnicity , nationhood , and religion are strongly interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish people, while its observance varies from strict observance to complete nonobservance. Jews
Jews
originated as an ethnic and religious group in the Middle East during the second millennium BCE, in the part of the Levant
Levant
known as the Land of Israel
Israel

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Kingdom Of Poland (1916-1918)
The KINGDOM OF POLAND (Polish : Królestwo Polskie), also known informally as the REGENCY KINGDOM OF POLAND (Polish : Królestwo Regencyjne), was a proposed puppet state of Germany during World War I . In reality, the German Empire planners wanted to annex around 30,000 square kilometers of the territory of former Congress Poland and carry out ethnic cleansing up to 3 million Poles and Jews to make room for German colonists in the so-called Polish Border Strip plan. The decision to promise restoration of Poland was taken by Germany in order to attempt to legitimize its military occupation amongst the Polish inhabitants, following upon German propaganda sent to the Poles in 1915 that German soldiers were arriving as liberators to free Poland from subjugation by Russia . A draft of a constitution was proposed 1917
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Aramaic Language
ARAMAIC (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, Syriac : ܐܪܡܝܐ‎, Arabic
Arabic
آرامية) is a Middle Eastern language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family . More specifically, it is part of the Northwest Semitic group , which also includes the Canaanite languages such as Hebrew and Phoenician . The Aramaic alphabet
Aramaic alphabet
was widely adopted for other languages and is ancestral to the Hebrew , Syriac and Arabic alphabets . During its approximately 3100 years of written history, Aramaic has served variously as a language of administration of empires and as a language of divine worship, religious study and as the spoken tongue of a number of Semitic peoples from the Near East
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Germans
GERMANS (German : Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe
Central Europe
, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history . German is the shared mother tongue of a substantial majority of ethnic Germans. The English term Germans
Germans
has historically referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
since the Late Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. Before the collapse of communism and the reunification of Germany
Germany
in 1990, Germans
Germans
constituted the largest divided nation in Europe by far. Ever since the outbreak of the Protestant Reformation within the Holy Roman Empire, German society has been characterized by a Catholic- Protestant
Protestant
divide
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Lipka Tatars
The LIPKA TATARS (also known as LITHUANIAN TATARS, POLISH TATARS, Lipkowie, Lipcani or Muślimi) are a group of Tatars
Tatars
who originally settled in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
at the beginning of the 14th century. The first settlers tried to preserve their shamanistic religion and sought asylum amongst the non- Christian
Christian
Lithuanians. Towards the end of the 14th century, another wave of Tatars
Tatars
– this time, Muslims , were invited into the Grand Duchy by Vytautas
Vytautas
the Great . These Tatars
Tatars
first settled in Lithuania
Lithuania
proper around Vilnius , Trakai
Trakai
, Hrodna and Kaunas
Kaunas
and later spread to other parts of the Grand Duchy that later became part of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
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Lithuanians
LITHUANIANS (Lithuanian : lietuviai, singular lietuvis/lietuvė) are a Baltic ethnic group , native to Lithuania
Lithuania
, where they number around 2,561,300 people. Another million or more make up the Lithuanian diaspora , largely found in countries such as the United States, Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Russia, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Ireland. Their native language is Lithuanian , one of only two surviving members of the Baltic language family. According to the census conducted in 2001, 83.45% of the population of Lithuania identified themselves as Lithuanians, 6.74% as Poles
Poles
, 6.31% as Russians
Russians
, 1.23% as Belarusians
Belarusians
, and 2.27% as members of other ethnic groups
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Russians
RUSSIANS (Russian : русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia
Russia
, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus
Belarus
, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
, Ukraine
Ukraine
and the Baltic states . A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians
Russians
are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe
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Belarusians
BELARUSIANS (Belarusian : беларусы, biełarusy, or BYELORUSSIANS (from the Byelorussian SSR ), are an East Slavic ethnic group who are native to modern-day Belarus
Belarus
and the immediate region. There are over 9.5 million people who proclaim Belarusian ethnicity worldwide, with the overwhelming majority residing either in Belarus or the adjacent countries where they are an autochthonous minority. CONTENTS * 1 Location * 2 Languages * 3 History * 4 Cuisine * 5 See also * 6 References * 6.1 Bibliography * 7 External links LOCATION See also: Belarusian diaspora Ethnic territory of Belarusians According to Y. Karskiy (1903) According to M. Dovnar-Zapol\'skiy (1919) Modern state boundaries Belarusians
Belarusians
are an East Slavic ethnic group who populate the majority of the Belarus
Belarus

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Volapük
VOLAPüK (/ˈvɒləpʊk/ in English; in Volapük) is a constructed language , created in 1879–1880 by Johann Martin Schleyer , a Roman Catholic priest in Baden , Germany
Germany
. Schleyer felt that God
God
had told him in a dream to create an international language . Volapük
Volapük
conventions took place in 1884 ( Friedrichshafen
Friedrichshafen
), 1887 ( Munich
Munich
) and 1889 ( Paris
Paris
). The first two conventions used German , and the last conference used only Volapük. In 1889, there were an estimated 283 clubs, 25 periodicals in or about Volapük, and 316 textbooks in 25 languages; at that time the language claimed nearly a million adherents. Volapük
Volapük
was largely displaced in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by Esperanto
Esperanto

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