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L. L. Zamenhof
Ludwik Lejzer Zamenhof (Polish: Ludwik Łazarz Zamenhof; 15 December [O.S. 3 December] 1859 – 14 April [O.S. 1 April] 1917),[2] usually credited as L. L. Zamenhof, was a Polish[3] medical doctor, inventor, and writer
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Hebrew Language
Hebrew (/ˈhiːbruː/; עִבְרִית, Ivrit [ʔivˈʁit] ( listen) or [ʕivˈɾit] ( listen)) is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel, spoken by over 9 million people worldwide.[8][9] Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites
Israelites
and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name Hebrew in the Tanakh.[note 1] The earliest examples of written Paleo-Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE.[10] Hebrew belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family
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Old Style Date
The adoption of the Gregorian Calendar was an event in the modern history of most nations and societies, marking a change from their traditional (or old style) dating system to the modern (or new style) dating system that is widely used around the world today. Some countries adopted the new calendar from 1582, some did not do so before the early twentieth century, and others did so at various dates between; however a number continue to use a different civil calendar. For many the new style calendar is only used for civil purposes and the old style calendar remains used in religious contexts
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Roman Catholic Church
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.29 billion members worldwide.[4] As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation.[5] Headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the Pope, the church's doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed
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Volapük
Volapük
Volapük
(/ˈvɒləpʊk/ in English;[2] [volaˈpyk] in Volapük) is a constructed language, created in 1879 and 1880 by Johann Martin Schleyer, a Roman Catholic priest in Baden, Germany. Schleyer felt that God
God
had told him in a dream to create an international language. Volapük
Volapük
conventions took place in 1884 (Friedrichshafen), 1887 (Munich) and 1889 (Paris). The first two conventions used German, and the last conference used only Volapük
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Aramaic Language
Aramaic[2] (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, Classical Syriac: ܐܪܡܝܐ‎, Arabic: آرامية‎) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family. More specifically, it is part of the Northwest Semitic group, which also includes the Canaanite languages such as Hebrew and Phoenician. The Aramaic alphabet
Aramaic alphabet
was widely adopted for other languages and is ancestral to the Hebrew, Syriac and Arabic alphabets. During its approximately 3,100 years of written history,[3] Aramaic has served variously as a language of administration of empires and as a language of divine worship, religious study and as the spoken tongue of a number of Semitic peoples from the Near East. Historically, Aramaic was the language of Aramean tribes, a Semitic people of the region around between the Levant
Levant
and the northern Euphrates
Euphrates
valley
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Belarusian Language
 Belarus   Poland
Poland
(in Gmina Orla, Gmina Narewka, Gmina Czyże, Gmina Hajnówka
Hajnówka
and town of Hajnówka)Collective Security Treaty OrganizationRecognised minority language in Czech Republic[3]  Ukraine[4][5]  Lithuania[citation needed]Regulated by National Academy of Sciences of BelarusLanguage codesISO 639-1 beISO 639-2 belISO 639-3 belGlottolog bela1254[6]Linguasphere 53-AAA-eb < 53-AAA-e (varieties: 53-AAA-eba to 53-AAA-ebg)Belarusian-speaking world Legend: Dark blue - territory, where Belarusian language
Belarusian language
is used chiefly; Light blue - historical range[7]This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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Belarusians
Belarusians
Belarusians
(Belarusian: беларусы, biełarusy, or Byelorussians (from the Byelorussian SSR), are an East Slavic ethnic group who are native to modern-day Belarus
Belarus
and the immediate region. There are over 9.5 million people who proclaim Belarusian ethnicity worldwide, with the overwhelming majority residing either in Belarus or the adjacent countries where they are an autochthonous minority.Contents1 Location 2 Languages 3 History 4 Cuisine 5 See also 6 References6.1 Bibliography7 External linksLocation[edit] See also: Belarusian diasporaEthnic territory of Belarusians   According to Y. Karskiy (1903)   According to M. Dovnar-Zapol'skiy (1919)   Modern state boundaries Belarusians
Belarusians
are an East Slavic ethnic group who populate the majority of the Belarus
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French Language
French (le français [lə fʁɑ̃sɛ] ( listen) or la langue française [la lɑ̃ɡ fʁɑ̃sɛz]) is a Romance language
Romance language
of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin
Latin
in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France
France
and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages
Celtic languages
of Northern Roman Gaul
Gaul
like Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders
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German Language
No official regulation ( German orthography
German orthography
regulated by the Council for German Orthography[4]). Language
Language
codesISO 639-1 deISO 639-2 ger (B) deu (T)ISO 639-3 Variously: deu – German gmh&#
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Yiddish
Yiddish
Yiddish
(ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, lit. "Jewish", pronounced [ˈjɪdɪʃ] [ˈɪdɪʃ]; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, lit. Judaeo-German)[3] is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews. It originated during the 9th century[4] in Central Europe, providing the nascent Ashkenazi community with a High German-based vernacular fused with elements taken from Hebrew and Aramaic as well as from Slavic languages
Slavic languages
and traces of Romance languages.[5][6] Yiddish
Yiddish
is written with a fully vocalized version of the Hebrew alphabet. The earliest surviving references date from the 12th century and call the language לשון־אַשכּנז‎ (loshn-ashknaz, "language of Ashkenaz") or טײַטש‎ (taytsh), a variant of tiutsch, the contemporary name for Middle High German
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Grand Duchy Of Lithuania
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
was a European state from the 13th century[1] until 1795,[2] when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and Austria. The state was founded by the Lithuanians, one of the polytheistic Baltic tribes
Baltic tribes
from Aukštaitija.[3][4][5] The Grand Duchy later expanded to include large portions of the former Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
and other Slavic lands, including territory of present-day Belarus, parts of Ukraine, Poland
Poland
and Russia
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Jewish
Jews
Jews
(Hebrew: יְהוּדִים‬ ISO 259-3 Yehudim, Israeli pronunciation [jehuˈdim]) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group[12] and a nation[13][14][15] originating from the Israelites,[16][17][18] or Hebrews,[19][20] of the Ancient Near East. Jewish ethnicity, nationhood, and religion are strongly interrelated,[21] as
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Litvaks
Lithuanian Jews or Litvaks are Jews with roots in the present-day Lithuania, Belarus, Latvia, northeastern Suwałki and Białystok region of Poland and some border areas of Russia and Ukraine. The term is sometimes used to cover all Orthodox Jews who follow a "Lithuanian" (non-Hasidic Ashkenazi) style of life and learning, whatever their ethnic background.[2] The area where Lithuanian Jews lived is referred to in Yiddish as ליטע Lite, hence the Hebrew term Lita'im.[3] Lithuania was historically home to a large and influential Jewish community that was almost entirely murdered during The Holocaust in Lithuania
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Treaties Of Tilsit
The Treaties of Tilsit were two agreements signed by Napoleon I of France in the town of Tilsit in July 1807 in the aftermath of his victory at Friedland. The first was signed on 7 July, between Tsar Alexander I of Russia and Napoleon I of France, when they met on a raft in the middle of the Neman River. The second was signed with Prussia on 9 July. The treaties were made at the expense of the Prussian king, who had already agreed to a truce on 25 June after the Grande Armée had pursued him to the easternmost frontier of his realm
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Grodno Governorate
Coat of arms Grodno
Grodno
Governorate in 1834 (English)Capital GrodnoHistory •  Third Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth 1795 •  World War I 1915Today part of  Belarus  Poland  Lithuania Northwestern Krai
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