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Léopold Sédar Senghor
Léopold Sédar Senghor
Léopold Sédar Senghor
(9 October 1906 – 20 December 2001) was a Senegalese poet, politician, and cultural theorist who for two decades served as the first president of Senegal
Senegal
(1960–80). Ideologically an African socialist, he was associated with the Négritude movement. He was the founder of the Senegalese Democratic Bloc
Senegalese Democratic Bloc
party. Senghor was the first African elected as a member of the Académie française
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Roog
Roog
Roog
or Rog ( Koox
Koox
in the Cangin languages) is the Supreme God and Creator of the
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Grande école
The Grandes Écoles (French pronunciation: ​[ɡʁɑ̃d.z‿ekɔl], literally in French "Grand Schools") of France
France
are higher education establishments that are outside the main framework of the French public university system. The Grandes Écoles are highly selective and prestigious institutions and their graduates often dominate the private and public sectors of French society.[1] Most Grandes Écoles select students for admission at the postgraduate level, while others select students at the third year of undergraduate level study based chiefly on the student's national ranking in competitive written and oral exams. Usually candidates for the national exams have completed two years of dedicated preparatory classes
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Sorbonne
The Sorbonne
Sorbonne
is an edifice of the Latin Quarter, in Paris, France, which was the historical house of the former University of Paris. Today, it houses part or all of several higher education and research institutions such as Sorbonne
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Henri Queffélec
Henri Queffélec
Henri Queffélec
(29 January 1910 – 13 January 1992)[1] was a French writer and screenwriter. Biography[edit] He studied at the lycée Louis-le-Grand and then the École normale supérieure. He obtained the "agrégation de lettres" in 1934. He is considered the great maritime novelist in French of the 20th century; Queffélec was the author of more than 80 books, many of which were inspired by his native Brittany and by the sea, e.g
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Circa
Circa
Circa
(from Latin, meaning 'around, about'), usually abbreviated c., ca. or ca (also circ. or cca.), means "approximately" in several European languages (and as a loanword in English), usually in reference to a date.[1] Circa
Circa
is widely used in historical writing when the dates of events are not accurately known. When used in date ranges, circa is applied before each approximate date, while dates without circa immediately preceding them are generally assumed to be known with certainty
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Kingdom Of Sine
The Kingdom of Sine
Kingdom of Sine
(also: Sin or Siin in Serer-Sine language) was a pre-colonial Serer kingdom along the north bank of the Saloum
Saloum
River delta in modern Senegal.[1] The inhabitants are called Siin-Siin or Sine-Sine (a Serer plural form or Serer-demonym, e.g. Bawol-Bawol and Saloum- Saloum
Saloum
/ Saluum-Saluum, inhabitants of Baol
Baol
and Saloum respectively).Contents1 History1.1 Medieval to 19th century2 Economy 3 Social organisation3.1 Political structure of Sine4 See also 5 Notes 6 ReferencesHistory[edit] Medieval to 19th century[edit] Main articles: Serer history
Serer history
and The Battle of Fandane-ThiouthiouneCarte des peuplades du Sénégal de l'abbé Boilat (1853): an ethnic map of Senegal
Senegal
at the time of French colonialism
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Etymology
Etymology
Etymology
(/ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/)[1] is the study of the history of words, their origins, and how their form and meaning have changed over time.[1] By extension, the term "the etymology (of a word)" means the origin of the particular word. For a language such as Greek with a long written history, etymologists make use of texts in these languages and texts about the languages to gather knowledge about how words were used during earlier periods of their history and when they entered the languages in question. Etymologists also apply the methods of comparative linguistics to reconstruct information about languages that are too old for any direct information to be available. By analyzing related languages with a technique known as the comparative method, linguists can make inferences about their shared parent language and its vocabulary
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Agrégation In France
In France, the agrégation (French pronunciation: ​[aɡʁeɡasjɔ̃]) is a competitive examination for civil service in the French public education system. Candidates for the examination, or agrégatifs, become agrégés once they are admitted to the position of professeur agrégé. In France, professeurs agrégés are distinguished from professeurs certifiés recruited through the CAPES training. The agrégés are usually expected to teach at high schools (lycées) and universities, while the certifiés usually teach in junior high schools (collèges), although there is a significant overlap. The examination may require more than a year of preparation
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Serer Language
Serer, often broken into differing regional dialects such as Serer-Sine and Serer saloum, is a language of the Senegambian branch of Niger–Congo spoken by 1.2 million people in Senegal
Senegal
and 30,000 in the Gambia.[3] It is the principal language of the Serer people.Contents1 Classification 2 Phonology2.1 Consonants3 Serer greetings 4 See also 5 Notes 6 BibliographyClassification[edit] Serer is one of the Senegambian languages, which are characterized by consonant mutation. The traditional classification of Atlantic is that of Sapir (1971), which found that Serer was closest to Fulani.[4] However, a widely cited misreading of the data by Wilson (1989) inadvertently exchanged Serer for Wolof. Dialects of Serer are Serer Sine (the prestige dialect), Segum, Fadyut-Palmerin, Dyegueme (Gyegem), and Niominka
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Djilas
Đilas or, old orthography Djilas (Serbian: Ђилас) is a surname and Serb clan
Serb clan
originating in Montenegro from the Vojinović noble family.[citation needed] People[edit]Milovan Đilas, Yugoslav politician Vladimir Đilas, Serbian footballer Dragan Đilas, Serbian politician and mayor of Belgrade Olja Dilas Serbian American Political AnalystThis page lists people with the surname Đilas
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Fula People
The Fula people
Fula people
or Fulani or Fulany or Fulɓe (Fula: Fulɓe; French: Peul; Hausa: Fulani or Hilani; Portuguese: Fula; Wolof: Pël; Bambara: Fulaw), numbering between 20 and 25 million people in total,[10] are one of the largest ethnic groups in the Sahel
Sahel
and West Africa, widely dispersed across the region.[11] The Fula people
Fula people
are traditionally believed to have roots stemming from North Africa
North Africa
and the Middle East, who later intermingled with local West African ethnic groups
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Muslim
65–75% Sunni
Sunni
Islam[22][note 1] 10–13% Shia
Shia
Islam[22] 15–20% Non-denominational Islam[23] ~1% Ahmadiyya[24] ~1% Other Muslim
Muslim
traditions, e.g
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Sine-Saloum
Coordinates: 14°11′N 16°15′W / 14.183°N 16.250°W / 14.183; -16.250 Sine- Saloum
Saloum
is a region in Senegal
Senegal
located north of the Gambia and south of the Petite Côte. It encompasses an area of 24,000 square kilometers, about 12% of Senegal, with a population in the 1990s of 1,060,000.[1] The western portion contains the Saloum
Saloum
Delta, a river delta at the junction of the Saloum
Saloum
and the North Atlantic. It is in this region that the Saloum Delta
Saloum Delta
National Park is located. 145,811 hectares of the Delta were designated a UNESCO Heritage Site
UNESCO Heritage Site
in 2011.[2] Because it flows so slowly, this delta allows saltwater to travel deep inland. Long ago, the Serer kingdoms of Sine and Saloum
Saloum
were rivals
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Tours
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Tours
Tours
(French pronunciation: ​[tuʁ]) is a city located in the centre-west of France. It is the administrative centre of the Indre-et-Loire
Indre-et-Loire
department and the largest city in the Centre-Val de Loire
Loire
region of France
France
(although it is not the capital, which is the region's second-largest city, Orléans). In 2012, the city of Tours had 134,978 inhabitants, while the population of the whole metropolitan area was 483,744. Tours
Tours
stands on the lower reaches of the Loire
Loire
river, between Orléans and the Atlantic coast
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Bourgeois
The bourgeoisie (/ˌbʊərʒwɑːˈziː/; French: [buʁʒwazi]) is a polysemous French term that can mean:originally and generally, "those who live in the borough", that is to say, the people of the city (including merchants and craftsmen), as opposed to those of rural areas; in this sense, the bourgeoisie began to grow in Europe from the 11th century and particularly during the Renaissance of the 12th century, with the first developments of rural exodus and urbanization. a legally defined class of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
to the end of the Ancien Régime (Old Regime) in France, that of inhabitants having the rights of citizenship and political rights in a city (comparable to the German term Bürgertum and Bürger; see also "Burgher"). This bourgeoisie destroyed aristocratic privilege and established civic equality after the French monarchy collapsed
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