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Kurdistan Workers Party
The Kurdistan
Kurdistan
Workers' Party or PKK (Kurdish: Partiya Karkerên Kurdistanê‎) is an organization based in Turkey
Turkey
and Iraq. Since 1984 the PKK has been involved in an armed conflict with the Turkish state, with the initial aim of achieving an independent Kurdish state, later changing it to a demand for equal rights and Kurdish autonomy in Turkey.[14][15][16][17] The group was founded in 1978 in the village of Fis (near Lice) by a group of Kurdish students led by Abdullah Öcalan.[18] The PKK's ideology was originally a fusion of revolutionary socialism and Kurdish nationalism, seeking the foundation of an independent, socialist state in the region, which was to be known as Kurdistan
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Cemîl Bayik
Cemîl Bayik (born 1951 in Keban, Elazığ) is one of the five founders of the Kurdish movement Kurdistan Workers' Party
Kurdistan Workers' Party
(PKK),[1] and is among the organization's top leadership. He is a member of the 12-man leadership council of the Koma Civakên Kurdistan (KCK), a Kurdish political umbrella organisation that the PKK is part of,[2] and is also part of the three-man PKK Executive Committee, the leading body of the organisation, which consists of himself, acting PKK leader Murat Karayilan and Fehman Huseyin, a Kurd from Western/Syrian Kurdistan who is the PKK's military commander.[3][4] Cemîl Bayik has accused Turkey
Turkey
of protecting and supporting ISIS
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Arbitrary Arrest
Arbitrary arrest and arbitrary detention are the arrest or detention of an individual in a case in which there is no likelihood or evidence that they committed a crime against legal statute, or in which there has been no proper due process of law.[1]Contents1 Background 2 International law 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksBackground[edit] Virtually all individuals who are arbitrarily arrested are given absolutely no explanation as to why they are being arrested, and they are not shown any arrest warrant.[2] Depending on the social context, many or the vast majority of arbitrarily arrested individuals may be held incommunicado and their whereabouts can be concealed from their family, associates, the public population and open trial courts.[3][4] Many individuals who are arbitrarily arrested and detained suffer physical or psychological torture during interrogation, as well as extrajudicial punishment and other abuses in the hands of those detaining them.[cita
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Iraq
Coordinates: 33°N 44°E / 33°N 44°E / 33; 44 Republic
Republic
of Iraqجمهورية العراق (Arabic) کۆماری عێراق (Kurdish)FlagCoat of armsMotto: الله أكبر (Arabic) "Allahu Akbar" (transliteration) "God is the Greatest"Anthem: "Mawtini" "موطني" (English: "My Homeland")Capital and largest city Baghdad 33°20′N 44°26′E / 33.333°N 44.433°E / 33.333; 44.433Official languagesArabic KurdishReligion IslamDemonym IraqiGovernment Federal p
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Kurdish–Turkish Conflict (1978-present)
Conflict most commonly refers to: Conflict (process), the general pattern of groups dealing with disparate ideas War, often known as armed conflictUndeclared war, a conflict that is not recognised by some parties as a warSocial conflict, the struggle for agency or power in society Conflict may also refer to:Contents1 Media and entertainment1.1 Film 1.2 Television 1.3 Music1.3.1 Albums1.4 Games 1.5 Publications2 Militar
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Lice, Turkey
Lice (pronounced [ˈlidʒe]), (Ottoman Turkish: ليجه‎,[3] Kurdish: Licê, لجێ‎,[citation needed] Zazaki: Lıcê)[citation needed] is a Kurdish district of Diyarbakır Province
Diyarbakır Province
in Turkey. The population was 9,644 in 2010. It is located 90 km (56 mi) from the capital, Diyarbakır. The mayor is Rezan Zoğurlu (BDP). The Kurdistan Workers' Party
Kurdistan Workers' Party
or PKK, was founded in the village of Fis, in Lice district on November 27, 1978.[4] The Kurdish castle of Ataq used to exist near the modern Lidze. References[edit]^ "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05.  ^ "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute
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Revolutionary Socialism
Revolutionary socialism
Revolutionary socialism
is the socialist doctrine that social revolution is necessary in order to bring about structural changes to society
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Socialist State
A socialist state or socialist republic (sometimes workers' state or workers' republic) refers to any state that is constitutionally dedicated to the establishment of socialism. In Western usage, the term "communist state" is often used in reference to single-party socialist states governed by parties adhering to a variant of Marxism–Leninism
Marxism–Leninism
or Maoism, though these states officially refer to themselves as "socialist states" or states that are in the process of building socialism and do not describe themselves as "communist" or as having achieved communism.[1][2][3] Aside from the "communist states", a number of other states have described their orientation as "socialist" in their constitutions
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Kurdistan
Coordinates: 37°00′N 43°00′E / 37.000°N 43.000°E / 37.000; 43.000Kurdistan کوردستانKurdish-inhabited areas (1992)Language KurdishLocation Upper Mesopotamia, and the Zagros
Zagros
Mountains, including parts of Eastern Anatolia Region
Eastern Anatolia Region
(Armenian Highlands) and southeastern Anatolia, northern Syria, northern Iraq, and the northwestern Iranian Plateau.[1]Parts Northern Kurdistan Southern Kurdistan Eastern Kurdistan Western KurdistanCountries  Turkey  Iraq  Iran  Syria Area
Area
(est.) 190,000–390,000 km²–500,000 km² 74,000–151,000 sq
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Folklore
Folklore
Folklore
is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group. These include oral traditions such as tales, proverbs and jokes. They include material culture, ranging from traditional building styles to handmade toys common to the group. Folklore
Folklore
also includes customary lore, the forms and rituals of celebrations such as Christmas
Christmas
and weddings, folk dances and initiation rites. Each one of these, either singly or in combination, is considered a folklore artifact. Just as essential as the form, folklore also encompasses the transmission of these artifacts from one region to another or from one generation to the next
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1980 Turkish Coup D'état
The 12 September 1980 Turkish coup d'état (Turkish: 12 Eylül Darbesi), headed by Chief of the General Staff General Kenan Evren, was the third coup d'état in the history of the Republic, the previous having been the 1960 coup and the 1971 "Coup by Memorandum". During the Cold War
Cold War
era, 1970s
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Insurgency
An insurgency is a rebellion against authority (for example, an authority recognized as such by the United Nations) when those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents.[1] An insurgency can be fought via counter-insurgency warfare, and may also be opposed by measures to protect the population, and by political and economic actions of various kinds aimed at undermining the insurgents' claims against the incumbent regime.[2] The nature of insurgencies is an ambiguous concept. Not all rebellions are insurgencies. There have been many cases of non-violent rebellions, using civil resistance, as in the People Power Revolution in the Philippines
Philippines
in the 1980s that ousted President Marcos and the Egyptian Revolution of 2011.[3] Where a revolt takes the form of armed rebellion, it may not be viewed as an insurgency if a state of belligerency exists between one or more sovereign states and rebel forces
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Marxism–Leninism
In political science, Marxism– Leninism
Leninism
is the ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(CPSU), of the Communist International, and of Stalinist political parties.[1][2] The purpose of Marxism– Leninism
Leninism
is the revolutionary development of a bourgeois state into a socialist state, realised through the leadership of a party vanguard, composed of professional revolutionaries from the working class
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Murat Karayilan
Murat Karayılan (Kurdish: Mirad Qarayîlan‎) (born 1954),[1] also nicknamed Cemal,[2] is one of the co-founders of the Kurdistan Workers' Party.[3] He has been the organization PKK's acting leader since its original founder and leader, Abdullah Öcalan, was captured in 1999 by Turkish intelligence agents.[4] On 2014, he left the PKK leader position and was assigned as the new commander-in-chief of the PKK's armed wing, the People's Defence Forces.[5] Born in Birecik, Şanlıurfa, Karayılan finished his studies at a vocational college of machinery and joined the organization PKK in 1979
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Ceasefire
A ceasefire (or truce), also called cease fire, is a temporary stoppage of a war in which each side agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions. Ceasefires may be declared as part of a formal treaty, but they have also been called as part of an informal understanding between opposing forces. A ceasefire is usually more limited than a broader armistice, which is a formal agreement to end fighting
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Iraqi Kurdistan
Iraqi Kurdistan, officially called the Kurdistan
Kurdistan
Region of Iraq (Kurdish: هه‌رێمی کوردستان‎) by the Iraqi constitution,[6][7] is an autonomous region located in northern Iraq.[8] It is frequently referred to as Southern Kurdistan
Kurdistan
(Kurdish: باشووری کوردستان, Başûrê Kurdistanê‎), as Kurds generally consider it to be one of the four parts of Greater Kurdistan, which also includes parts of southeastern Turkey
Turkey
(Northern Kurdistan), northern Syria
Syria
( Rojava
Rojava
or Western Kurdistan), and northwestern Iran
Iran
(Eastern Kurdistan).[9] The region is officially governed by the Kurdistan
Kurdistan
Regional Government (KRG), with the capital being Erbil
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