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Kura–Araxes Culture
The Kura–Araxes culture
Kura–Araxes culture
or the early trans-Caucasian culture was a civilization that existed from about 4000 BC until about 2000 BC,[1] which has traditionally been regarded as the date of its end; in some locations it may have disappeared as early as 2600 or 2700 BC.[2] The earliest evidence for this culture is found on the Ararat plain; it spread northward in Caucasus
Caucasus
by 3000 BC (but never reaching Colchis[3]). Altogether, the early trans-Caucasian culture enveloped a vast area approximately 1,000 km by 500 km,[4] and mostly encompassed, on modern-day territories, the Southern Caucasus
Caucasus
(except western Georgia), northwestern Iran, the northeastern Caucasus, eastern Turkey, and as far as Syria.[5][6] The name of the culture is derived from the Kura and Araxes river valleys
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South Caucasus
Transcaucasia
Transcaucasia
(Russian: Закавказье), or the South Caucasus, is a geographical region in the vicinity of the southern Caucasus Mountains on the border of Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
and Western Asia.[1][2] Transcaucasia
Transcaucasia
roughly corresponds to modern Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan
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Erzurum Province
Erzurum
Erzurum
Province (Turkish: Erzurum
Erzurum
ili) is a province of Turkey
Turkey
in the Eastern Anatolia Region of the country. It is bordered by the provinces of Kars and Ağrı to the east, Muş and Bingöl to the south, Erzincan and Bayburt to the west, Rize and Artvin to the north and Ardahan to the northeast.Contents1 Districts 2 Geography 3 History 4 Economy 5 References 6 External linksDistricts[edit]Map showing districts of Erzurum
Erzurum
Province. Tortum
Tortum
River valley, Erzurum
Erzurum
ProvinceAziziye Aşkale Çat Hınıs Horasan Ilıca İspir Karaçoban Karayazı Köprüköy Narman Oltu Olur Palandöken Pasinler Pazaryolu Şenkaya Tekman Tortum Uzundere YakutiyeGeography[edit] The surface area of the province of Erzurum
Erzurum
is the fourth biggest in Turkey
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Lake Van
Lake Van
Lake Van
(Turkish: Van Gölü, Armenian: Վանա լիճ, Vana lič̣, Kurdish: Gola Wanê‎ ελληνική γλώσσαGreek : Θωσπῖτις λίμνη), the largest lake in Turkey, lies in the far east of that country in the provinces of Van and Bitlis. It is a saline soda lake, receiving water from numerous small streams that descend from the surrounding mountains. Lake Van
Lake Van
is one of the world's largest endorheic lakes (having no outlet) – a volcanic eruption blocked the original outlet from the basin in ancient times
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Godin Tepe
Godin Tepe is an archaeological site in western Iran, situated in the valley of Kangavar in Kermanshah Province. Discovered in 1961, the site was excavated from 1965 to 1973 by a Canadian expedition headed by T. Cuyler Young Jr. and sponsored by the Royal Ontario Museum (Toronto, Ontario, Canada).[1][2][3][4][5] The importance of the site may have been due to its role as a trading outpost in the early Mesopotamian trade networks.Contents1 Archaeology1.1 Seh Gabi 1.2 Level VIII 1.3 Level V1.3.1 Early wine-making1.4 Level IV 1.5 Level III 1.6 Level II 1.7 Level I2 See also 3 Notes 4 External links 5 ReferencesArchaeology[edit] The earliest evidence for occupation at Godin comes from Periods XI through VII, spanning the Early and Middle Chalcolithic. The site was already inhabited as early as c. 5200 BC. Seh Gabi[edit] Because Godin has such a deep stratigraphy, it was decided that a related site of Seh Gabi nearby should also be studied
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Amuq Valley
The Amik, Amuk, or Amuq Valley (Arabic: الأعماق‎ al-A’maq) is located in the southern part of Turkey, in the Hatay Province, close to the city of Antakya
Antakya
( Antioch
Antioch
on the Orontes). Along with Dabiq in north western Syria, it is believed to be one of the future sites of the battle of Armageddon
Armageddon
according to Islamic eschatology.[1][2][3][4][5] It is notable for a series of archaeological sites in the "plain of Antioch".[6] The primary sites of the series are Tell al-Judaidah, Çatalhöyük
Çatalhöyük
(Amuq) (not to be confused with Çatalhöyük
Çatalhöyük
in Anatolia), Tell Tayinat, Tell Kurdu, Alalakh, and Tell Dhahab.[7] Tell Judaidah was surveyed by Robert Braidwood and excavated by C
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Palestine (region)
Palestine (Arabic: فلسطين‎ Filasṭīn, Falasṭīn, Filisṭīn; Greek: Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Latin: Palaestina; Hebrew: פלשתינה‎ Palestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia. It is usually considered to include the Gaza Strip, the West Bank, Israel, and in some definitions, some parts of western Jordan. The name was used by ancient Greek writers, and it was later used for the Roman
Roman
province Syria
Syria
Palaestina, the Byzantine Palaestina Prima, and the Islamic provincial district of Jund Filastin
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Dagestan
The Republic of Dagestan
Dagestan
(Russian: Респу́блика Дагеста́н), or simply Dagestan
Dagestan
(/ˌdæɡɪˈstæn/ or /ˌdæɡɪˈstɑːn/; Russian: Дагеста́н), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia, located in the North Caucasus
North Caucasus
region. Its capital and largest city is Makhachkala, located at the center of Dagestan
Dagestan
on the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
coast. Its government was dissolved in a major corruption investigation on 5 February 2018, and the region is currently under the direct control of the Russian government.[12][13][14][15] With a population of 2,910,249,[6] Dagestan
Dagestan
is very ethnically diverse and Russia's most heterogeneous republic, with none of its several dozen ethnicities and subgroups forming a majority
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Ingushetia
The Republic of Ingushetia
Ingushetia
(Russian: Респу́блика Ингуше́тия, tr. Respublika Ingushetiya, IPA: [rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə ɪnɡʊˈʂetʲɪjə]; Ingush: Гӏалгӏай Мохк, Ğalğaj Moxk), also referred to as simply Ingushetia, is a federal subject of Russia
Russia
(a republic), located in the North Caucasus
North Caucasus
region. Its capital is the town of Magas. At 3,000 square km, in terms of area, the republic is the smallest of Russia's federal subjects except for the federal cities. It was established on June 4, 1992, after the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
was split in two.[4][5] The republic is home to the indigenous Ingush, a people of Vainakh
Vainakh
ancestry
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North Ossetia
The Republic of North Ossetia- Alania
Alania
(Russian: Республика Северная Осетия-Алания, tr. Respublika Severnaya Osetiya-Alaniya, IPA: [rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə ˈsʲevʲɪrnəjə ɐˈsʲetʲɪjə ɐˈlanʲɪjə]; Ossetian: Республикӕ Цӕгат Ирыстон-Алани, Respublikæ Cægat Iryston-Alani, Ossetic pronunciation: [resˈpublikə t͡səˈgat irɨˈʃton-aˈlani]  listen (help·info)) is a federal subject of Russia
Russia
(a republic)
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Uruk Period
The Uruk
Uruk
period (ca. 4000 to 3100 BC) existed from the protohistoric Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
to Early Bronze Age
Early Bronze Age
period in the history of Mesopotamia, following the Ubaid period
Ubaid period
and succeeded by the Jemdet Nasr period.[1] Named after the Sumerian city of Uruk, this period saw the emergence of urban life in Mesopotamia
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Kakheti
Kakheti (Georgian: კახეთი [kʼɑxɛtʰi]) is a region (Georgian: Mkhare) formed in the 1990s in eastern Georgia from the historical province of Kakheti and the small, mountainous province of Tusheti. Telavi is its capital. The region comprises eight administrative districts: Telavi, Gurjaani, Kvareli, Sagarejo, Dedoplistsqaro, Signagi, Lagodekhi and Akhmeta
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Pastoralism
Pastoralism
Pastoralism
is the branch of agriculture concerned with the raising of livestock. It is animal husbandry: the care, tending and use of animals such as camels, goats, cattle, yaks, llamas, and sheep. "Pastoralism" generally has a mobile aspect; moving the herds in search of fresh pasture and water (in contrast to pastoral farming, in which non-nomadic farmers grow crops and improve pastures for their livestock). Pastoralism
Pastoralism
is similar to nomadic movement because all of them go to places season to productive land, and adapts well to the environment. For example, in savannas, pastoralists and their animals gather when rain water is abundant and the pasture is rich, then scatter during the drying of the savanna.[1] Pastoralists often use their herds to affect their environment. Grazing herds on savannas can ensure the biodiversity of the savannas and prevent them from evolving into scrubland
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Proto-Indo-Europeans
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordic Bronze Age Terramare Tumulus
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Agriculture
Agriculture
Agriculture
is the cultivation and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.[1] Agriculture
Agriculture
was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science. The history of agriculture dates back thousands of years; people gathered wild grains at least 105,000 years ago, and began to plant them around 11,500 years ago, before they became domesticated. Pigs, sheep, and cattle were domesticated over 10,000 years ago. Crops originate from at least 11 regions of the world
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