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Kresy
Kresy
Kresy
Wschodnie or Kresy
Kresy
(Polish pronunciation: [ˈkrɛsɨ], Eastern Borderlands, or Borderlands) was the Eastern part of the Second Polish Republic
Second Polish Republic
during the interwar period constituting nearly half of the territory of the state. The population in this territory had a considerable proportion of national minorities, which in total were roughly equal in their number to ethnic Poles and even exceeded the numbers of Poles in some areas.[1] Administratively, the territory of Kresy
Kresy
was composed of voivodeships of Lwów, Nowogródek, Polesie, Stanisławów, Tarnopol, Wilno, Wołyń, and the Białystok. Today, these territories are divided between Western Ukraine, Western Belarus, and south-eastern Lithuania, with such major cities as Lviv, Vilnius, and Grodno
Grodno
no longer in Poland
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Treaty Of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1919)
The Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye was signed on 10 September 1919 by the victorious Allies of World War I
Allies of World War I
on the one hand and by the Republic of German- Austria
Austria
on the other
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World War I
Allied victoryCentral Powers' victory on the Eastern Front nullified by defeat on the Western Front Fall of the German, Russian, Ottoman, and Austro-Hungarian empires Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
and foundation of the Soviet Union Formation of new countries in Europe
Europe
and the Middle East Transfer of German colonies
German colonies
and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers Establishment of the League of Nations
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Interbellum
In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War in November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939. Despite the relatively short period of time, this period represented an era of significant changes worldwide. Petroleum and associated mechanisation expanded dramatically leading to the Roaring Twenties (and the Golden Twenties), a period of economic prosperity and growth for the middle class in North America, Europe and many other parts of the world. Automobiles, electric lighting, radio broadcasts and more became commonplace among populations in the developed world
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Tehran Conference
The Tehran
Tehran
Conference (codenamed Eureka[1]) was a strategy meeting of Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
from 28 November to 1 December 1943, after the Anglo-Soviet Invasion of Iran. It was held in the Soviet Union's embassy in Tehran, Iran. It was the first of the World War II
World War II
conferences of the "Big Three" Allied leaders (the Soviet Union, the United States, and the United Kingdom). It closely followed the Cairo Conference
Cairo Conference
which had taken place on 22–26 November 1943, and preceded the 1945 Yalta and Potsdam conferences. Although the three leaders arrived with differing objectives, the main outcome of the Tehran
Tehran
Conference was the Western Allies' commitment to open a second front against Nazi Germany
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Administrative Division Of Polish Territories During World War II
Administrative division of Polish territories during World War II
Administrative division of Polish territories during World War II
can be divided into several phases, when territories of the Second Polish Republic were administered first by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
(in the west) and Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(in the east), then (following German invasion of the Soviet Union) in their entirety by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
and finally (following Soviet push westwards) by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
again
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Voivodeship
A voivodeship /ˈvɔɪˌvoʊdˌʃɪp/ is the area administered by a voivode (Governor) in several countries of central and eastern Europe. Voivodeships have existed since medieval times in Poland, Hungary, Lithuania, Latvia, Ukraine, Russia
Russia
and Serbia. The administrative level of area (territory) of voivodeship resembles that of a duchy in western medieval states, much as the title of voivode was equivalent to that of a duke. Other roughly equivalent titles and areas in medieval Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
included ban (bojan, vojin or bayan) and banate. In a modern context, the word normally refers to one of the provinces (województwa) of Poland
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World War II
Allied victoryCollapse of Nazi Germany Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires Dissolution of the League of Nations Creation of the United Nations Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more...)ParticipantsAllied Powers Axis PowersCommanders and leadersMain Allied leaders Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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Treaty Of Zgorzelec
Zgorzelec
Zgorzelec
[zɡɔˈʐɛlɛt͡s] ( listen) (German: Görlitz, Upper Sorbian: Zhorjelc, Czech: Zhořelec) is a town in south-western Poland
Poland
with 32,322 inhabitants (2012). It lies in Lower Silesian Voivodeship (from 1975–1998 it was in the former Jelenia Góra Voivodeship). It is the seat of Zgorzelec
Zgorzelec
County, and also of the smaller district of Gmina
Gmina
Zgorzelec
Zgorzelec
(although it is not part of the territory of the latter, as the town is an urban gmina in its own right)
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Silesian Uprisings
The Silesian Uprisings
Silesian Uprisings
(German: Aufstände in Oberschlesien; Polish: Powstania śląskie) were a series of three armed uprisings of the Poles
Poles
and Polish Silesians
Silesians
of Upper Silesia, from 1919 to 1921, against German rule; the resistance hoped to break away from Germany in order to join the Second Polish Republic, which had been established in the wake of World War I
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Territorial Evolution Of Germany
The territorial changes of Germany
Germany
include all changes in the borders and territory of Germany
Germany
from its formation in 1871 to the present. Modern Germany
Germany
was formed in 1871 when Otto von Bismarck
Otto von Bismarck
unified most of the German states, with the notable exception of Austria, into the German Empire.[1] After the First World War
First World War
Germany
Germany
lost about 10% of its territory to its neighbours and the Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
was formed. This republic included territories to the east of today's German borders. The period of Nazi rule from the 1930s through the end of the Second World War brought significant territorial losses for the country
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Suwałki Agreement
Suwałki
Suwałki
[suˈvau̯kʲi] ( listen) (Lithuanian: Suvalkai, Yiddish: סואוואַלק‎ Suvalk, German: Suwalken) is a city in northeastern Poland
Poland
with 69,210 inhabitants (2011). It is the capital of Suwałki County
Suwałki County
and one of the most important centers of commerce in the Podlaskie Voivodeship.[1] Suwałki
Suwałki
is the largest city and the capital of the historical Suwałki
Suwałki
Region. Until 1999 it was the capital of Suwałki
Suwałki
Voivodeship. Suwałki
Suwałki
is located about 30 kilometres (19 miles) from the southwestern Lithuanian border and gives its name to the Polish protected area known as Suwałki Landscape Park
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Treaty Of Warsaw (1970)
The Treaty of Warsaw (German: Warschauer Vertrag, Polish: Układ PRL-RFN) was a treaty between West Germany
West Germany
and the People's Republic of Poland. It was signed by Chancellor Willy Brandt
Willy Brandt
and Prime Minister Józef Cyrankiewicz
Józef Cyrankiewicz
at the Presidential Palace on 7 December 1970, and it was ratified by the German Bundestag
Bundestag
on 17 May 1972. In the treaty, both sides committed themselves to nonviolence and accepted the existing border—the Oder-Neisse line, imposed on Germany
Germany
by the Allied powers at the 1945 Potsdam Conference
Potsdam Conference
following the end of World War II. This had been a quite sensitive topic since then, as Poland
Poland
was concerned that a German government might seek to reclaim some of the former eastern territories
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Treaty Of Versailles
The Treaty of Versailles
Versailles
(French: Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I
World War I
to an end. The Treaty ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on 28 June 1919 in Versailles, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand which directly lead to World War I. The other Central Powers
Central Powers
on the German side of World War I
World War I
signed separate treaties.[8] Although the armistice, signed on 11 November 1918, ended the actual fighting, it took six months of Allied negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference to conclude the peace treaty
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Treaty On The Final Settlement With Respect To Germany
The Treaty on the Final Settlement With Respect to Germany
Germany
(German: Vertrag über die abschließende Regelung in Bezug auf Deutschland), or the Two Plus Four Agreement (German: Zwei-plus-Vier-Vertrag; short: German Treaty), was negotiated in 1990 between the Federal Republic of Germany
Germany
and the German Democratic Republic (the eponymous Two), and the Four Powers which occupied Germany
Germany
at the end of World War II
World War II
in Europe: the French Republic, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States
United States
of America
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Potsdam Conference
The Potsdam
Potsdam
Conference (German: Potsdamer Konferenz) was held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm, in Potsdam, occupied Germany, from 17 July to 2 August 1945. (In some older documents it is also referred to as the Berlin
Berlin
Conference of the Three Heads of Government of the USSR, USA and UK.[2][3]) The participants were the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States, represented by Communist Party General Secretary Joseph Stalin, Prime Ministers Winston Churchill[4] and, later, Clement Attlee,[5] and President Harry S
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