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Korabl Sputnik 2
Korabl-Sputnik 2[2] (Russian: Корабль-Спутник 2 meaning Ship- Satellite
Satellite
2), also known incorrectly as Sputnik 5 in the West,[3] was a Soviet artificial satellite, and the third test flight of the Vostok spacecraft. It was the first spaceflight to send animals into orbit and return them safely back to Earth. Launched on 19 August 1960, it paved the way for the first human orbital flight, Vostok 1, which was launched less than eight months later. Korabl-Sputnik 2
Korabl-Sputnik 2
was the second attempt to launch a Vostok capsule with dogs on board. The first try on 28 July, carrying a pair named Bars (Snow Leopard aka. Chaika (Seagull)) and Lisichka (Foxie)), had been unsuccessful after the Blok G strap-on suffered a fire and breakdown in one of the combustion chambers, followed by its breaking off of the booster 19 seconds after launch
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International Designator
The International Designator, also known as COSPAR designation, and in the United States as NSSDC ID, is an international naming convention for satellites. It consists of the launch year, a 3-digit incrementing launch number of that year and up to a 3-letter code representing the sequential identifier of a piece in a launch.[citation needed] For example, 1990-037A is the Space Shuttle Discovery
Space Shuttle Discovery
on mission STS-31, which carried the Hubble Space Telescope
Hubble Space Telescope
(1990-037B) into space. This launch was the 37th known successful launch worldwide in 1990. The number reveals that it was launched in 1990 and that it was the 37th launch made that year
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Vostok 3
Vostok 3
Vostok 3
(Russian: Восток-3, Orient
Orient
3 or East 3) was a spaceflight of the Soviet space program
Soviet space program
intended to determine the ability of the human body to function in conditions of weightlessness and test the endurance of the Vostok 3KA
Vostok 3KA
spacecraft over longer flights
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Echo (satellite)
Project Echo
Project Echo
was the first passive communications satellite experiment. Each of the two American spacecraft, launched in 1960 and 1964, was a metalized balloon satellite acting as a passive reflector of microwave signals. Communication signals were bounced off them from one point on Earth to another.[1]Contents1 Echo 1 2 Echo 2 3 Other uses 4 Echo I commemoration 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksEcho 1[edit] NASA's Echo 1
Echo 1
satellite was built by Gilmore Schjeldahl's G.T. Schjeldahl Company in Northfield, Minnesota. The balloon satellite functioned as a reflector, not a transceiver, so after it was placed in a low Earth orbit a signal could be sent to it, reflected by its surface, and returned to Earth. During ground inflation tests, 40,000 pounds (18,000 kg) of air were needed to fill the balloon, but while in orbit, several pounds of gas were all that was required to fill the sphere
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Jacqueline Kennedy
Jacqueline Lee "Jackie" Kennedy Onassis (née Bouvier /ˈbuːvieɪ/; July 28, 1929 – May 19, 1994) was the wife of the 35th President of the United States, John F. Kennedy, and First Lady of the United States from 1961 until his assassination in 1963. Bouvier was the elder daughter of Wall Street
Wall Street
stockbroker John Vernou Bouvier III and socialite Janet Lee Bouvier. In 1951, she graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree in French literature
French literature
from George Washington University and went on to work for the Washington Times-Herald as an inquiring photographer.[1] Bouvier met Congressman John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
at a 1952 dinner party. That November, he was elected as a United States Senator from Massachusetts, and the couple married in 1953. They had four children, two of whom died in infancy
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Taxidermy
Taxidermy
Taxidermy
is the preserving of an animal's body via mounting (over an armature) or stuffing, for the purpose of display or study. Animals are often, but not always, portrayed in a lifelike state. The word taxidermy describes the process of preserving the animal, but the word is also used to describe the end product, which are called taxidermy mounts or referred to simply as "taxidermy". The word taxidermy is derived from the Greek words taxis and derma.[1] Taxis means "arrangement", and derma means "skin" (the dermis).[1] The word taxidermy translates to "arrangement of skin".[1] Taxidermy
Taxidermy
is practiced primarily on vertebrates[2] (mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, and less commonly on amphibians) but can also be done to larger insects and arachnids[3] under some circumstances
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Soviet Space Dogs
During the 1950s and 1960s the USSR used dogs for sub-orbital and orbital space flights to determine whether human spaceflight was feasible. In this period, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
launched missions with passenger slots for at least 57 dogs. The number of dogs in space is smaller, as some dogs flew more than once. Most survived; the few that died were lost mostly through technical failures, according to the parameters of the test
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Vostok Programme
The Vostok programme
Vostok programme
(Russian: Восто́к, IPA: [vɐˈstok], Orient
Orient
or East) was a Soviet human spaceflight project to put the first Soviet citizens into low Earth orbit and return them safely. Competing with the United States Project Mercury, it succeeded in placing the first human into space, Yuri Gagarin, in a single orbit in Vostok 1
Vostok 1
on April 12, 1961. The Vostok capsule was developed from the Zenit spy satellite
Zenit spy satellite
project, and its launch rocket was adapted from the existing R-7 Semyorka
R-7 Semyorka
intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) design. The name "Vostok" was treated as classified information until Gagarin's flight was first publicly disclosed to the world press. The programme carried out six manned spaceflights between 1961 and 1963
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Korabl-Sputnik 1
Korabl-Sputnik 1[2] (Russian: Корабль Спутник 1 meaning Ship Satellite 1, Boat Satellite 1, or Starship Satellite 1), also known as Sputnik 4 in the West,[1] was the first test flight of the Soviet Vostok programme, and the first Vostok spacecraft. It was launched on May 15, 1960. Though Korabl-Sputnik 1
Korabl-Sputnik 1
was unmanned, it was a precursor to the first human spaceflight, Vostok 1. A bug in the guidance system had pointed the capsule in the wrong direction, so instead of dropping into the atmosphere the satellite moved into a higher orbit
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Korabl-Sputnik 3
Korabl-Sputnik 3[1] (Russian: Корабль-Спутник 3 meaning Ship-Satellite 3) or Vostok-1K No.3, also known as Sputnik 6 in the West,[2] was a Soviet spacecraft which was launched in 1960. It was a test flight of the Vostok spacecraft, carrying two dogs; Pcholka and Mushka ("little bee" and "little fly"; affectionate diminutives of "pchela" and "mukha", respectively), as well as a television camera and scientific instruments. Korabl-Sputnik 3
Korabl-Sputnik 3
was launched at 07:30:04 UTC on 1 December 1960, atop a Vostok-L
Vostok-L
carrier rocket flying from Site 1/5 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome.[1] It was successfully placed into low Earth orbit. The flight lasted one day, after which the spacecraft was deorbited ahead of its planned recovery. The deorbit burn began at 07:15 UTC on 2 December, however the engine did not cut off as planned at the end of the burn, and instead the spacecraft's fuel burned to depletion
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Korabl-Sputnik 4
Korabl-Sputnik 4[1] (Russian: Корабль-Спутник 4 meaning Ship-Satellite 4) or Vostok-3KA No.1, also known as Sputnik 9 in the West,[2] was a Soviet spacecraft which was launched in 1961. Carrying the mannequin Ivan Ivanovich, a dog named Chernushka, some mice and a guinea pig, it was a test flight of the Vostok spacecraft.[3] Korabl-Sputnik 4
Korabl-Sputnik 4
was launched at 06:29:00 UTC on 9 March 1961, atop a Vostok-K
Vostok-K
carrier rocket flying from Site 1/5 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome.[1] It was successfully placed into low Earth orbit. The spacecraft was only intended to complete a single orbit, so it was deorbited shortly after launch, and reentered on its first pass over the Soviet Union. It landed at 08:09:54 UTC, and was successfully recovered
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Korabl-Sputnik 5
Korabl-Sputnik 5[2] (Russian: Корабль-Спутник 5 meaning Ship-Satellite 5) or Vostok-3KA No.2, also known as Sputnik 10 in the West,[3] was a Soviet spacecraft which was launched in 1961, as part of the Vostok programme. It was the last test flight of the Vostok spacecraft design prior the first manned flight, Vostok 1. It carried the mannequin Ivan Ivanovich, a dog named Zvezdochka ("Starlet",[4] or "Little star"[1]), television cameras and scientific apparatus.Contents1 Background 2 Mission2.1 Capsule recovery3 Legacy3.1 2011 Auction4 Notes 5 ReferencesBackground[edit] Main article: Vostok programme A spacecraft of the design Vostok 3KA had only been launched once before, which was on March 9, 1961
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Vostok 2
Vostok programme Manned flights← Vostok 1 Vostok 3 → Vostok 2
Vostok 2
(Russian: Восток-2, Orient
Orient
2 or East 2) was a Soviet space mission which carried cosmonaut Gherman Titov
Gherman Titov
into orbit for a full day on August 6, 1961 to study the effects of a more prolonged period of weightlessness on the human body.[1] Titov orbited the Earth over 17 times, exceeding the single orbit of Yuri Gagarin
Yuri Gagarin
on Vostok 1 − as well as the suborbital spaceflights of American astronauts Alan Shepard and Gus Grissom
Gus Grissom
aboard their respective Mercury-Redstone 3
Mercury-Redstone 3
and 4 missions
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Vostok 4
Vostok 4
Vostok 4
(Russian: Восток-4, Orient
Orient
4 or East 4) was a mission in the Soviet space program. It was launched in August 1962, a day after Vostok 3
Vostok 3
with cosmonaut Pavel Popovich
Pavel Popovich
on board—the first time that more than one manned spacecraft were in orbit at the same time. The two Vostok capsules came within 6.5 km (4.0 mi) of one another and ship-to-ship radio contact was established.[2] The cosmonauts of Vostok 3
Vostok 3
and 4 did not attempt rendezvous. At one point the craft came within a few kilometers of each other and Popovich later reported at a news conference that he saw the other craft from orbit. Popovich is quoted as saying, "I saw it at once," referring to seeing Vostok 3
Vostok 3
in orbit
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Rat
64 speciesSynonymsStenomys Thomas, 1910Rats are various medium-sized, long-tailed rodents of the superfamily Muroidea. "True rats" are members of the genus Rattus, the most important of which to humans are the black rat, Rattus rattus, and the brown rat, Rattus norvegicus. Many members of other rodent genera and families are also referred to as rats, and share many characteristics with true rats. Rats are typically distinguished from mice by their size. Generally, when someone discovers a large muroid rodent, its common name includes the term rat, while if it is smaller, the name includes the term mouse. The muroid family is broad and complex, and the common terms rat and mouse are not taxonomically specific
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Vostok 5
Vostok 5
Vostok 5
(Russian: Восток-5, Orient
Orient
5 or East
East
5) was a joint mission of the Soviet space program
Soviet space program
together with Vostok 6; as with the previous pair of Vostok 3
Vostok 3
and Vostok 4
Vostok 4
the two Vostok spacecraft came close to one another in orbit and established a radio link.Contents1 Mission 2 Crew2.1 Backup crew 2.2 Reserve crew3 Mission parameters 4 ReferencesMission[edit] Several delays plagued the prelaunch preparations of Vostok 5, the biggest being concern over elevated solar flare activity. At this early phase, it was not well understood what effects this might have on the spacecraft and its passenger, so the planned launch date of 11 June was postponed a few days. On the 14th, Bykovsky was strapped into the capsule awaiting liftoff when further delays occurred
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