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Konoe Fumimaro
Prince[1] Fumimaro Konoe
Fumimaro Konoe
(近衞 文麿, Konoe Fumimaro, often Konoye, 12 October 1891 – 16 December 1945) was a Japanese politician in the Empire of Japan
Empire of Japan
who served as the 34th, 38th and 39th Prime Minister of Japan
Japan
and founder/leader of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association. He was Prime Minister in the lead-up to Japan
Japan
entering World War II.Contents1 Early life 2 Prime Minister and war with China 3 Konoe's second term, the Matsuoka foreign policy 4 Attempts to avoid war with the United States 5 Final years of the war and suicide 6 Ancestry 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 External linksEarly life[edit] Prince Fumimaro Konoe
Fumimaro Konoe
was born into the ancient Fujiwara clan, and was the heir of the Konoe family in Tokyo. His younger brother Hidemaro Konoye was a symphony conductor
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Japanese Name
Japanese names (日本人の氏名, Nihonjin no Shimei) in modern times usually consist of a family name (surname), followed by a given name. More than one given name is not generally used. Japanese names are usually written in kanji, which are characters usually Chinese in origin but Japanese in pronunciation
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National Mobilization Law
National Mobilization Law
National Mobilization Law
(国家総動員法, Kokka Sōdōin Hō) was legislated in the Diet of Japan
Diet of Japan
by Prime Minister Fumimaro Konoe
Fumimaro Konoe
on 24 March 1938 to put the national economy of the Empire of Japan
Empire of Japan
on war-time footing after the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War. The National Mobilization Law
National Mobilization Law
had fifty clauses, which provided for government controls over civilian organizations (including labor unions), nationalization of strategic industries, price controls and rationing, and nationalized the news media.[1] The laws gave the government the authority to use unlimited budgets to subsidize war production, and to compensate manufacturers for losses caused by war-time mobilization
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General Election Law
The General Election Law (普通選挙法, Futsu Senkyo Hō) was a law passed in Taishō period
Taishō period
Japan, extending suffrage to all males aged 25 and over. It was proposed by the Kenseitō political party and it was passed by the Diet of Japan
Japan
on 5 May 1925.Contents1 Background 2 Universal Suffrage Movement 3 Criticisms 4 See alsoBackground[edit] Meiji period
Meiji period
Japan
Japan
was dominated by the Meiji oligarchy, who viewed popular democracy and party politics with suspicion. However, after the promulgation of the Meiji Constitution, limited suffrage was extended to male property holders, aged over 25 years, who paid more than 15 Yen in annual taxes for elections to the lower house starting in 1890. The number of voters who qualified under this restriction was around 450,000 (roughly 1 percent of the population)
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Order Of The Sacred Treasure
The Order of the Sacred Treasure
Order of the Sacred Treasure
(瑞宝章, Zuihō-shō) is a Japanese order, established on 4 January 1888 by Emperor Meiji
Emperor Meiji
as the Order of Meiji. Originally awarded in eight classes (from 8th to 1st, in ascending order of importance), since 2003 it has been awarded in six classes, the lowest two medals being abolished that year. The most widely conferred Japanese order, it is awarded to those who have made distinguished achievements in research fields, business industries, healthcare, social work, state/local government fields or the improvement of life for handicapped/impaired persons.[1] Originally a male-only decoration, the order has been made available to women since 1919; it is awarded for both civil and military merit, though of a lesser degree than that required for the conferment of the Order of the Rising Sun
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Marco Polo Bridge Incident
Begun in 1931–37Mukden ManchuriaJiangqiao Nenjiang Bridge Jinzhou HarbinShanghai (1932) Pacification of Manchukuo Rehe Great Wall Inner MongoliaSuiyuanBegun in 1937–39 Marco Polo
Marco Polo
Bridge Beiping–Tianjin Chahar Shanghai (1937)Sihang WarehouseBeiping–Hankou Railway Tianjin–Pukou Railway TaiyuanPingxingguan XinkouNanjing XuzhouTaierzhuangN.-E. HenanLanfengAmoy Chongqing WuhanWanjialingCantonHainanNanchang Suixian–ZaoyangSwatow1st Changsha S. GuangxiKunlun PassWinter OffensiveWest Suiyuan WuyuanBegun in 1940–42Zaoyang–Yichang Hundred Regiments N. Vietnam C. Hubei S.Henan W. Hebei Shanggao S.Shanxi 2nd Changsha 3rd Changsha Yunnan-Burma RoadTachiao Oktwin Toungoo YenangyaungZhejiang–Jiangxi Sichuan invasionBegun in 1943–45W.Hubei N.Burma-W.Yunnan Changde Ichi-GoC.Henan 4th Changsha Hengyang Guilin–LiuzhouMt. Song W. Henan–N
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Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
(/ˈtʃæŋ kaɪˈʃɛk, ˈdʒjɑːŋ/;[3] 31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975), also romanized as Chiang Chieh-shih and known as Chiang Chungcheng, was a political and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China
Republic of China
between 1928 and 1975. Chiang was an influential member of the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
(KMT), the Chinese Nationalist Party, as well as a close ally of Sun Yat-sen's. Chiang became the Commandant of the Kuomintang's Whampoa Military Academy
Whampoa Military Academy
and took Sun's place as leader of the KMT
KMT
following the Canton Coup
Canton Coup
in early 1926
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Shanghai
Shanghai
Shanghai
(Chinese: 上海; Wu Chinese:  Wu pronunciation; Mandarin: [ʂâŋ.xài] ( listen)) is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China
China
and the most populous city in the world, with a population of more than 24 million as of 2017[update].[13][14] It is a global financial centre[15] and transport hub, with the world's busiest container port.[16] Located in the Yangtze
Yangtze
River Delta, it sits on the south edge of the estuary of the Yangtze
Yangtze
in the middle portion of the East China
China
coast
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Hajime Sugiyama
Hajime Sugiyama (杉山 元, Sugiyama Hajime / Sugiyama Gen, January 1, 1880 – September 12, 1945) was a field marshal who served as successively as chief of the Army General Staff, and minister of war in the Imperial Japanese Army
Imperial Japanese Army
during World War II
World War II
between 1937 and 1944. As War Minister in 1937, he was one of the principal architects of the China Incident
China Incident
or Second Sino-Japanese War
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Imperial General Headquarters
The Imperial General Headquarters
Imperial General Headquarters
(大本営, Daihon'ei) was part of the Supreme War Council and was established in 1893 to coordinate efforts between the Imperial Japanese Army
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Nanjing
Nanjing
Nanjing
( listen), formerly romanized as Nanking and Nankin,[3] is the capital of Jiangsu
Jiangsu
province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in t
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Nanjing Massacre
The Nanking Massacre
Nanking Massacre
was an episode of mass murder and mass rape committed by Japanese troops against the residents of Nanjing (Nanking), then the capital of the Republic of China, during the Second Sino-Japanese War. The massacre is also known as the Rape of Nanking or, using Pinyin
Pinyin
romanization, the Nanjing
Nanjing
Massacre or Rape of Nanjing. The massacre occurred over a period of six weeks starting on December 13, 1937, the day that the Japanese captured Nanjing
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Privy Council
A privy council is a body that advises the head of state of a nation, typically, but not always, in the context of a monarchic government. The word "privy" means "private" or "secret"; thus, a privy council was originally a committee of the monarch's closest advisors to give confidential advice on state affairs.Contents1 Privy councils1.1 Functioning privy councils 1.2 Former or dormant privy councils2 See also 3 ReferencesPrivy councils[edit] Functioning privy councils[edit] Belgium: Crown Council of Belgium  Bhutan: Privy Council of Bhutan  Brunei: Privy Council of Brunei  Canada: Queen's Privy Council for Canada  Cambodia: Supreme Privy Council of His Majesty the King of Cambodia  Denmark: Danish Council of State  
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Duke
A duke (male) (British English: /djuːk/[1] or American English: /duːk/[2]) or duchess (female) can either be a monarch ruling over a duchy or a member of the nobility, historically of highest rank below the monarch. The title comes from French duc, itself from the Latin dux, 'leader', a term used in republican Rome to refer to a military commander without an official rank (particularly one of Germanic or Celtic origin), and later coming to mean the leading military commander of a province. The title dux survived in the Eastern Roman Empire
Eastern Roman Empire
where it was used in several contexts signifying a rank equivalent to a captain or general. Later on, in the 11th century, the title Megas Doux
Megas Doux
was introduced for the post of commander-in-chief of the entire navy. During the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
the title (as Herzog) signified first among the Germanic monarchies
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Order Of The Rising Sun
The Order of the Rising Sun
Order of the Rising Sun
(旭日章, Kyokujitsu-shō) is a Japanese order, established in 1875 by Emperor Meiji of Japan. The Order was the first national decoration awarded by the Japanese government,[1] created on 10 April 1875 by decree of the Council of State.[2] The badge features rays of sunlight from the rising sun. The design of the Rising Sun symbolizes energy as powerful as the rising sun[3] in parallel with the "rising sun" concept of Japan
Japan
("Land of the Rising Sun"). The order is awarded to those who have made distinguished achievements in international relations, promotion of Japanese culture, advancements in their field, development in welfare or preservation of the environment.[4] Prior to the end of World War II, it was also awarded for exemplary military service
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League Of Diet Members Supporting The Prosecution Of The Holy War
The League of Diet Members Supporting the Prosecution of the Holy War (聖戦貫徹議員連盟, Seisen Kantetsu Giin Renmei) was a political party coalition in the lower house of the Diet of Japan formed on March 25, 1940, with the backing of the Imperial Japanese Army as a reaction against a speech made by Saitō Takao, of the Rikken Minseitō
Rikken Minseitō
critical of the government’s aggressive policies in the Second Sino-Japanese War.[1] The official establishment took measures, including setting up this group, and attempted to censor public "doubting". The speaker was censured in Parliament, and expelled from the chamber (and from his own party), to make an example[2] Its membership comprised a total of 450 active members in the lower house, which represented all political parties of the period
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