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Kongōbu-ji
KONGōBU-JI (金剛峯寺) is the ecclesiastic head temple of Koyasan Shingon
Shingon
Buddhism
Buddhism
, located on Mount Kōya
Mount Kōya
(高野山, Kōya-san), Wakayama prefecture
Wakayama prefecture
, Japan
Japan
. Its name means Temple
Temple
of the Diamond Mountain. It is part of the "Sacred Sites and Pilgrimage Routes in the Kii Mountain Range " UNESCO World Heritage Site
UNESCO World Heritage Site
. The temple was first constructed as Seigan-ji Temple
Temple
in 1593 by Toyotomi Hideyoshi
Toyotomi Hideyoshi
on the death of his mother, rebuilt in 1861, and given its present name in 1869. It contains many sliding screen doors painted by Kanō Tanyū (1602-1674) and members of Kyoto
Kyoto
's Kanō school
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List Of National Treasures Of Japan (writings)
The following articles list National Treasures of Japan
National Treasures of Japan
: BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES * List of National Treasures of Japan
National Treasures of Japan
(castles) , for structures that are part of a castle * List of
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Komainu
KOMAINU (狛犬), often called lion-dogs in English, are statue pairs of lion-like creatures either guarding the entrance or the inner shrine of many Japanese Shinto shrines or kept inside the inner shrine itself, where they are not visible to the public. The first type, born during the Edo period , is called sandō komainu (参道狛犬, visiting road Komainu), the second and much older type jinnai komainu (陣内狛犬, shrine inside komainu). They can sometimes be found also at Buddhist temples , nobility residences or even private homes. CONTENTS * 1 Symbolic meaning * 2 History * 3 Foxes at Inari shrines * 4 Gallery * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References SYMBOLIC MEANING An un-gyō komainu Meant to ward off evil spirits, modern komainu statues are almost identical, but one has the mouth open, the other closed. This is a very common characteristic in religious statue pairs at both temples and shrines
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Karesansui
The JAPANESE ROCK GARDEN (枯山水, karesansui) or "dry landscape" garden, often called a ZEN GARDEN, creates a miniature stylized landscape through carefully composed arrangements of rocks, water features, moss, pruned trees and bushes, and uses gravel or sand that is raked to represent ripples in water. A zen garden is usually relatively small, surrounded by a wall, and is usually meant to be seen while seated from a single viewpoint outside the garden, such as the porch of the hojo, the residence of the chief monk of the temple or monastery. Classical zen gardens were created at temples of Zen Buddhism in Kyoto
Kyoto
during the Muromachi period . They were intended to imitate the intimate essence of nature, not its actual appearance, and to serve as an aid to meditation about the true meaning of life
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Shōrō
The SHōRō, SHURō (鐘楼, lit. bell tower) or KANETSUKI-Dō (鐘突堂, lit. bell-striking hall) is the bell tower of a Buddhist temple in Japan , housing the temple's bonshō (梵鐘). It can also be found at some Shinto shrines which used to be also shrines (see article Shinbutsu shūgō ), as for example Nikkō Tōshō-gū
Nikkō Tōshō-gū
. Two main types exist, the older hakamagoshi (袴腰), which has walls, and the more recent fukihanachi (吹放ち) or fukinuki (吹貫・吹抜き), which does not. HISTORYDuring the Nara period
Nara period
(710–794), immediately after the arrival of Buddhism in Japan
Buddhism in Japan
bell towers were 3 x 2 bay , 2 storied buildings. A typical temple garan had normally two, one to the left and one to the right of the kyōzō (or kyō-dō), the sūtra repository
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Sōrin
The SōRIN (相輪, lit. alternate rings) is the vertical shaft (finial ) which tops a Japanese pagoda , whether made of stone or wood. The sōrin of a wooden pagoda is usually made of bronze and can be over 10 meters tall. That of a stone pagoda is also of stone and less than a meter long. The sōrin is divided in several sections possessing a symbolic meaning and, as a whole, in turn itself represents a pagoda. Although quintessentially Buddhist, in Japan pagodas and their sōrin can be found both at Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines . This is because until the Kami
Kami
and Buddhas Separation Act of 1868 a Shinto shrine was normally also a Buddhist temple and vice versa. Itsukushima Shrine for example has one
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National Treasures Of Japan
A NATIONAL TREASURE (国宝: _kokuhō_) is the most precious of Japan's Tangible Cultural Properties , as determined and designated by the Agency for Cultural Affairs (a subsidiary of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology ). A Tangible Cultural Property is considered to be of historic or artistic value, classified either as "buildings and structures" or as "fine arts and crafts." Each National Treasure must show outstanding workmanship, a high value for world cultural history, or exceptional value for scholarship. Approximately 20% of the National Treasures are structures such as castles , Buddhist temples , Shinto
Shinto
shrines , or residences. The other 80% are paintings; scrolls; sutras ; works of calligraphy ; sculptures of wood, bronze, lacquer or stone; crafts such as pottery and lacquerware carvings; metalworks; swords and textiles; and archaeological and historical artifacts
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Katōmado
A KATōMADO (火灯窓, lit. fire light window), also written as (花頭窓・華頭窓, lit. flower top window), is a style of pointed arch or bell-shaped window found in Japanese architecture. It first arrived in Japan from China
China
together with Zen
Zen
Buddhism, as an element of Zen
Zen
style architecture, but from the end of the 16th century it started to be used in temples of other Buddhist sects, Shinto shrines , castles , and samurai residences as well. the window initially was not flared, but its design and shape changed over time: the two vertical frames were widened and curves were added at the bottom. The kanji characters used for its name have also changed through the centuries, from the original "fire window" to "flower head window"
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Shichidō Garan
SHICHIDō GARAN is a Japanese Buddhist term indicating the seven halls composing the ideal Buddhist temple compound. This compound word is composed by the word shichidō (七堂), literally meaning "seven halls", and garan (伽藍), meaning "temple". The term is often shortened to just garan. Which seven halls the term refers to varies, and it is also pointed out that 七堂 is possibly a misinterpretation of shitsudō (悉堂), meaning a complete temple. In practice, shichidō garan often simply means a large temple with many buildings. See below for more details about what are the possible seven buildings included
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International Standard Book Number (identifier)
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * _Special_ (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials , a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on _The Blind Leading the Naked _ * "Special", a song on _ The Documentary _ album by GameFILM AND TELEVISION * Special (lighting) , a stage light that is used for a single, s
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Irimoya
In Eastern Asian architecture, the HIP-AND-GABLE ROOF comprise a hip roof that slopes down on all four sides and integrates a gable on two opposing sides. It is usually constructed with two large sloping roof sections in the front and back respectively, while each of the two sides is usually constructed with a smaller roof section. The style is of Chinese origin and has spread across Asia. The original style and similar styles are found in the traditional architecture of Japan, Korea, Vietnam, Mongolia, Tibet, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Kalmykia
Kalmykia
and among others. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Irimoya
Irimoya
in Japan * 3 Kandyan roof of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
* 4 Gallery * 5 See also * 6 References ETYMOLOGYIt is known as xiēshān (歇山) in Chinese, irimoya (入母屋) in Japanese, and paljakjibung (팔작지붕) in Korean. IRIMOYA IN JAPANIt arrived from China in Japan in the 6th century
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Nakazonae
NAKAZONAE (中備・中具) are decorative intercolumnar struts installed in the intervals between bracket complexes (tokyō ) at Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines in Japan. In origin they were necessary to help support the roof; however, at the end of the 10th century the invention of the hidden roof made them superfluous. They remained in use, albeit in a purely decorative role, and are typical of the Wayō style. The Zenshūyō style used by Zen
Zen
temples has instead bracket complexes even between posts. CONTENTS* 1 Kentozuka * 1.1 Minozuka * 2 Hana-hijiki * 3 Warizuka * 4 Kaerumata * 5 Types of nakazonae * 6 Notes * 7 References KENTOZUKAThe simplest of these struts are the kentozuka (間斗束, lit. interval block strut, see photo above) composed of a short post and a bearing block. MINOZUKASimilar to the kentozuka is the fan-shaped strut called minozuka (蓑束, lit
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Kairō
The KAIRō (回廊 or 廻廊), BU (廡), SōRō or HORō (歩廊) is the Japanese version of a cloister , a covered corridor originally built around the most sacred area of a Buddhist temple , a zone which contained the Kondō and the pagoda . Nowadays it can be found also at Shinto shrines and at shinden-zukuri aristocratic residences. The kairō and the rōmon were among the most important among the garan elements which appeared during the Heian period. The first surrounded the holiest part of the garan , while the second was its main exit. Neither was originally characteristic of Shinto shrines, but in time they often came to replace the traditional shrine surrounding fence called tamagaki . The earliest example of a kairō/rōmon complex can be found at Iwashimizu Hachiman-gū , a shrine now but a former shrine-temple (神宮寺). The rōmon is believed to have been built in 886, and the kairō roughly at the same time
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Hisashi (architecture)
In Japanese architecture
Japanese architecture
the term HISASHI (廂・庇) has two meanings: * As more commonly used, the term indicates the eaves of a roof, that is, the part along the edge of a roof projecting beyond the side of the building to provide protection against the weather. * The term is however also used in a more specialized sense to indicate the area surrounding the moya (the core of a building) either completely or on one, two, or three sides. It is common in Zen
Zen
Buddhist temples where it is a 1 ken wide aisle-like area and at the same level as the moya. Pagodas called tahōtō also have a hisashi. Open corridors or verandas under extended or additional roofs are also sometimes referred to as hisashi. In temples constructed in the hip-and-gable style (irimoya-zukuri ), the gabled part usually covers the moya while the hipped part covers the hisashi
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Hidden Roof
The HIDDEN ROOF (野屋根, noyane) is a type of roof widely used in Japan both at Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines . It is composed of a true roof above and a second roof beneath, permitting an outer roof of steep pitch to have eaves of shallow pitch, jutting widely from the walls but without overhanging them. The second roof is visible only from under the eaves and is therefore called a "hidden roof" (giving its name to the whole structure) while the first roof is externally visible and is called an "exposed roof" in English and "cosmetic roof" (化粧屋根, keshōyane) in Japanese. Invented in Japan during the 10th century, its earliest extant example is Hōryū-ji 's Daikō-dō , rebuilt after a fire in 990
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