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Kongōbu-ji
Kongōbu-ji
Kongōbu-ji
(金剛峯寺) is the ecclesiastic head temple of Koyasan Shingon
Shingon
Buddhism, located on Mount Kōya
Mount Kōya
(高野山, Kōya-san), Wakayama prefecture, Japan. Its name means Temple
Temple
of the Diamond Mountain Peak. It is part of the "Sacred Sites and Pilgrimage Routes in the Kii Mountain Range" UNESCO World Heritage Site. The temple was first constructed as Seigan-ji Temple
Temple
in 1593 by Toyotomi Hideyoshi
Toyotomi Hideyoshi
on the death of his mother, rebuilt in 1861, and given its present name in 1869
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Sōrin
The sōrin (相輪, lit. alternate rings) is the vertical shaft (finial) which tops a Japanese pagoda, whether made of stone or wood.[1][note 1] The sōrin of a wooden pagoda is usually made of bronze and can be over 10 meters tall.[2] That of a stone pagoda is also of stone and less than a meter long. The sōrin is divided in several sections possessing a symbolic meaning and, as a whole, in turn itself represents a pagoda.[3] Although quintessentially Buddhist, in Japan pagodas and their sōrin can be found both at Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines. This is because until the Kami
Kami
and Buddhas Separation Act of 1868 a Shinto shrine was normally also a Buddhist temple and vice versa
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Kairō
The kairō (回廊 or 廻廊), bu (廡), sōrō or horō (歩廊) is the Japanese version of a cloister, a covered corridor originally built around the most sacred area of a Buddhist temple, a zone which contained the Kondō and the pagoda. Nowadays it can be found also at Shinto shrines and at shinden-zukuri aristocratic residences.[1] The kairō and the rōmon were among the most important among the garan elements which appeared during the Heian period.[2] The first surrounded the holiest part of the garan, while the second was its main exit. Neither was originally characteristic of Shinto shrines, but in time they often came to replace the traditional shrine surrounding fence called tamagaki.[2] The earliest example of a kairō/rōmon complex can be found at Iwashimizu Hachiman-gū, a shrine now but a former shrine-temple (神宮寺).[3] The rōmon is believed to have been built in 886, and the kairō roughly at the same time
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position
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Buddhist Temples In Japan
Buddhist temples are, together with Shinto shrines, considered to be among the most numerous, famous, and important religious buildings in Japan.[note 1] The Japanese word for a Buddhist temple
Buddhist temple
is tera (寺), and the same kanji also has the pronunciation ji, so that temple names frequently end in -dera or -ji. Another ending, -in (院), is normally used to refer to minor temples
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Japanese Buddhist Architecture
Japanese Buddhist architecture
Japanese Buddhist architecture
is the architecture of Buddhist temples in Japan, consisting of locally developed variants of architectural styles born in China.[1] After Buddhism
Buddhism
arrived the continent via Three Kingdoms of Korea
Three Kingdoms of Korea
in the 6th century, an effort was initially made to reproduce original buildings as faithfully as possible, but gradually local versions of continental styles were developed both to meet Japanese tastes and to solve problems posed by local weather, which is more rainy and humid than in China.[2] The first Buddhist sects were Nara's six Nanto Rokushū (南都六宗, Nara six sects),[nb 1] followed during the Heian period
Heian period
by Kyoto's Shingon
Shingon
and Tendai
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Hidden Roof
The hidden roof (野屋根, noyane)[note 1] is a type of roof widely used in Japan both at Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines. It is composed of a true roof above and a second roof beneath,[1] permitting an outer roof of steep pitch to have eaves of shallow pitch, jutting widely from the walls but without overhanging them.[2] The second roof is visible only from under the eaves and is therefore called a "hidden roof" (giving its name to the whole structure) while the first roof is externally visible and is called an "exposed roof" in English and "cosmetic roof" (化粧屋根, keshōyane) in Japanese
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Hisashi (architecture)
In Japanese architecture
Japanese architecture
the term hisashi (廂・庇) has two meanings:As more commonly used, the term indicates the eaves of a roof,[1] that is, the part along the edge of a roof projecting beyond the side of the building to provide protection against the weather. The term is however also used in a more specialized sense to indicate the area surrounding the moya (the core of a building) either completely or on one, two, or three sides.[1]It is common in Zen
Zen
Buddhist temples where it is a 1 ken wide aisle-like area and at the same level as the moya
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East Asian Hip-and-gable Roof
Asian may refer to:Items from or related to the continent of Asia: Asian people, people who descend from Asia Asian culture, the culture of the people from Asia Asian cuisine, food based on the style of food of the people from Asia Asian (cat), a cat breed similar to the Burmese but in a range of different coat colors an
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Nakazonae
Nakazonae
Nakazonae
(中備・中具) are decorative intercolumnar struts installed in the intervals between bracket complexes (tokyō) at Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines in Japan.[1] In origin they were necessary to help support the roof; however, at the end of the 10th century the invention of the hidden roof[note 1] made them superfluous.[2] They remained in use, albeit in a purely decorative role, and are typical of the Wayō
Wayō
style. The Zenshūyō style used by Zen
Zen
temples has instead bracket complexes even between posts.Contents1 Kentozuka1.1 Minozuka2 Hana-hijiki 3 Warizuka 4 Kaerumata 5 Types of nakazonae 6 Notes 7 ReferencesKentozuka[edit] The simplest of these struts are the kentozuka (間斗束, lit. interval block strut, see photo above) composed of a short post and a bearing block.[3] Minozuka[edit] Similar to the kentozuka is the fan-shaped strut called minozuka (蓑束, lit
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Karahafu
The karahafu (kara-hafu) (唐破風) is a type of gable with a style peculiar to Japan. The characteristic shape is the undulating curve at the top. This gable is common in traditional architecture, including Japanese castles, Buddhist temples, and Shinto shrines. Roofing materials such as tile and bark may be used as coverings. The face beneath the gable may be flush with the wall below, or it may terminate on a lower roof.Contents1 History 2 Images 3 See also 4 Notes 5 ReferencesHistory[edit] Although kara (唐) can be translated as meaning "China" or "Tang", this type of roof with undulating bargeboards is an invention of Japanese carpenters in the late Heian period.[1] It was named thus because the word kara could also mean "noble" or "elegant", and was often added to names of objects considered grand or intricate regardless of origin.[2] The karahafu developed during the Heian period and is shown in picture scrolls to decorate gates, corridors, and palanquins
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Kōya, Wakayama
Kōya (高野町, Kōya-chō) is a town located on a plateau atop Mt. Koya in Ito District, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. The town is known as the headquarters of the Shingon sect of Japanese Buddhism. As of October 1, 2016, the town has an estimated population of 3,279 and a density of 24 persons per km². The total area is 137.08 km². External links[edit] Media related to Kōya, Wakayama at Wikimedia Commons Kōya official website (in Japanese)Authority controlWorldCat Identities VIAF: 246329589 NDL: 00388077This Wakayama location article is a stub
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Japanese Rock Garden
The Japanese rock garden
Japanese rock garden
(枯山水, karesansui) or "dry landscape" garden, often called a zen garden, creates a miniature stylized landscape through carefully composed arrangements of rocks, water features, moss, pruned trees and bushes, and uses gravel or sand that is raked to represent ripples in water.[1] A zen garden is usually relatively small, surrounded by a wall, and is usually meant to be seen while seated from a single viewpoint outside the garden, such as the porch of the hojo, the residence of the chief monk of the temple or monastery. Classical zen gardens were created at temples of Zen Buddhism in Kyoto
Kyoto
during the Muromachi period
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Komainu
Komainu
Komainu
(狛犬), often called lion-dogs in English, are statue pairs of lion-like creatures either guarding the entrance or the inner shrine of many Japanese Shinto shrines or kept inside the inner shrine itself, where they are not visible to the public. The first type, born during the Edo period, is called sandō komainu (参道狛犬, visiting road Komainu), the second and much older type jinnai komainu (陣内狛犬, shrine inside komainu).[1] They can sometimes be found also at Buddhist temples, nobility residences or even private homes.Contents1 Symbolic meaning 2 History 3 Foxes at Inari shrines 4 Gallery 5 See also 6 Notes 7 ReferencesSymbolic meaning[edit]An un-gyō komainuMeant to ward off evil spirits, modern komainu statues usually are almost identical, but one has the mouth open, the other closed. (However, exceptions exist, where both komainu have their mouth either open or closed.[2]) The two forms are called a-gyō (阿形, lit
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