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Komnenos Dynasty
KOMNENOS (Greek : Κομνηνός), Latinized COMNENUS, plural KOMNENOI or COMNENI (Κομνηνοί, pronounced /komniní/), is the name of a noble family who ruled the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
from 1081 to 1185, and later, as the GRAND KOMNENOI (Μεγαλοκομνηνοί, _Megalokomnenoi_) founded and ruled the Empire of Trebizond (1204–1461). Through intermarriages with other noble families, notably the Doukai , Angeloi , and Palaiologoi , the Komnenos
Komnenos
name appears among most of the major noble houses of the late Byzantine world. CONTENTS * 1 Origins * 2 Founding the dynasty * 3 The Komnenoi as emperors * 4 Later family * 5 Komnenian ancestry in Western Europe * 6 References * 7 Sources ORIGINS Michael Psellos reports that the family originated from the village of Komne in Thrace
Thrace
—usually identified with the "Fields of Komnene" (Κομνηνῆς λειμῶνας) mentioned in the 14th century by John Kantakouzenos —a view commonly accepted by modern scholarship. The first known member of the family, Manuel Erotikos Komnenos , acquired extensive estates at Kastamon in Paphlagonia , which became the stronghold of the family in the 11th century
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Byzantine Empire
The BYZANTINE EMPIRE, also referred to as the EASTERN ROMAN EMPIRE, was the continuation of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, when its capital city was Constantinople
Constantinople
(modern-day Istanbul
Istanbul
, which had been founded as Byzantium
Byzantium
). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe
Europe
. Both "Byzantine Empire" and "Eastern Roman Empire" are historiographical terms created after the end of the realm; its citizens continued to refer to their empire as the _Roman Empire_ (Greek : Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr. _Basileia tôn Rhōmaiōn_; Latin : _Imperium Romanum_), or _Romania_ (Ῥωμανία), and to themselves as "Romans". Several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empire's Greek East and Latin West divided. Constantine I
Constantine I
(r
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Empire Of Trebizond
The EMPIRE OF TREBIZOND or the TRAPEZUNTINE EMPIRE was a monarchy that flourished during the 13th through 15th centuries, consisting of the far northeastern corner of Anatolia
Anatolia
and the southern Crimea
Crimea
. Originally formed during a revolt against the usurpation of the imperial throne by the grandsons of Emperor
Emperor
Andronikos I Komnenos
Andronikos I Komnenos
, Trebizond (current Trabzon , Turkey, with which the name of the empire is a cognate) became a Byzantine Greek successor state established after the fall of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire in the Fourth Crusade , along with the Empire of Nicaea and the Despotate of Epirus . The Emperors of Trebizond pressed their claim on the Imperial throne for decades after the Nicaean reconquest of Constantinople
Constantinople
in 1261. The Trapezuntine monarchy survived the longest of the Byzantine successor states. The Despotate of Epirus was slowly decimated, and briefly occupied by the restored Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
c. 1340, thereafter becoming a Serbian dependency and later inherited by Italians, ultimately falling to the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in 1479, having long ceased to contest the Byzantine throne
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Byzantine Emperor
This is a LIST OF THE BYZANTINE EMPERORS from the foundation of Constantinople in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Eastern Roman (or Byzantine ) Empire, to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD. Only the emperors who were recognized as legitimate rulers and exercised sovereign authority are included, to the exclusion of junior co-emperors (_symbasileis_) who never attained the status of sole or senior ruler, as well as of the various usurpers or rebels who claimed the imperial title. Traditionally, the line of Byzantine emperors is held to begin with the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great , the first Christian emperor, who rebuilt the city of Byzantium as an imperial capital, Constantinople, and who was regarded by the later Byzantine emperors as the model ruler. It was under Constantine that the major characteristics of what is considered the Byzantine state emerged: a Roman polity centered at Constantinople and culturally dominated by the Greek East , with Christianity as the state religion . Emperors listed below up to Theodosius I in 395 were sole or joint rulers of the entire Roman Empire. The Byzantine Empire was the direct legal continuation of the eastern half of the Roman Empire following the division of the Roman Empire in 395
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Emperor Of Trebizond
The EMPIRE OF TREBIZOND or the TRAPEZUNTINE EMPIRE was a monarchy that flourished during the 13th through 15th centuries, consisting of the far northeastern corner of Anatolia and the southern Crimea . Originally formed during a revolt against the usurpation of the imperial throne by the grandsons of Emperor Andronikos I Komnenos , Trebizond (current Trabzon , Turkey, with which the name of the empire is a cognate) became a Byzantine Greek successor state established after the fall of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire in the Fourth Crusade , along with the Empire of Nicaea and the Despotate of Epirus . The Emperors of Trebizond pressed their claim on the Imperial throne for decades after the Nicaean reconquest of Constantinople in 1261. The Trapezuntine monarchy survived the longest of the Byzantine successor states. The Despotate of Epirus was slowly decimated, and briefly occupied by the restored Byzantine Empire c. 1340, thereafter becoming a Serbian dependency and later inherited by Italians, ultimately falling to the Ottoman Empire in 1479, having long ceased to contest the Byzantine throne
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Princess Of Antioch
CONTENTS* 1 Princess consort of Antioch * 1.1 House of Hauteville, 1098–1163 * 1.2 House of Poitiers, 1163–1268 * 2 Titular Princess consort of Antioch * 2.1 House of Poitiers, 1268–1299 * 2.2 House of Toucy, 1299–1300 * 2.3 House of Lusignan, 1300–1457 * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 Sources PRINCESS CONSORT OF ANTIOCHHOUSE OF HAUTEVILLE, 1098–1163 PICTURE NAME FATHER BIRTH MARRIAGE BECAME PRINCESS CEASED TO BE PRINCESS DEATH SPOUSE Constance of France Philip I of France (Capet ) 1078 25 March/26 May 1106 3 March 1111 _husband's death_ 14 September 1126 Bohemond I Alice of Jerusalem Baldwin II of Jerusalem (Rethel ) 1110 Autumn 1126 February 1130 _husband's death_ 1136–1151 Bohemond II HOUSE OF POITIERS, 1163–1268 PICTURE NAME FATHER BIRTH MARRIAGE BECAME PRINCESS CEASED TO BE PRINCESS DEATH SPOUSE Orguilleuse d\'Harenc - - 1168–1170 maybe 1175 _divorce_ after March 1175 Bohemond III Theodora Komnene probably John Komnenos, Byzantine Duke in Cyprus (Komnenoi ) 1150/55 1175/77 1180 _divorce_ after 1182


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Duchess Of Athens
The DUCHY OF ATHENS (Greek : Δουκᾶτον Ἀθηνῶν, _Doukaton Athinon_; Catalan : _Ducat d'Atenes_) was one of the Crusader states set up in Greece after the conquest of the Byzantine Empire during the Fourth Crusade , encompassing the regions of Attica and Boeotia , and surviving until its conquest by the Ottoman Empire in the 15th century. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Establishment of the Duchy * 1.2 Catalan conquest * 1.3 Decline and fall * 2 The Latin church in the Duchy of Athens * 3 Dukes of Athens * 3.1 De la Roche family * 3.2 Briennist claimants * 3.3 Aragonese domination * 3.3.1 Catalan vicars-general * 3.4 Acciaioli family * 4 The Duchy and Dante Alighieri * 5 References * 6 Sources HISTORYESTABLISHMENT OF THE DUCHYThe first duke of Athens (as well as of Thebes , at first) was Otto de la Roche , a minor Burgundian knight of the Fourth Crusade . Although he was known as the "Duke of Athens" from the foundation of the duchy in 1205, the title did not become official until 1260. Instead, Otto proclaimed himself "Lord of Athens" (in Latin _Dominus Athenarum_, in French _Sire d'Athenes_). The local Greeks called the dukes "Megas Kyris" (Greek : Μέγας Κύρης, "Great Lord"), from which the shortened form "Megaskyr", often used even by the Franks to refer to the Duke of Athens, is derived
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Despot Of Epirus
The DESPOTATE OF EPIRUS (Modern Greek : Δεσποτάτο της Ηπείρου) was one of the successor states of the Byzantine Empire established in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade in 1204 by a branch of the Angelos dynasty. It claimed to be the legitimate successor of the Byzantine Empire, along the Empire of Nicaea and the Empire of Trebizond . The term "Despotate of Epirus" is, like "Byzantine Empire" itself, a modern historiographic convention and not a name in use at the time. The Despotate was centred on the region of Epirus , encompassing also Albania and the western portion of Greek Macedonia and also included Thessaly and western Greece as far south as Nafpaktos . Through a policy of aggressive expansion under Theodore Komnenos Doukas the Despotate of Epirus also briefly came to incorporate central Macedonia , with the establishment of the Empire of Thessalonica in 1224, and Thrace as far east as Didymoteicho and Adrianopolis , and was on the verge of recapturing Constantinople and restoring the Byzantine Empire before the Battle of Klokotnitsa in 1230. After that, the Epirote state contracted to its core in Epirus and Thessaly, and was forced into vassalage to other regional powers
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Manuel Erotikos Komnenos
MANUEL EROTIKOS KOMNENOS (Greek : Μανουήλ Ἐρωτικός Κομνηνός, _Manouēl Erōtikos Komnēnos_; 955/960 – c. 1020) was a Byzantine military leader under Basil II , and the first fully documented ancestor of the Komnenos dynasty . His origin and parentage is obscure. He is only mentioned in the sources as leading the defence of Nicaea in 978 against the rebel Bardas Skleros , and as an imperial envoy to him 11 years later. He had three children, late in life. The eldest, Isaac , became emperor in 1057–1059, and the youngest, John , was the progenitor of the Komnenian dynasty as the father of Alexios I Komnenos . CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Family * 3 References * 4 Sources BIOGRAPHYNothing is known of Manuel's early life. From the fact that he was militarily active in 978, and given that he was able to have children as late as c. 1015, a date of birth of c. 955/960 has been suggested and generally accepted by modern scholars. His parents' identity is obscure: as Manuel's own firstborn son was named Isaac (Isaakios), the Greek scholar Konstantinos Varzos considered it likely that his father had the same name, since according to Greek custom the eldest male child is named after its paternal grandfather. Nothing is known otherwise about his life and career
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Greek Language
GREEK ( Modern Greek
Modern Greek
: ελληνικά , _elliniká_, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα (_ listen ), ellinikí glóssa_, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B
Linear B
and the Cypriot syllabary
Cypriot syllabary
, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
Latin
, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems. The Greek language
Greek language
holds an important place in the history of the Western world
Western world
and Christianity
Christianity
; the canon of ancient Greek literature includes seminal works in the Western canon such as the epic poems _ Iliad
Iliad
_ and _ Odyssey
Odyssey
_
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Latinization Of Names
LATINISATION (also spelled LATINIZATION : see spelling differences ) is the practice of rendering a non- Latin name (or word) in a Latin style . It is commonly found with historical personal names , with toponyms , and in the standard binomial nomenclature of the life sciences. It goes further than romanisation , which is the transliteration of a word to the Latin alphabet from another script (e.g. Cyrillic ). This was often done in the classical era for much the same reason as English-speaking cultures produce English versions of some foreign names. In the case of personal names in the post-Roman era this may be done to emulate Latin authors, or to present a more impressive image. In a scientific context, the main purpose of Latinisation may be to produce a name which is internationally consistent. Latinisation may be carried out by: * transforming the name into Latin sounds (e.g. _Geber _ for _Jabir _), and/or * adding Latinate suffixes to the end of a name (e.g
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Doukai
DOUKAS, Latinized as DUCAS (Greek : Δούκας; feminine: DOUKAINA/DUCAENA, Δούκαινα; plural: DOUKAI/DUCAE, Δοῦκαι), from the Latin tile _dux _ ("leader", "general", Hellenized as δοὺξ ), is the name of a Byzantine Greek noble family, whose branches provided several notable generals and rulers to the Byzantine Empire in the 9th–11th centuries. A maternally-descended line, the Komnenodoukai, founded the Despotate of Epirus in the 13th century, with another branch ruling over Thessaly . After the 12th century, the name "Doukas" and other variants proliferated across the Byzantine world, and were sometimes presented as signifying a direct genealogical relationship with the original family or the later branch based in the Despotate of Epirus. The continuity of descent amongst the various branches of the original, middle Byzantine family is not clear, and historians generally recognize several distinct groups of Doukai based on their occurrence in the contemporary sources. According to Demetrios I. Polemis, who compiled the only overview work on the bearers of the Doukas name, in view of this lack of genealogical continuity "it would be a mistake to view the groups of people designated by the _cognomen _ of Doukas as forming one large family"
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Angeloi
The ANGELOS family (Greek : Ἄγγελος), feminine form ANGELINA (Άγγελίνα), plural ANGELOI (Ἄγγελοι), was a Greek noble lineage which gave rise to three Byzantine emperors who ruled between 1185 and 1204. From the 13th to the 14th century, a branch of the family ruled Epiros , Thessaly and Thessaloniki under the name of KOMNENOS DOUKAS. The lineage was founded by Constantine Angelos , a minor noble from Philadelphia ( Asia Minor ), who married Theodora Komnene (born 1096), a daughter of emperor Alexios I Komnenos . According to a 12th-century historian, Constantine was brave, skilled and handsome, but of lowly origin. Constantine was born in c. 1093 to an obscure family of the local aristocracy of Philadelphia. The family's surname, "Angelos", is commonly held to have derived from the Greek word for "angel", but such an origin is rarely attested in Byzantine times, and it is possible that their name instead derives from Agel, a district near Amida in Upper Mesopotamia
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Palaiologoi
Claimants: * House of Kastrioti (defunct) * House of Rurik (defunct) PALAIOLOGAN DYNASTY CHRONOLOGY Michael VIII 1259–1282 with Andronikos II as co-emperor, 1261–1282 Andronikos II 1282–1328 with Michael IX (1294–1320) and Andronikos III (1321–1328) as co-emperors Andronikos III 1328–1341 John V 1341–1391 with John VI Kantakouzenos (1347–1354), Matthew Kantakouzenos (1342–1357) and Manuel II (1373–1391) as co-emperors Usurpation of Andronikos IV 1376–1379 Usurpation of John VII 1390 Manuel II 1391–1425 with Andronikos V (1403–1407) and John VIII (ca. 1416–1425) as co-emperors John VIII 1425–1448 Constantine XI 1448–1453 SUCCESSION _Preceded by_ Laskarids of Nicaea _Followed by_ Ottoman conquest Family emblem with four "Bs" The PALAIOLOGOS (pl. Palaiologoi; Greek : Παλαιολόγος, pl. Παλαιολόγοι), also romanized as PALAEOLOGUS or PALAEOLOGUE, was the name of a Byzantine Greek family, which rose to nobility and ultimately produced the last ruling dynasty of the Byzantine Empire . Founded by the 11th-century general Nikephoros Palaiologos and his son George , the family rose to the highest aristocratic circles through its marriage into the Doukas and Komnenos dynasties
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Michael Psellos
MICHAEL PSELLOS or PSELLUS (Greek : Μιχαήλ Ψελλός, _Mikhaēl Psellos_) was a Byzantine Greek monk, writer, philosopher, politician and historian. He was born in 1017 or 1018, and is believed to have died in 1078, although it has also been maintained that he remained alive until 1096. CONTENTS * 1 Biography and political career * 2 Historical works * 3 Other works * 4 Personality * 5 Pseudo-Psellos * 6 Editions * 7 Secondary literature * 8 References in literature * 9 References * 10 External links BIOGRAPHY AND POLITICAL CAREERThe main source of information about Psellos' life comes from his own works, which contain extensive autobiographical passages. Michael Psellos was probably born in Constantinople . His family hailed from Nicomedia and, according to his own testimony, counted members of the consular and patrician elite among its ancestors. His baptismal name was CONSTANTINE; Michael was the monastic name he chose when he entered a monastery later in life. PSELLOS ('the stammerer') probably was a personal by-name referring to a speech defect. Michael Psellos was educated in Constantinople. At around the age of ten, he was sent to work outside the capital as a secretary of a provincial judge, in order to help his family raise the dowry for his sister. When his sister died, he gave up that position and returned to Constantinople to resume his studies
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Thrace
THRACE (/ˈθreɪs/ ; Modern Greek : Θράκη, _Thráke_; Bulgarian : Тракия, _Trakiya_; Turkish : _Trakya_) is a geographical and historical area in southeast Europe
Europe
, now split between Bulgaria
Bulgaria
, Greece
Greece
and Turkey
Turkey
, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to the north, the Aegean Sea to the south and the Black Sea
Black Sea
to the east. It comprises southeastern Bulgaria
Bulgaria
( Northern Thrace ), northeastern Greece
Greece
( Western Thrace ) and the European part of Turkey
Turkey
(Eastern Thrace
Thrace
). In antiquity, it was also referred to as "Europe", prior to the extension of the term to describe the whole continent. The name _Thrace_ comes from the Thracians , an ancient Indo-European people inhabiting Southeastern Europe
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