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Komnenos Dynasty
Komnenos
Komnenos
(Greek: Κομνηνός), Latinized Comnenus, plural Komnenoi or Comneni (Κομνηνοί [komniˈni]), is a noble family who ruled the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
from 1081 to 1185,[1] and later, as the Grand Komnenoi (Μεγαλοκομνηνοί, Megalokomnenoi) founded and ruled the Empire of Trebizond
Empire of Trebizond
(1204–1461)
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Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, was the continuation of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople
Constantinople
(modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.[2] During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe
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France
France
France
(French: [fʁɑ̃s]), officially the French Republic (French: République française [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France
France
in western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France
France
extends from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the English Channel
English Channel
and the North Sea, and from the Rhine
Rhine
to the Atlantic Ocean. The overseas territories include French Guiana
French Guiana
in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans
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Isaac I Komnenos
Isaac I Komnenos
Komnenos
(or Comnenus) (Greek: Ισαάκιος A' Κομνηνός, Isaakios I Komnēnos; c. 1007 – 1060/61) was Byzantine Emperor
Byzantine Emperor
from 1057 to 1059, the first reigning member of the Komnenos
Komnenos
dynasty
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John Komnenos (domestic Of The Schools)
John Komnenos
Komnenos
(Greek: Ἰωάννης Κομνηνός, Iōannēs Komnēnos; c. 1015 – 12 July 1067) was a Byzantine
Byzantine
aristocrat and military leader. The younger brother of Emperor Isaac I Komnenos, he served as Domestic of the Schools
Domestic of the Schools
during Isaac's brief reign (1057–59)
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Alexios I Komnenos
Alexios I Komnenos
Komnenos
(Greek: Ἀλέξιος Αʹ Κομνηνός, c. 1048 – 15 August 1118) was Byzantine emperor from 1081 to 1118. Although he was not the founder of the Komnenian dynasty, it was during his reign that the Komnenos
Komnenos
family came to full power. Inheriting a collapsing empire and faced with constant warfare during his reign against both the Seljuq Turks
Seljuq Turks
in Asia Minor
Asia Minor
and the Normans in the western Balkans, Alexios was able to curb the Byzantine decline and begin the military, financial, and territorial recovery known as the Komnenian restoration. The basis for this recovery were various reforms initiated by Alexios
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Stratopedarch
Stratopedarchēs (Greek: στρατοπεδάρχης, "master of the camp"), sometimes Anglicized as Stratopedarch, was a Greek term used with regard to high-ranking military commanders from the 1st century BC on, becoming a proper office in the 10th-century Byzantine Empire. It continued to be employed as a designation, and a proper title, of commanders-in-chief until the 13th century, when the title of megas stratopedarchēs (μέγας στρατοπεδάρχης) or Grand Stratopedarch appeared
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Michael VI
Michael VI Bringas (Greek: Μιχαήλ ΣΤ΄ Βρίγγας, Mikhaēl VI Bringas), called Stratiotikos or Stratioticus ("the Military One", "the Warlike", or "the Bellicose") or Gerontas ("the Old"), reigned as Byzantine emperor
Byzantine emperor
from 1056 to 1057.Contents1 Career 2 Sources2.1 Primary Sources 2.2 Secondary Sources3 See also 4 ReferencesCareer[edit] Apparently a relative of the powerful courtier Joseph Bringas (influential during the reign of Romanos II),[1] Michael Bringas was an elderly patrician and a member of the court bureaucracy[2] who had served as milit
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Byzantine Emperor
This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople
Constantinople
in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
(or the Eastern Roman Empire), to its fall to the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in 1453 AD. Only the emperors who were recognized as legitimate rulers and exercised sovereign authority are included, to the exclusion of junior co-emperors (symbasileis) who never attained the status of sole or senior ruler, as well as of the various usurpers or rebels who claimed the imperial title. Traditionally, the line of Byzantine emperors is held to begin with the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great, the first Christian emperor, who rebuilt the city of Byzantium
Byzantium
as an imperial capital, Constantinople, and who was regarded by the later emperors as the model ruler
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Skleros
The Skleros (Greek: Σκληρός; plural: Σκληροί, Skleroi), Latinized Sclerus, feminine form Skleraina (Σκλήραινα), Latinized Scleraena, was a noble Byzantine family active mostly in the 9th–11th centuries as members of the military aristocracy, and as civil functionaries thereafter.[1]Contents1 Origin and early members 2 Bardas Skleros and the family's apex 3 Rise and decline in the 11th century 4 Skleroi of the 12th–14th centuries 5 References 6 SourcesOrigin and early members[edit]Byzantine Asia Minor and the Arab–Byzantine frontier zone in the middle of the 9th centuryThe family descended from north-eastern Asia Minor, either from Lesser Armenia or the theme of Sebasteia
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Argyros (Byzantine Family)
Argyros (Greek: Ἀργυρός, derived from ἄργυρος, "silver"), Latinized as Argyrus and feminine Argyre (Ἀργυρή), was the name of a prominent aristocratic family of the Byzantine Empire active from the middle of the 9th century until the very end of the Empire in the 15th century, although it passed its peak after the mid-11th century
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Georgia (country)
Coordinates: 42°00′N 43°30′E / 42.000°N 43.500°E / 42.000; 43.500Georgia საქართველო (Georgian) SakartveloFlagCoat of armsMotto:  ძალა ერთობაშია Dzala Ertobashia (English: "Strength is in Unity")Anthem:  თავისუფლება Tavisupleba (English: "Freedom")Areas under the control of the government in Tbilisi
Tbilisi
shown in dark green; areas outside of that control shown in light greenCapital Tbilisi 41°43′N 44°47′E / 41.717°N 44.783°E
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Russia
Coordinates: 60°N 90°E / 60°N 90°E / 60; 90Russian Federation Росси́йская Федерaция (Russian) Rossiyskaya FederatsiyaFlagCoat of armsAnthem:  "Gosudarstvenny gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii"  (transliteration) "State Anthem of the Russian Federation"Location of Russia
Russia
(green) Russian-administered Crimea
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Persia
Iran
Iran
(Persian: ایران‎ Irān [ʔiːˈɾɒːn] ( listen)), also known as Persia[10] (/ˈpɜːrʒə/),[11] officially the Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Iran (Persian: جمهوری اسلامی ایران‎ Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān ( listen)),[12] is a sovereign state in Western Asia.[13][14] With over 81 million inhabitants,[6] Iran
Iran
is the world's 18th-most-populous country.[15] Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), it is the second-largest country in the Middle East
Middle East
and the 17th-largest in the world
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Aromanians
The Aromanians
Aromanians
(Aromanian: Rrãmãnjã, Armãnjã[9]), are an ethnic group native to the Balkans, traditionally living in northern and central Greece, central and southern Albania, the Republic of Macedonia, and south-western Bulgaria. Especially in Greece, the term Vlachs
Vlachs
is used to refer to Aromanians, but this term is internationally used to encompass all Romance-speaking peoples of the Balkans
Balkans
and Tatra Mountains
Tatra Mountains
regions.[10] Aromanians
Aromanians
speak the Aromanian language, a Latin-derived vernacular similar to Romanian, and has many slightly varying dialects of its own.[11] It descends from the Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
spoken by the Paleo-Balkan peoples subsequent to their Romanization
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Italy
Coordinates: 43°N 12°E / 43°N 12°E / 43; 12Italian Republic Repubblica Italiana  (Italian)FlagEmblemAnthem: Il Canto degli Italiani  (Italian) "The Song of the Italians"Location of  Italy  (dark green) – in Europe  (light green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (light green)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Rome 41°54′N 12°29′E / 41.900°N 12.483°E / 41.900; 12.483Official languages ItalianaNative languages see full listReligion83.3% Christians 12.4% irreligious 3.7% Muslims 0.2% Buddhists 0.1% Hindus 0.3% other religions[1]Demonym ItalianGovernment Unitary constitutional parliamentary republic• PresidentSergio Mattarella• Prime MinisterPaolo Gentiloni• President of the SenateElisabetta Casellati•&
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