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Komnenos Dynasty
KOMNENOS (Greek : Κομνηνός), Latinized COMNENUS, plural KOMNENOI or COMNENI (Κομνηνοί ), is the name of a noble family who ruled the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
from 1081 to 1185, and later, as the GRAND KOMNENOI (Μεγαλοκομνηνοί, Megalokomnenoi) founded and ruled the Empire of Trebizond
Empire of Trebizond
(1204–1461). Through intermarriages with other noble families, notably the Doukai
Doukai
, Angeloi , and Palaiologoi
Palaiologoi
, the Komnenos
Komnenos
name appears among most of the major noble houses of the late Byzantine world
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Argyros (Byzantine Family)
ARGYROS (Greek : Ἀργυρός, derived from ἄργυρος, "silver"), Latinized as ARGYRUS and feminine ARGYRE (Ἀργυρή), was the name of a prominent aristocratic family of the Byzantine Empire active from the middle of the 9th century until the very end of the Empire in the 15th century, although it passed its peak after the mid-11th century. The name also evolved the variant form ARGYROPOULOS (Ἀργυρόπουλος). The Argyroi apparently originated in the province of Charsianon , where they had large estates. They hence belonged to the Anatolian land-holding military aristocracy (the "dynatoi "); indeed, they are among the earliest, and almost archetypal, such families to emerge, along with the Doukai . The family is first securely attested in the mid-9th century, but may have its origins in a certain patrikios Marianos and his son Eustathios, who was captured by the Umayyads in 740/41 and executed after refusing to convert to Islam
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Skleros
The SKLEROS (Greek : Σκληρός; plural: Σκληροί, Skleroi), Latinized SCLERUS, feminine form SKLERAINA (Σκλήραινα), Latinized SCLERAENA, was a noble Byzantine family active mostly in the 9th–11th centuries as members of the military aristocracy, and as civil functionaries thereafter. CONTENTS * 1 Origin and early members * 2 Bardas Skleros and the family\'s apex * 3 Rise and decline in the 11th century * 4 Skleroi of the 12th–14th centuries * 5 References * 6 Sources ORIGIN AND EARLY MEMBERS Byzantine Asia Minor and the Arab–Byzantine frontier zone in the middle of the 9th century The family descended from north-eastern Asia Minor , either from Lesser Armenia or the theme of Sebasteia . Due to their origin, they have been traditionally regarded as Armenians , although this is nowhere explicitly attested
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Georgia (country)
Coordinates : 42°00′N 43°30′E / 42.000°N 43.500°E / 42.000; 43.500 Georgia საქართველო (Georgian ) Sakartvelo Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: ძალა ერთობაშია Dzala Ertobashia Strength is in Unity ANTHEM: თავისუფლება Tavisupleba Freedom Georgia proper shown in dark green; areas outside of Georgian control shown in light green CAPITAL Tbilisi
Tbilisi
41°43′N 44°47′E / 41.717°N 44.783°E / 41.717; 44.783
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Russia
Coordinates : 60°N 90°E / 60°N 90°E / 60; 90 Russian Federation Российская Федерация (Russian ) Rossiyskaya Federatsiya Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: " "Gosudarstvenny gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii " (transliteration ) "State Anthem of the Russian Federation" Location of Russia
Russia
(green) Russian-administered Crimea
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France
FRANCE (locally ), officially the FRENCH REPUBLIC (République française ), is a country with territory status in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories . The European, or metropolitan, area of France
France
extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea , and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean . The republic also includes French Guiana on the South American continent and several islands in the Atlantic , Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions (5 of which are situated overseas) span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) which, as of January 2017, has a total population of almost 67 million people. France
France
is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris
Paris
, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre
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Byzantine Emperor
This is a LIST OF THE BYZANTINE EMPERORS from the foundation of Constantinople
Constantinople
in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Eastern Roman (or Byzantine ) Empire, to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD. Only the emperors who were recognized as legitimate rulers and exercised sovereign authority are included, to the exclusion of junior co-emperors (symbasileis) who never attained the status of sole or senior ruler, as well as of the various usurpers or rebels who claimed the imperial title. Traditionally, the line of Byzantine emperors is held to begin with the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
, the first Christian emperor, who rebuilt the city of Byzantium
Byzantium
as an imperial capital, Constantinople, and who was regarded by the later Byzantine emperors as the model ruler
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Michael VI
MICHAEL VI BRINGAS (Greek : Μιχαήλ ΣΤ΄ Βρίγγας, Mikhaēl VI Bringas), called Stratiotikos or Stratioticus ("the Military One", "the Warlike" or "the Bellicose") or Gerontas ("the Old"), reigned as Byzantine emperor
Byzantine emperor
from 1056 to 1057. CONTENTS * 1 Career * 2 Sources * 2.1 Primary Sources * 2.2 Secondary Sources * 3 See also * 4 References CAREERApparently a relative of the powerful courtier Joseph Bringas (influential during the reign of Romanos II ), Michael Bringas was an elderly patrician and a member of the court bureaucracy who had served as military finance minister (and hence the epithet Stratiotikos). Michael Bringas was chosen by the empress Theodora as her successor shortly before her death on August 31, 1056. The appointment had been secured through the influence of Leo Paraspondylos , Theodora's most trusted adviser
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Isaac I Komnenos
ISAAC I KOMNENOS (or COMNENUS) (Greek : Ισαάκιος A' Κομνηνός, Isaakios I Komnēnos; c. 1007 – 1060/61) was Byzantine Emperor
Byzantine Emperor
from 1057 to 1059, the first reigning member of the Komnenos
Komnenos
dynasty. During his brief reign he attempted to restore the depleted finances of the empire and the former strict organization of the government. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Family * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Sources LIFEIsaac was the son of Manuel Erotikos Komnenos , who reportedly served as strategos autokrator of the East under Emperor Basil II , and defended Nicaea
Nicaea
against the rebel Bardas Skleros in 978. Manuel's native language was Greek ; according to Steven Runciman
Steven Runciman
, he was either Greek or a Hellenized Vlach
Vlach

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John Komnenos (Domestic Of The Schools)
JOHN KOMNENOS (Greek : Ἰωάννης Κομνηνός, Iōannēs Komnēnos; c. 1015 – 12 July 1067) was a Byzantine aristocrat and military leader. The younger brother of Emperor Isaac I Komnenos , he served as Domestic of the Schools during Isaac's brief reign (1057–59). When Isaac I abdicated, Constantine X Doukas became emperor and John withdrew from public life until his death in 1067. Through his son Alexios I Komnenos , who became emperor in 1081, he was the progenitor of the Komnenian dynasty that ruled the Byzantine Empire from 1081 until 1185, and the Empire of Trebizond from 1204 until 1461. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Family * 3 References * 4 Sources LIFEJohn Komnenos was born c. 1015 as the younger son of the patrikios Manuel Erotikos Komnenos , a senior military commander in the late reign of Basil II (ruled 976–1025)
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Alexios I Komnenos
ALEXIOS I KOMNENOS (Greek : Ἀλέξιος Αʹ Κομνηνός, 1048 or 1056 – 15 August 1118), was Byzantine emperor from 1081 to 1118. Although he was not the founder of the Komnenian dynasty , it was during his reign that the Komnenos
Komnenos
family came to full power. Inheriting a collapsing empire and faced with constant warfare during his reign against both the Seljuq Turks in Asia Minor
Asia Minor
and the Normans in the western Balkans
Balkans
, Alexios was able to curb the Byzantine decline and begin the military, financial, and territorial recovery known as the Komnenian restoration . The basis for this recovery were various reforms initiated by Alexios. His appeals to Western Europe for help against the Turks were also the catalyst that likely contributed to the convoking of the Crusades
Crusades

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Stratopedarch
STRATOPEDARCHēS (Greek : στρατοπεδάρχης, "master of the camp"), sometimes Anglicized as STRATOPEDARCH, was a Greek term used with regard to high-ranking military commanders from the 1st century BC on, becoming a proper office in the 10th-century Byzantine Empire . It continued to be employed as a designation, and a proper title, of commanders-in-chief until the 13th century, when the title of MEGAS STRATOPEDARCHēS (μέγας στρατοπεδάρχης) or GRAND STRATOPEDARCH appeared. This title was awarded to senior commanders and officials, while the ordinary stratopedarchai were henceforth low-ranking military officials
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Persia
IRAN (/ɪˈrɑːn/ ( listen ), also /ɪˈræn/ ; Persian : ایران‎‎ Irān ( listen )), also known as PERSIA (/ˈpɜːrʒə/ ), officially the ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF IRAN (Persian : جمهوری اسلامی ایران‎‎ Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān ( listen )), is a sovereign state in Western Asia
Western Asia

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Italy
Coordinates : 43°N 12°E / 43°N 12°E / 43; 12 Italian Republic Repubblica Italiana (Italian ) Flag Emblem ANTHEM: Il Canto degli Italiani
Il Canto degli Italiani
(Italian ) "The Song of the Italians" Location of Italy
Italy
(dark green) – in
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Palaiologos
Claimants: * House of Kastrioti (defunct) * House of Rurik (defunct) PALAIOLOGAN DYNASTY CHRONOLOGY Michael VIII 1259–1282 with Andronikos II as co-emperor, 1261–1282 Andronikos II 1282–1328 with Michael IX (1294–1320) and Andronikos III (1321–1328) as co-emperors Andronikos III 1328–1341 John V 1341–1391 with John VI Kantakouzenos
John VI Kantakouzenos
(1347–1354), Matthew Kantakouzenos (1342–1357) and Manuel II (1373–1391) as co-emperors Usurpation of Andronikos IV 1376–1379 Usurpation of John VII 1390 Manuel II 1391–1425 with Andronikos V (1403–1407) and John VIII (ca. 1416–1425) as co-emperors John VIII 1425–1448 Constantine XI 1448–1453 SUCCESSION Preceded by Laskarids of Nicaea
Nicaea
Followed by Ottoman conquest Byzantine imperial flag under the Palaiologos
Palaiologos
dynasty The PALAIOLOGOS (pl
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Constantine X Doukas
CONSTANTINE X DOUKAS or DUKAS, Latinized as DUCAS (Greek : Κωνσταντῖνος Ι΄ Δούκας, Kōnstantinos X Doukas) (1006 – 22 May 1067) was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 24 November 1059 to 22 May 1067. CONTENTS * 1 Reign * 2 Family * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links REIGNConstantine Doukas was the son of Andronikos Doukas, a Paphlagonian nobleman who may have served as governor of the theme of Moesia . Addicted to endless debates about philosophy and theology, Constantine gained influence after he married, as his second wife, Eudokia Makrembolitissa , a niece of Patriarch Michael Keroularios . In 1057, Constantine supported the usurpation of Isaac I Komnenos , gradually siding with the court bureaucracy against the new emperor's reforms. In spite of this tacit opposition, Constantine was chosen as successor by the ailing Isaac in November 1059, under the influence of Michael Psellos
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