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Kol Yerushalayim
JERUSALEM CALLING was the radio station established by the British Mandatory Authority through its broadcasting wing, the Palestine Broadcasting Service . It broadcast in three languages, Arabic, English and Hebrew. Photo taken at the Palestine Broadcasting Service studio in Jerusalem, July 1947, after the performance of Piano Concerto (Schumann). Menahem Pressler stands to the right of microphone. The English broadcasts were under the name JERUSALEM CALLING. The Hebrew language transmissions were under the name KOL YERUSHALAYIM i.e. THE VOICE OF JERUSALEM (in Hebrew קול ירושלים), whereas the Arabic language
Arabic language
broadcasts of the station used the name IZA\'AT AL QUDS i.e. RADIO AL QUDS (in Arabic إذاعة القدس). CONTENTS * 1 Establishment * 2 Split * 3 Changes * 4 See also * 5 References ESTABLISHMENTOn March 30, 1936, the Palestine Broadcasting Service began radio transmissions from Ramallah . Staff were recruited for five hours of daily broadcasts in three languages, English, Arabic, and Hebrew and training given by the BBC
BBC
. The Hebrew language transmissions were eventually called Kol Yerushalayim (The Voice of Jerusalem) after arguments with Arab leaders following the Jews original intention to call them 'Kol Eretz Israel' (The Voice of the Land of Israel)
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Mandatory Palestine
MANDATORY PALESTINE (Arabic : فلسطين‎‎ _Filasṭīn_; Hebrew : פָּלֶשְׂתִּינָה (א"י)‎ _Pālēśtīnā (EY)_, where "EY" indicates " Eretz Yisrael ", Land of Israel) was a geopolitical entity under British administration, carved out of Ottoman Southern Syria after World War I . British civil administration in Palestine operated from 1920 until 1948. During its existence the territory was known simply as _Palestine_, but, in later years, a variety of other names and descriptors have been used, including _Mandatory_ or MANDATE PALESTINE, the BRITISH MANDATE OF PALESTINE and BRITISH PALESTINE. During the First World War (1914–18), an Arab uprising and the British Empire 's Egyptian Expeditionary Force under General Edmund Allenby drove the Turks out of the Levant during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign . The United Kingdom had agreed in the McMahon–Hussein Correspondence that it would honour Arab independence if they revolted against the Ottomans, but the two sides had different interpretations of this agreement, and in the end the UK and France divided up the area under the Sykes–Picot Agreement —an act of betrayal in the eyes of the Arabs. Further confusing the issue was the Balfour Declaration of 1917, promising British support for a Jewish "national home" in Palestine
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Palestine Broadcasting Service
The PALESTINE BROADCASTING SERVICE (PBS) was the state-owned radio broadcasting station that operated from Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(with the main transmitter in Ramallah
Ramallah
) from March 1936 until the end of the Mandate . It broadcast programs in Arabic, Hebrew, and English, with broadcasting time allotted in that order. Its Hebrew service, Kol Yerushalayim , which was inaugurated on March 30, 1936, played an important role in the development of Hebrew as a national language for the founders of Israel. While news broadcasts and political commentary was heavily censored, the PBS' cultural programs - including its live music broadcasts - played an important role in the development of interwar Palestinian and Zionist (later Israeli) national identities. Photo taken at the Palestine Broadcasting Service studio in Jerusalem, July 1947, after the performance of Piano Concerto (Schumann). Menahem Pressler
Menahem Pressler
stands to the right of microphone. Scholars whose work has touched on the PBS and its various aspects include Douglas A. Boyd, Ruth Davis, Tamar Liebes, Derek Penslar, and Andrea L. Stanton
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Menahem Pressler
MENAHEM PRESSLER (born 16 December 1923, Magdeburg
Magdeburg
) is a German-born Israeli-American pianist. Following Kristallnacht , Pressler and his immediate family fled Nazi Germany in 1939, initially to Italy, and then to Palestine. His grandparents, uncles, aunts and cousins all died in concentration camps. His career was launched after he won first prize at the Debussy International Piano Competition in San Francisco in 1946. His Carnegie Hall
Carnegie Hall
debut subsequently followed, with the Philadelphia Orchestra conducted by Eugene Ormandy . Photo taken at the Palestine Broadcasting Service studio in Jerusalem, July 1947, after the performance of Schumann 's Piano Concerto . Pressler stands to the right of microphone. Since 1955, Pressler has taught on the piano faculty at the Indiana University Jacobs School of Music
Jacobs School of Music
, where he holds the rank of Distinguished Professor of Music as the Charles Webb Chair. His debut as a chamber musician was at the 1955 Berkshire Festival , where he appeared as the pianist of the Beaux Arts Trio , with Daniel Guilet , violin, and Bernard Greenhouse , cello
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Hebrew Language
HEBREW (/ˈhiːbruː/ ; עִבְרִית‎, _Ivrit_ ( listen ) or ( listen )) is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel , spoken by over 9 million people worldwide. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name Hebrew in the Tanakh . The earliest examples of written Paleo- Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE. Hebrew belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family. Hebrew is the only living Canaanite language left, and the only truly successful example of a revived dead language . Hebrew had ceased to be an everyday spoken language somewhere between 200 and 400 CE, declining since the aftermath of the Bar Kokhba revolt . Aramaic and to a lesser extent Greek were already in use as international languages, especially among elites and immigrants. It survived into the medieval period as the language of Jewish liturgy , rabbinic literature , intra- Jewish commerce, and poetry . Then, in the 19th century, it was revived as a spoken and literary language. It became the _lingua franca _ of Palestine's Jews, and subsequently of the State of Israel . According to Ethnologue , in 1998, it was the language of 5 million people worldwide
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Arabic Language
THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS ARABIC TEXT . Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols .ARABIC ( Arabic
Arabic
: العَرَبِيَّة‎‎, _al-ʻarabiyyah_ (_ listen ) or Arabic
Arabic
: عَرَبِيّ‎‎ ʻarabī_ (_ listen ) or ) is a Central Semitic language complex that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca _ of the Arab world . It is named after the Arabs
Arabs
, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east to the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. The modern written language ( Modern Standard Arabic ) is derived from Classical Arabic . It is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic
Arabic
(_fuṣḥā_), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam
Islam
. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary
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Ramallah
RAMALLAH (Arabic : رام الله‎‎ _ Rāmallāh_ ) is a Palestinian city in the central West Bank located 10 km (6 miles) north of Jerusalem at an average elevation of 880 meters (2,890 ft) above sea level, adjacent to al-Bireh . It currently serves as the _de facto_ administrative capital of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA). Ramallah was historically an Arab Christian town. Today Muslims form the majority of the population of nearly 27,092 in 2007, with Christians making up a significant minority. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 History * 2.1 Ottoman era * 2.1.1 Christian presence * 2.2 British Mandate * 2.3 Jordanian era * 2.4 Israeli era * 2.4.1 First Intifada * 2.5 Palestinian Authority rule * 2.5.1 1990s * 2.5.2 Second Intifada * 2.5.3 Economic rehabilitation * 3 Geography and climate * 4 Economy * 5 Demographics * 6 Infrastructure * 6.1 Health * 7 Religious institutions * 8 Culture * 8.1 Ramallah folklore * 8.2 Palestinian costume * 8.3 Twin towns—sister cities * 9 Notable residents * 10 See also * 11 References * 12 Bibliography * 13 External links ETYMOLOGY"Ramallah" is composed of "Ram", meaning _height_ and "Allah", the Arabic word for God. HISTORYAncient rock-cut tombs have been found near Ramallah
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BBC
The BRITISH BROADCASTING CORPORATION (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster headquartered at Broadcasting House in London . The BBC is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees. It employs over 20,950 staff in total, 16,672 of whom are in public sector broadcasting. The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time, flexible, and fixed contract staff are included. The BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport. Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee which is charged to all British households, companies, and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up. The fee is set by the British Government , agreed by Parliament , and used to fund the BBC's radio, TV, and online services covering the nations and regions of the UK. Since 1 April 2014, it has also funded the BBC World Service (launched in 1932 as the BBC Empire Service), which broadcasts in 28 languages and provides comprehensive TV, radio, and online services in Arabic and Persian
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Europe
EUROPE —a concept dating back to classical antiquity — is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia . Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. The eastern boundary with Asia is an arbitrary historical and social construct , as there is no clear physical and geographical separation between them. The primarily physiographic term "continent" as applied to Europe also incorporates cultural and political elements whose discontinuities and lines of demarcation are not reflected by the continent's current overland boundaries with Asia. Europe is considered by historical convention as separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains , the Ural River , the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits . Europe covers about 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth's surface (6.8% of land area). Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 740 million (about 11% of world population ) as of 2015
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Israel
Coordinates : 31°N 35°E / 31°N 35°E / 31; 35 State of Israel * מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל (Hebrew ) * دَوْلَة إِسْرَائِيل (Arabic ) Flag Emblem ANTHEM: " Hatikvah " (Hebrew for "The Hope") Capital and largest city Jerusalem _(internationally unrecognized )_ 31°47′N 35°13′E / 31.783°N 35.217°E / 31.783; 35.217 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES * Hebrew * Arabic ETHNIC GROUPS (2016) * 74.8% Jewish * 20.8% Arab * 4.4% other RELIGION * 74.8% Jewish * 17.6% Muslim * 2% Christian * 1.6% Druze * 4% other DEMONYM Israeli GOVERNMENT Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic • PRESIDENT Reuven Rivlin • PRIME MINISTER
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Kol Yisrael
_KOL YISRAEL_ (קול ישראל lit. "Voice of Israel", also "Israel Radio") is Israel
Israel
's public domestic and international radio service. It operated as a division under the Israel
Israel
Broadcasting Authority , until 14 May 2017, and the following day it started operating under Israeli Broadcasting Corporation (that replaced the IBA). CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Name: meaning and significance * 3 Broadcast channels * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORY Kol Yisrael
Kol Yisrael
was originally an underground Haganah
Haganah
radio station that broadcast from Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
. It started consistently broadcasting in December 1947 under the name _Telem-Shamir-Boaz_, and was renamed to _Kol HaHagana_ ("Voice of the Haganah") in March 1948. With Israel's declaration of independence on May 14, 1948, it was transformed into the official station Kol Yisrael. Another station named Kol Yisrael operated in Haifa, and was renamed _Kol Tzva HaHagana_ (Voice of the Defense Force). The first Kol Yisrael
Kol Yisrael
transmission was a live broadcast from Tel Aviv of David Ben-Gurion
David Ben-Gurion
reading of the declaration of independence. It was operated by a department of the Ministry of the Interior
Ministry of the Interior
responsible for domestic and international broadcasts
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Six Day War
EGYPT SYRIA JORDAN Iraq
Iraq
Lebanon
Lebanon
-------------------------SUPPORTED BY: Algeria
Algeria

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West Bank
The WEST BANK (Arabic : الضفة الغربية‎‎ aḍ-Ḍiffah l-Ġarbiyyah; Hebrew : הגדה המערבית‎‎, HaGadah HaMa'aravit) is a landlocked territory near the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
coast of Western Asia
Western Asia
, the bulk of it now under Israeli control, or else under joint Israeli- Palestinian Authority control, and which final status of the entire area is yet to be determined by the parties concerned. The West Bank
West Bank
shares boundaries (demarcated by the Jordanian -Israeli armistice of 1949 ) to the west, north, and south with Israel
Israel
, and to the east, across the Jordan
Jordan
River , with Jordan
Jordan
. The West Bank
West Bank
also contains a significant section of the western Dead Sea shore. The West Bank, including East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem
, has a land area of 5,640 km2 plus a water area of 220 km2, consisting of the northwest quarter of the Dead Sea. As of July 2015 it has an estimated population of 2,785,366 Palestinians, and approximately 371,000 Israeli settlers , and approximately another 212,000 Jewish Israelis in East Jerusalem. The international community considers Israeli settlements in the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, illegal under international law , though Israel
Israel
disputes this
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Israel Broadcasting Authority
ISRAEL BROADCASTING AUTHORITY (often referred to as the IBA; Hebrew : רָשׁוּת השׁידוּר‎, Rishút HaShidúr literally: The Broadcast Authority) was Israel
Israel
's state broadcasting network. It grew out of the radio station Kol Yisrael , which made its first broadcast as an independent station on March 14, 1948; 69 years ago (1948-03-14). The name of the organisation operating Kol Yisrael was changed to Israel
Israel
Broadcasting Service in 1951. The law creating the Israel
Israel
Broadcasting Authority was passed by the Knesset on 6 June 1965. Television
Television
broadcasts commenced on 2 May 1968, with color television following on 23 February 1983, although occasional color transmissions were made earlier, such as the Eurovision Song Contest 1979 and the visit of the Egyptian President
Egyptian President
Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
in 1977. IBA was supposed to have been replaced by the Israeli Broadcasting Corporation on October 1, 2016. On 19 July 2016, however, Benjamin Netanyahu stated that the launch and replacement was to be postponed to the beginning of 2018, for which he was criticized by a number of journalists and politicians within Israel. After several delays, the new service was planned to start broadcasting on 15 May 2017
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Israel Radio International
ISRAEL RADIO INTERNATIONAL or REKA (Hebrew : רשת קליטת עלייה‎‎ Reshet Klitat Aliya, or רק"ע Reka) is the radio service of Israel
Israel
Broadcasting Authority for immigrants and listeners abroad. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links OVERVIEWOperating since 1950, the shortwave transmissions of Kol Israel ("Voice of Israel") on Reshet Hey ("Network E") broadcasts to the entire world. They are also the main link between Israel
Israel
and the Jewish
Jewish
diaspora . In its early years, "Kol Zion la'Gola" (קול ציון לגולה) as it was known, was the sole reliable and direct source of information for Jews living in the Arab
Arab
countries and behind the " Iron Curtain ". Administered by the overseas broadcasting division, it transmits to listeners abroad in 14 languages: English , French , Russian , Bukharan , Georgian , Mugrabian , Yiddish , Tigrinya , Ladino , Spanish , Romanian , Hungarian , Persian , Amharic and Aramaic
Aramaic
. Apart from news and broadcasts reflecting events in the country, the channel transmits documentaries on Judaism , the history of the Israeli people, Israeli culture and discussions on immigration and absorption
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