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Knuckleball
A knuckleball or knuckler is a baseball pitch thrown to minimize the spin of the ball in flight, causing an erratic, unpredictable motion. The air flow over a seam of the ball causes the ball to transition from laminar to turbulent flow. This transition adds a deflecting force on the side of the baseball. This makes the pitch difficult for batters to hit, but also difficult for pitchers to control and catchers to catch; umpires are challenged as well, as the ball's irregular motion through the air makes it harder to call balls and strikes.[1]Contents1 Origins 2 Grip and motion2.1 Cricket3 Naming and relationship to other pitches 4 Rarity 5 Use in pitching 6 Catching 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksOrigins[edit] The origins of the knuckleball are unclear
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Uniform Number
In team sports, the number, often referred to as the uniform number, squad number, jersey number, shirt number, sweater number, or similar (with such naming differences varying by sport and region) is the number worn on a player's uniform, to identify and distinguish each player (and sometimes others, such as coaches and officials) from others wearing the same or similar uniforms. The number is typically displayed on the rear of the jersey, often accompanied by the surname. Sometimes it is also displayed on the front and/or sleeves, or on the player's shorts or headgear
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Reaction Time
Mental chronometry
Mental chronometry
is the use of response time in perceptual-motor tasks to infer the content, duration, and temporal sequencing of cognitive operations. Mental chronometry
Mental chronometry
is one of the core paradigms of experimental and cognitive psychology, and has found application in various disciplines including cognitive psychophysiology, cognitive neuroscience, and behavioral neuroscience to elucidate mechanisms underlying cognitive processing. Mental chronometry
Mental chronometry
is studied using measurements of reaction time (RT), which is the elapsed time between the presentation of a sensory stimulus and the subsequent behavioral response. In psychometric psychology it is considered to be an index of processing speed.[1] That is, it indicates how fast the individual can execute the mental operations needed by the task at hand
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Ed Summers
Oron Edgar Summers (December 5, 1884 – May 12, 1953), nicknamed "Kickapoo Ed", due to his Kickapoo ancestry, was an American right-handed pitcher in Major League Baseball who played five seasons with the Detroit Tigers (1908–12).Contents1 Biography 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksBiography[edit] Summers was born in Ladoga, Indiana and attended Wabash College in Crawfordsville, Indiana. He began his playing career in the American Association before joining the Tigers in the American League in 1908.Ed Summers, Detroit Tigers pitcherIn his rookie season, Summers emerged as the Tigers' best pitcher, finishing with a 1.64 ERA in 301 innings pitched and a 24–12 win-loss record. On September 25, 1908, the Tigers were two games back of the Cleveland Naps for the AL pennant and were scheduled to play a doubleheader
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Thumb
The thumb is the first digit of the hand. When a person is standing in the medical anatomical position (where the palm is facing to the front), the thumb is the outermost digit
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Network Effect
A network effect (also called network externality or demand-side economies of scale) is the positive effect described in economics and business that an additional user of a good or service has on the value of that product to others. When a network effect is present, the value of a product or service increases according to the number of others using it.[1] The classic example is the telephone, where a greater number of users increases the value to each. A positive externality is created when a telephone is purchased without its owner intending to create value for other users, but does so regardless
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Trajectory
A trajectory or flight path is the path that a moving object follows through space as a function of time.[1] The object might be a projectile or a satellite. For example, it can be an orbit—the path of a planet, an asteroid, or a comet as it travels around a central mass. A trajectory can be described mathematically either by the geometry of the path or as the position of the object over time. In control theory a trajectory is a time-ordered set of states of a dynamical system (see e.g. Poincaré map)
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Drag (physics)
In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) is a force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid.[1] This can exist between two fluid layers (or surfaces) or a fluid and a solid surface. Unlike other resistive forces, such as dry friction, which are nearly independent of velocity, drag forces depend on velocity.[2][3] Drag force is proportional to the velocity for a laminar flow and the squared velocity for a turbulent flow
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Robert Adair (physicist)
Robert Kemp Adair (born August 14, 1924)[1][2] is an American physicist. He is Sterling Professor
Sterling Professor
Emeritus of physics at Yale University.[3][4][5]Contents1 Biography 2 Books and Baseball 3 References 4 External linksBiography[edit] Adair served in the European theatre after volunteering for World War II and was awarded a Purple Heart
Purple Heart
and Bronze star. After achieving a doctorate in experimental nuclear physics at the University of Wisconsin he worked at Brookhaven National Laboratory
Brookhaven National Laboratory
(BNL) in Long Island. In 1959 he joined the faculty at Yale, serving as chair of the Department of Physics
Physics
and director of the Division of Physical Sciences
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Topspin
In ball sports, topspin is a property of a ball that rotates forwards as it is moving. Topspin
Topspin
on a ball propelled through the air imparts a downward force that causes the ball to drop, due to its interaction with the air (see Magnus effect). Topspin
Topspin
is the opposite of backspin.Contents1 Baseball 2 Cue sports 3 Cricket 4 Golf 5 Racquet sports5.1 Table tennis 5.2 Tennis5.2.1 Physical explanation 5.2.2 Competitive utility6 Volleyball 7 See also 8 External linksBaseball[edit] Main article: Curveball In baseball, the curveball, a type of pitch which usually has downward movement, is thrown in such a way as to put topspin on the ball. Its close relatives are the slider and the slurve. The "curve" of the ball varies from pitcher to pitcher. Cue sports[edit] In snooker, pocket billiards and billiards, players use topspin to keep the cue ball moving, including after it hits other balls
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Blue Ridge League
The Blue Ridge League (BRL) was the name of two minor league baseball organizations that operated in the first half of the twentieth century in the United States.Contents1 First League1.1 Cities/Teams/Years 1.2 Championship teams 1.3 Season records1.3.1 Hitting 1.3.2 Pitching1.4 No-Hitters2 Second League2.1 Cities/Teams/Years 2.2 Championship teams3 References 4 Sources 5 External linksFirst League[edit]Blue Ridge LeagueSport BaseballFounded 1915Inaugural season 1915Ceased 9 February 1931No. of teams 6 (1915–1917) (1920–1929) 4 (1918, 1930)Country United StatesLast champion(s) Chambersburg Young YanksMost titles Hagerstown (5)Official website blueridgeleague.orgThe first league operated for the better part of sixteen years, from 1915 through 1918, and 1920 to 1930
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PITCHf/x
PITCHf/x, created and maintained by Sportvision, is a system that tracks the speeds and trajectories of pitched baseballs. This system, which made its debut in the 2006 MLB
MLB
playoffs, is installed in every MLB
MLB
stadium.[1] The data from the system is often used by broadcasters to show a visual representation of the pitch and whether or not a pitch entered the strike-zone. PITCHf/x is also used to determine the type of pitch thrown, such as a fastball, curve, or slider. MLB
MLB
uses the data from PITCHf/x in its Zone Evaluation System which is used to grade and provide feedback to umpires
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Cricket
Cricket
Cricket
is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, at the centre of which is a rectangular 20-metre (22-yard) pitch with a target at each end called the wicket (a set of three wooden stumps upon which two bails sit). Each phase of play is called an innings, during which one team bats, attempting to score as many runs as possible, whilst their opponents bowl and field, attempting to minimise the number of runs scored. When each innings ends, the teams usually swap roles for the next innings (i.e. the team that previously batted will bowl/field, and vice versa). The teams each bat for one or two innings, depending on the type of match
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Bhuvneshwar Kumar
Bhuvneshwar Kumar
Bhuvneshwar Kumar
(born 5 February 1990) is an Indian international cricketer. He plays for Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
in domestic cricket, and Sunrisers Hyderabad
Sunrisers Hyderabad
in the Indian Premier League. Kumar is a right-arm medium-fast bowler who swings the ball both ways efficiently, with his inswingers more effective than outswing,[1] especially adept at creating late swing, and a useful lower order right-handed batsman. His talent was first noticed in a T20 match against Pakistan, where he successfully took a three-wicket haul
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Zaheer Khan
Zaheer Khan
Zaheer Khan
(born 7 October 1978) is a former Indian cricketer who played all forms of the game for the Indian national cricket team
Indian national cricket team
from 2000 till 2014. He was the second-most successful Indian pace bowler in Test cricket, behind Kapil Dev. Khan started his domestic career by playing for Baroda. In the early years of his career, Khan was known for his hostile seam and pace bowling, especially fast inch-perfect yorkers.[2] In a bid to improve his bowling, Khan moved to England for a short stint with Worcestershire in 2006
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Freddie Fitzsimmons
As playerNew York Giants (1925–1937) Brooklyn Dodgers
Brooklyn Dodgers
(1937–1943)As manager Philadelphia Phillies
Philadelphia Phillies
(1943–1945)Career highlights and awards World Series
World Series
champion (1933) World Series
World Series
champion coach (1954)Frederick Landis Fitzsimmons (July 28, 1901 – November 18, 1979) was an American right-handed pitcher, manager and coach in Major League Baseball who played from 1925 to 1943 with the New York Giants and Brooklyn Dodgers. Nicknamed "Fat Freddie" (he carried as much as 205 pounds (93 kg) on his 5-foot, 11-inch (1.80 m) frame),[1] and known for his mastery of the knuckle curve, Fitzsimmons' 217 wins were the third most by a National League
National League
right-hander in the period from 1920 to 1955, trailing only Burleigh Grimes
Burleigh Grimes
and Paul Derringer
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