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Kingdom Of Sicily
the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
(1220–1250) (also with the Kingdom of Jerusalem
Kingdom of Jerusalem
: 1225–1228) the
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Catalan Language
CATALAN (/ˈkætəlæn/ ; autonym : català or ) is a Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia
Catalonia
, in northeastern modern Spain
Spain
. It is the national and only official language of Andorra , and a co-official language of the Spanish autonomous communities of Catalonia
Catalonia
, the Balearic Islands and Valencia
Valencia
(where the language is known as Valencian ). It also has semi-official status in the commune of Alghero
Alghero
These territories are often called Catalan Countries
Catalan Countries
. Catalan evolved from Vulgar Latin in the Middle Ages around the eastern Pyrenees . 19th-century Spain
Spain
saw a Catalan literary revival , culminating in the early 1900s
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Spanish Language
(see many more ) REGULATED BY Association of Spanish Language Academies
Association of Spanish Language Academies
( Real Academia Española and 22 other national Spanish language academies) LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-1 es ISO 639-2 spa ISO 639-3 spa GLOTTOLOG stan1288 LINGUASPHERE 51-AAA-b Spanish language
Spanish language
in the world SPANISH (/ˈspænᵻʃ/ ( listen ); español (help ·info )), also called CASTILIAN (/kæˈstɪliən/ ( listen ), castellano (help ·info )), is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain
Spain
and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers around the world. It is usually considered the world\'s second-most spoken native language , after Mandarin Chinese
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Latin Language
LATIN (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages . The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium
Latium
, in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
. Through the power of the Roman Republic , it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages
Romance languages
, such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian . Latin
Latin
, Italian and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Greece
GREECE (Greek : Ελλάδα, Elláda ), officially the HELLENIC REPUBLIC (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία, Ellinikí Dimokratía ), historically also known as HELLAS ( Ancient Greek : Ἑλλάς, Hellás , modern pronunciation Ellás), is a country in southeastern Europe
Europe
, with a population of approximately 11 million as of 2015. Athens
Athens
is the nation's capital and largest city, followed by Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
. Greece
Greece
is strategically located at the crossroads of Europe, Asia, and Africa
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Tunisia
TUNISIA ( Arabic
Arabic
: تونس‎‎ Tūnis ; Berber : ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ tunes; French : Tunisie), officially the REPUBLIC OF TUNISIA (Arabic : الجمهورية التونسية‎‎ al-Jumhūrīya at-Tūnisīya ; Berber : ⵜⴰⴳⴷⵓⴷⴰ ⵏ ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ tagduda n tunes) is a country in North Africa
Africa
, covering 165,000 square kilometres (64,000 square miles). Its northernmost point, Cape Angela , is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria
Algeria
to the west and southwest, Libya
Libya
to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11 million in 2014. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis
Tunis
, which is located on Tunisia's northeast coast
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Libya
LIBYA ( Arabic
Arabic
: ليبيا‎‎ Lībiyā) is a country in the Maghreb
Maghreb
region of North Africa
North Africa
, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the north, Egypt
Egypt
to the east, Sudan
Sudan
to the southeast, Chad
Chad
and Niger to the south and Algeria
Algeria
and Tunisia
Tunisia
to the west
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Apennine Peninsula
42°N 14°E / 42°N 14°E / 42; 14 37°N 15°E / 37°N 15°E / 37; 15 AREA 131,337 km2 (50,709 sq mi) HIGHEST POINT Corno Grande ADMINISTRATION ITALY LARGEST SETTLEMENT Rome
Rome
SAN MARINO LARGEST SETTLEMENT Dogana
Dogana
VATICAN CITY LARGEST SETTLEMENT Itself ( City-state
City-state
) DEMOGRAPHICS DEMONYM Apenninen POP. DENSITY 199.27 /km2 (516.11 /sq mi) ETHNIC GROUPS Italian The ITALIAN PENINSULA or APENNINE PENINSULA (Italian : Penisola italiana, Penisola appenninica) extends 1,000 km (620 mi) from the Po Valley in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
in the south. The peninsula's shape gives it the nickname lo Stivale (the Boot)
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Apennines
The APENNINES or APENNINE MOUNTAINS (/ˈæpənaɪn/ ; Greek : Ἀπέννινα ὄρη; Latin: Appenninus or Apenninus Mons—a singular used in the plural; Italian: Appennini ) are a mountain range consisting of parallel smaller chains extending c. 1,200 km (750 mi) along the length of peninsular Italy
Italy
. In the northwest they join with the Ligurian Alps
Ligurian Alps
at Altare
Altare
. In the southwest they end at Reggio di Calabria , the coastal city at the tip of the peninsula. Since the year 2000 the Environment Ministry of Italy, following the recommendations of the Apennines Park of Europe Project, has been defining the Apennines System to include the mountains of north Sicily , for a total distance of 1,500 kilometres (930 mi). The system forms an arc enclosing the east side of the Ligurian and Tyrrhenian Seas
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Messina
MESSINA (/məˈsiːnə/ ; Italian pronunciation: ( listen ), Sicilian : Missina; Latin : Messana, Greek : Μεσσήνη) is the capital of the Italian Metropolitan City of Messina . It is the third-largest city on the island of Sicily
Sicily
, and the 13th-largest city in Italy, with a population of more than 238,000 inhabitants in the city proper and about 650,000 in the Metropolitan City. It is located near the northeast corner of Sicily, at the Strait of Messina , opposite Villa San Giovanni on the mainland, and has close ties with Reggio Calabria
Reggio Calabria
. According to Eurostat
Eurostat
the FUA of the metropolitan area of Messina
Messina
has, in 2014, 277,584 inhabitants
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Misilmeri
MISILMERI (Sicilian : Musulumeli) is a town and comune in the province of Palermo
Palermo
, Sicily
Sicily
. It is approximately 15 kilometres (9 mi) from Palermo
Palermo
and its name means "the resting place or the messuage of the Emir", and dates from the Muslim emirate of Sicily
Sicily
. The village rose around a castle (today known as Castello dell'Emiro, or "Castle of the Emir") founded by emir Jafar II (998–1019). The population is approximately 28,000 people
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Holy Roman Emperor
The HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR (historically Romanorum Imperator " Emperor
Emperor
of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
. The title was held in conjunction with the rule of the Kingdom of Germany
Germany
. From an autocracy in Carolingian
Carolingian
times the title evolved into an elected monarchy chosen by the prince-electors . The Holy Roman Emperor
Emperor
was widely perceived to be the deputy of Jesus Christ on Earth by Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
rulers in Europe
Europe
, and he often contradicted or rivaled the Pope
Pope
, most notably during the Investiture controversy
Investiture controversy
. In theory, the Holy Roman Emperor
Emperor
was primus inter pares (first among equals) among other Catholic monarchs
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King Of Spain
The MONARCHY OF SPAIN (Spanish : Monarquía de España), constitutionally referred to as THE CROWN (la Corona), is a constitutional institution and historic office of Spain
Spain
. It used to be also called the Hispanic Monarchy
Monarchy
(Monarquía Hispánica). The monarchy comprises the reigning monarch , his or her family, and the royal household organization which supports and facilitates the monarch in the exercise of his duties and prerogatives. The Spanish monarchy is represented by King Felipe VI , his wife Queen Letizia , and their daughters Leonor, Princess of Asturias , and Infanta
Infanta
Sofía . The Spanish Constitution
Constitution
of 1978 reestablished a constitutional monarchy as the form of government for Spain
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Three Valli Of Sicily
During the Muslim rule on Sicily , the island was divided into three different administrative regions: the Val di Noto
Val di Noto
in the southeast, the Val Demone in the northeast and the Val di Mazara in the west. Each zone has a noticeably different agriculture and topography and they converged near Castrogiovanni . The term val or vallo (plural valli) is probably derived from the Siculo-Arabic wilayah , meaning "province". There are many Arab-derived names in the Val di Mazara (and more Christians converted to Islam from this region), are more mixed in the Val di Noto, while Christian (particularly Greek) identities survived strongest in the Val Demone (with the least Arab-derived names), which was the last to fall to the Muslims , where Christian refugees from other parts of Sicily had assembled, and which furthermore remained in contact with Byzantine southern Italy
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Feudal Monarchy
FEUDALISM was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries. Broadly defined, it was a way of structuring society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour. Although derived from the Latin word feodum or feudum (fief), then in use, the term feudalism and the system it describes were not conceived of as a formal political system by the people living in the Middle Ages. In its classic definition, by François-Louis Ganshof (1944), feudalism describes a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the warrior nobility revolving around the three key concepts of lords , vassals and fiefs
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Italian Language
ITALIAN ( italiano (help ·info ) or lingua italiana ) is a Romance language
Romance language
. By most measures, Italian, together with Sardinian, is the closest to Latin
Latin
of the Romance languages. Italian is an official language in Italy
Italy
, Switzerland
Switzerland
, San Marino , Vatican City and western Istria (in Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia
Croatia
). It used to have official status in Albania
Albania
, Malta
Malta
and Monaco
Monaco
, where it is still widely spoken, as well as in former Italian East Africa
Italian East Africa
and Italian North Africa regions where it plays a significant role in various sectors
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