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Kingdom Of Sicily
the Holy Roman Empire (1220–1250) (also with the Kingdom of Jerusalem : 1225–1228) the Crown of Aragon (1282–1517 ) the Kingdom of Spain (1516–1713) the Duchy of Savoy (1713–1720) the
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Personal Union
A PERSONAL UNION is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct. A real union , by contrast, will involve the constituent states being to some extent interlinked, such as by sharing governmental institutions. In a federation and a unitary state , a central (federal) government spanning all member states exists, with the degree of self-governance distinguishing the two. The ruler in a personal union does not need to be a hereditary monarch. Personal unions can arise for several reasons, ranging from coincidence (a woman who is already married to a king becomes queen regnant , and their child inherits the crown of both countries) to virtual annexation (where a personal union sometimes was seen as a means of preventing uprisings)
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Holy Roman Empire
The HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE ( Latin : _Sacrum Imperium Romanum_; German : _Heiliges Römisches Reich_) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806. The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany , though it also came to include the Kingdom of Bohemia , the Kingdom of Burgundy , the Kingdom of Italy , and numerous other territories. On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor , reviving the title in Western Europe , more than three centuries after the fall of the Western Roman Empire . The title continued in the Carolingian family until 888 and from 896 to 899, after which it was contested by the rulers of Italy in a series of civil wars until the death of the last Italian claimant, Berengar , in 924
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Kingdom Of Jerusalem
The LATIN KINGDOM OF JERUSALEM was a crusader state established in the Southern Levant by Godfrey of Bouillon in 1099 after the First Crusade . The kingdom lasted nearly two hundred years, from 1099 until 1291 when the last remaining possession, Acre , was destroyed by the Mamluks , but its history is divided into two distinct periods. The sometimes so-called FIRST KINGDOM OF JERUSALEM lasted from 1099 to 1187, when it was almost entirely overrun by Saladin . After the subsequent Third Crusade , the kingdom was re-established in Acre in 1192, and lasted until that city's destruction in 1291, except for a brief two decades which Frederick II of Hohenstaufen reclaimed Jerusalem back into Christian hands after the Sixth Crusade . This second kingdom is sometimes called the SECOND KINGDOM OF JERUSALEM or the KINGDOM OF ACRE, after its new capital
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Crown Of Aragon
The CROWN OF ARAGON (/ˈærəɡən/ ; Aragonese : _Corona d'Aragón_, Catalan : _Corona d'Aragó_, Spanish : _Corona de Aragón_) was a composite monarchy , also nowadays referred to as a confederation of individual polities or kingdoms ruled by one king, with a personal and dynastic union of the Kingdom of Aragon and the County
County
of Barcelona
Barcelona

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Kingdom Of Spain
Coordinates : 40°N 4°W / 40°N 4°W / 40; -4 Kingdom of Spain Reino de España (Spanish ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Plus Ultra " (Latin ) "Further Beyond" ANTHEM: " Marcha Real
Marcha Real
" (Spanish ) "Royal March" Location of Spain
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Duchy Of Savoy
From 1416 to 1860, the DUCHY OF SAVOY (French : _Duché de Savoie_, Italian : _Ducato di Savoia_) was a state in Western Europe
Western Europe
. It was created when Sigismund, King of the Romans , raised the County of Savoy
Savoy
into a duchy for Amadeus VIII . The duchy was a subject of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
with a vote in the Imperial Diet . From the 16th century, Savoy
Savoy
belonged to the Upper Rhenish Circle . Throughout its history, it was ruled by the House of Savoy
Savoy
and formed a part of the larger Savoyard state
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Habsburg Monarchy
The HABSBURG MONARCHY (German : _Habsburgermonarchie_) or EMPIRE, is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918. The Monarchy was a composite state composed of territories within and outside the Holy Roman Empire , united only in the person of the monarch . The dynastic capital was Vienna , except from 1583 to 1611, when it was moved to Prague . From 1804 to 1867 the Habsburg Monarchy was formally unified as the Austrian Empire , and from 1867 to 1918 as the Austro-Hungarian Empire
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Kingdom Of Naples
The KINGDOM OF NAPLES (Neapolitan : _Regno 'e Napule_, Italian : _Regno di Napoli_), comprising the southern part of the Italian Peninsula , was the remainder of the old Kingdom of Sicily after the secession of the island of Sicily
Sicily
as a result of the Vespers of 1282 . It continued to be officially known as the KINGDOM OF SICILY, although it no longer included the island of Sicily. For much of its existence, the realm was contested between French and Spanish dynasties. In 1816, it was reunified with the island kingdom of Sicily once again to form the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

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County Of Sicily
The COUNTY OF SICILY, also known as COUNTY OF SICILY AND CALABRIA, was a Norman state comprising the islands of Sicily
Sicily
and Malta
Malta
and part of Calabria
Calabria
from 1071 until 1130. The county began to form during the Christian reconquest of Sicily
Sicily
(1061–91) from the Muslim Emirate , established by conquest in 965. The county is thus a transitional period in the history of Sicily
Sicily
. After the Muslims had been defeated and either forced out or incorporated into the Norman military, a further period of transition took place for the county and the Sicilians
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County Of Apulia
The COUNTY OF APULIA AND CALABRIA, later the DUCHY OF APULIA AND CALABRIA, was a Norman country founded by William of Hauteville in 1042 in the territories of Gargano
Gargano
, Capitanata , Apulia
Apulia
, Campania
Campania
, and Vulture . It became a duchy when Robert Guiscard
Robert Guiscard
was raised to the rank of duke by Pope Nicholas II in 1059. The duchy was disestablished in 1130 when the last duke of Apulia
Apulia
and Calabria, Roger II
Roger II
of Sicily became King of Sicily
King of Sicily
. The title of duke was thereafter used intermittently as a title for the heir apparent to the Kingdom of Sicily
Kingdom of Sicily

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Kingdom Of The Two Sicilies
The KINGDOM OF THE TWO SICILIES (Neapolitan : _Regno dê Doje Sicilie_, Sicilian : _Regnu dî Dui Sicili_, Italian : _Regno delle Due Sicilie_) was the largest of the states of Italy before the Italian unification . It was formed as a union of the Kingdom of Sicily and the Kingdom of Naples , which collectively had long been called the "Two Sicilies" (_Utraque Sicilia_, literally "both Sicilies"). The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies lasted from 1815 until 1860, when it was annexed by the Kingdom of Sardinia to form the Kingdom of Italy in 1861. The capitals of the Two Sicilies were in Naples and in Palermo . The kingdom extended over the Mezzogiorno (the southern part of mainland Italy) and the island of Sicily
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Flag Of Sicily
The FLAG OF SICILY (Sicilian : Bannera dâ Sicilia; Italian : Bandiera siciliana) was first adopted in 1282, after the successful Sicilian Vespers revolt against the king Charles I of Sicily
Sicily
. OVERVIEWThe flag is characterized by the presence of the triskelion (trinacria ) in its middle, the (winged) head of Medusa
Medusa
( Gorgon
Gorgon
) and three wheat ears. The three bent legs allegedly represent the three points of the triangular shape of the island of Sicily, or the historical three valli of the island . The present design became the official public flag of the Autonomous Region of Sicily
Sicily
on 4 January 2000, after the passing of an apposite law which advocates its use on public buildings, schools, city halls, and all the other places in which Sicily
Sicily
is represented
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Roger II Of Sicily
ROGER II (22 December 1095 – 26 February 1154) was King of Sicily , son of Roger I of Sicily
Sicily
and successor to his brother Simon . He began his rule as Count
Count
of Sicily
Sicily
in 1105, became Duke of Apulia
Duke of Apulia
and Calabria
Calabria
in 1127, and then King of Sicily
Sicily
in 1130. By the time of his death at the age of 58, Roger had succeeded in uniting all the Norman conquests in Italy into one kingdom with a strong centralized government
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Palermo
PALERMO (Italian: (_ listen ), Sicilian : Palermu_, Latin : _Panormus_, from Greek : Πάνορμος, _Panormos_) is a city of Southern Italy , the capital of both the autonomous region of Sicily and the Metropolitan City of Palermo . The city is noted for its history , culture , architecture and gastronomy , playing an important role throughout much of its existence; it is over 2,700 years old. Palermo is located in the northwest of the island of Sicily, right by the Gulf of Palermo in the Tyrrhenian Sea . The city was founded in 734 BC by the Phoenicians as _Ziz_ ('flower'). Palermo then became a possession of Carthage , before becoming part of the Roman Republic , the Roman Empire and eventually part of the Byzantine Empire , for over a thousand years. The Greeks named the city _Panormus_ meaning 'complete port'
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Feudal Monarchy
FEUDALISM was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries. Broadly defined, it was a way of structuring society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour. Although derived from the Latin word feodum or feudum (fief), then in use, the term feudalism and the system it describes were not conceived of as a formal political system by the people living in the Middle Ages. In its classic definition, by François-Louis Ganshof (1944), feudalism describes a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the warrior nobility revolving around the three key concepts of lords , vassals and fiefs
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