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Kingdom Of Italy
The Kingdom of Italy
Italy
(Italian: Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II
King Victor Emmanuel II
of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the Italian Republic. The state was founded as a result of the unification of Italy
Italy
under the influence of the Kingdom of Sardinia, which can be considered its legal predecessor state. Italy
Italy
declared war on Austria in alliance with Prussia in 1866 and received the region of Veneto
Veneto
following their victory. Italian troops entered Rome
Rome
in 1870, ending more than one thousand years of Papal temporal power
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Libya
Libya
Libya
(/ˈlɪbiə/ ( listen); Arabic: ليبيا‎),[6][7] officially the State of Libya
Libya
(Arabic: دولة ليبيا‎ Dawlat Lībyā),[citation needed][dubious – discuss] is a sovereign state in the Maghreb
Maghreb
region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt
Egypt
to the east, Sudan
Sudan
to the southeast, Chad
Chad
and Niger
Niger
to the south, and Algeria
Algeria
and Tunisia
Tunisia
to the west. The country is made of three historical regions, Tripolitania, Fezzan, and Cyrenaica
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Authoritarianism
Authoritarianism
Authoritarianism
is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms
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List Of Countries And Dependencies By Area
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area. Entries in this list include, but are not limited to, those in the ISO 3166-1 standard, which includes sovereign states and dependent territories
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List Of Countries By Population
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population. It includes sovereign states, inhabited dependent territories and, in some cases, constituent countries of sovereign states, with inclusion within the list being primarily based on the ISO standard ISO 3166-1. For instance, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is considered as a single entity while the constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Kingdom of the Netherlands
are considered separately. In addition, this list includes certain states with limited recognition not found in ISO 3166-1. The population figures do not reflect the practice of countries that report significantly different populations of citizens domestically and overall
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Dictatorship
Dictatorship
Dictatorship
is a system of government in which a country or a group of countries is ruled by a single party or individual (a dictator) or by a polity and power is exercised through various mechanisms to ensure that the entity's power remains strong.[1][2] A dictatorship is a type of authoritarianism in which politicians regulate nearly every aspect of the public and private behavior of citizens. Dictatorship and totalitarian societies generally employ political propaganda to decrease the influence of proponents of alternative governing systems. In the past, different religious tactics were used by dictators to maintain their rule, such as the monarchical system in the West. In the 19th and 20th centuries, traditional monarchies gradually declined and disappeared
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Totalitarianism
Totalitarianism
Totalitarianism
is a political concept where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to regulate every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.[1] Totalitarian regimes stay in political power through rule by one leader and an all-encompassing propaganda campaign, which is disseminated through the state-controlled mass media, a single party that is often marked by political repression, personality cultism, control over the economy, regulation and restriction of speech, mass surveillance and widespread use of terror. A distinctive feature of totalitarian governments is an "elaborate ideology, a set of ideas that gives meaning and direction to the whole society".[2] The concept was first developed in the 1920s by the Weimar German jurist and later Nazi academic Carl Schmitt
Carl Schmitt
as well as Italian fascists
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Sovereign State
In international law, a sovereign state, sovereign country, or simply state, is a political entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area
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Military Occupation
Military occupation
Military occupation
is effective provisional control by a certain ruling power over a territory which is not under the formal sovereignty of that entity, without the violation of the actual sovereign.[1][2][3][4] Military occupation
Military occupation
is distinguished from annexation by its intended temporary nature (i.e. no claim for permanent sovereignty), by its military nature, and by citizenship rights of the controlling power not being conferred upon the subjugated population.[2][5][6][7] Military government may be broadly characterized as the administration or supervision of occupied territory, or as the governmental form of such an administration
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Croatia
Coordinates: 45°10′N 15°30′E / 45.167°N 15.500°E / 45.167; 15.500 Republic
Republic
of CroatiaRepublika Hrvatska  (Croatian)[a] Flag Coat of arms Anthem: "Lijepa naša domovino"(English: "Our Beautiful Homeland")Location of Croatia (dark green)– in Europe (green & dark grey)– in the European Union (green)Capitaland largest city Zagreb45°48′N 16°0′E / 45.800°N 16.000°E / 45.800; 16.000Official languagesCroatian&#
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Constitutional Monarchy
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.[1] Constitutional monarchy
Constitutional monarchy
differs from absolute monarchy (in which a monarch holds absolute power) in that constitutional monarchs are bound to exercise their powers and authorities within the limits prescribed within an established legal framework
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One-party
A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution. All other parties are either outlawed or allowed to take only a limited and controlled participation in elections
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Duce
Duce
Duce
(Italian pronunciation: [ˈduːtʃe], leader) is an Italian title, derived from the Latin word dux, and cognate with duke. National Fascist Party
National Fascist Party
leader Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
was identified by Fascists as Il Duce
Duce
("The Leader") of the movement. In 1925 it became a reference to the dictatorial position of Sua Eccellenza Benito Mussolini, Capo del Governo, Duce
Duce
del Fascismo e Fondatore dell'Impero ("His Excellency
Excellency
Benito Mussolini, Head of Government, Leader of Fascism
Fascism
and Founder of the Empire").[1] Mussolini held this title together with that of President of the Council of Ministers: this was the constitutional position which entitled him to rule Italy
Italy
on behalf of the King of Italy
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Slovenia
Coordinates: 46°07′N 14°49′E / 46.117°N 14.817°E / 46.117; 14.817 Republic
Republic
of SloveniaRepublika Slovenija  (Slovene) Flag Coat of arms Anthem: Zdravljica (English: "A Toast")[i]Location of Slovenia (dark green)– in Europe (green & dark grey)– in the European Union (green)Capitaland largest cityLjubljana46°03′N 14°30′E / 46.050°N 14.500°E / 46.050; 14.500Official languagesSlovene[ii]Ethnic gr
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Montenegro
Coordinates: 42°30′N 19°18′E / 42.500°N 19.300°E / 42.500; 19.300Montenegro Crna Gora (Serbo-Croatian) Црна Гора  (Serbo-Croatian)FlagCoat of armsAnthem:  Oj, svijetla majska zoro Ој, свијетла мајска зоро Oh, Bright Dawn of MayLocation of  Montenegro  (Green) in Europe  (Dark Grey)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Podgoricaa 42°47′N 19°28′E / 42.783°N 19.467°E / 42.783; 19.467Official languages Montenegrin[1]Other languages in official use[2]Serbian Bosnian Albanian CroatianEthnic groups (2011[3])44.6% Montenegrins 28.7% Serbs 8.6% Bosniaks 4.9% Albanians 0.9% Croats 13.5% OthersDemonym MontenegrinGovernment Unitary dominant-party parliamentary constitutional republic• PresidentFilip Vujanović• Prime MinisterDuško Markovi
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Italian Institutional Referendum, 1946
An institutional referendum (referendum istituzionale, or referendum sulla forma istituzionale dello Stato, in Italian)[1][2][3] was held in Italy
Italy
on 2 June 1946,[4] a key event of Italian contemporary history. Until 1946, Italy
Italy
was a kingdom ruled by the House of Savoy, kings of Italy
Italy
since the Risorgimento
Risorgimento
and previously rulers of Savoy. However, Benito Mussolini, enjoying the support of the reigning monarch, imposed fascism after the 28 October 1922 March on Rome, eventually engaging Italy
Italy
in World War II
World War II
alongside Nazi Germany. In 1946, Italy
Italy
became a republic after the results of a popular referendum. Monarchists had suspicions of fraud, but were never able to prove these
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