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Kingdom Of Great Britain
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,[1] was a sovereign state in western Europe from 1 May 1707 to 31 December 1800. The state came into being following the Treaty of Union in 1706, ratified by the Acts of Union 1707, which united the kingdoms of England
England
and Scotland
Scotland
to form a single kingdom encompassing the whole island of Great Britain
Great Britain
and its outlying islands, with the exception of the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
and the Channel Islands. It also did not include Ireland, which remained a separate realm. The unitary state was governed by a single parliament and government that was based in Westminster
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Angloromani Language
Angloromani or Anglo-Romani (literally "English Romani"; also known as Angloromany, Rummaness, or Pogadi Chib) is a language combining aspects of English and Romani, which is a language spoken by the Romani people, an ethnic group who trace their origins to the Indian subcontinent. Angloromani is spoken in the United Kingdom, Australia, the United States
United States
and South Africa. 'Anglo-Romani' is a term used to describe usage of words of Romani origin within English conversation. The original Romani language
Romani language
was spoken in England
England
until the late nineteenth century; perhaps a generation longer in Wales. It was replaced by English as the everyday and family language of British Romani, but this does not mean the language disappeared entirely. Words of Romani origin were still used as part of a family-language
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List Of Countries By Population
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population. It includes sovereign states, inhabited dependent territories and, in some cases, constituent countries of sovereign states, with inclusion within the list being primarily based on the ISO standard ISO 3166-1. For instance, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is considered as a single entity while the constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Kingdom of the Netherlands
are considered separately. In addition, this list includes certain states with limited recognition not found in ISO 3166-1. The population figures do not reflect the practice of countries that report significantly different populations of citizens domestically and overall
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Edwardian Era
The Edwardian era
Edwardian era
or Edwardian period of British history covers the brief reign of King Edward VII, 1901 to 1910, and is sometimes extended in both directions to capture long-term trends from the 1890s to the First World War. The death of Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
in January 1901 marked the end of the Victorian era. The new king Edward VII
Edward VII
was already the leader of a fashionable elite that set a style influenced by the art and fashions of continental Europe
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List Of Countries And Dependencies By Area
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area. Entries in this list include, but are not limited to, those in the ISO 3166-1 standard, which includes sovereign states and dependent territories
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Norn Language
Norn is an extinct North Germanic language that was spoken in the Northern Isles
Northern Isles
( Orkney
Orkney
and Shetland) off the north coast of mainland Scotland
Scotland
and in Caithness
Caithness
in the far north of the Scottish mainland. After Orkney
Orkney
and Shetland
Shetland
were pledged to Scotland
Scotland
by Norway
Norway
in 1468–69, it was gradually replaced by Scots
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English Language
English is a West Germanic language
West Germanic language
that was first spoken in early medieval England
England
and is now a global lingua franca.[4][5] Named after the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to England, it ultimately derives its name from the Anglia (Angeln) peninsula in the Baltic Sea. It is closely related to the Frisian languages, but its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages, particularly Norse (a North Germanic
North Germanic
language), as well as by Latin
Latin
and Romance languages, especially French.[6] English has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. The earliest forms of English, a set of Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century, are called Old English
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Interwar Britain
Interwar Britain
Interwar Britain
(1919–1939) was a period of peace and relative economic stagnation. In politics the Liberal Party collapsed and the Labour Party became the main challenger to the dominant Conservative Party throughout the period. The Great Depression
Great Depression
impacted Britain less severely economically and politically than other major nations, although there were severe pockets of long -term unemployment and hardship, especially in mining districts and in Scotland
Scotland
and North West England. Historian Arthur Marwick sees a radical transformation of British society resulting from the Great War, a deluge that swept away many old attitudes and brought in a more egalitarian society. He sees the famous literary pessimism of the 1920s as misplaced, arguing there were major positive long-term consequences of the war to British society
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Political History Of The United Kingdom (1945–present)
When Britain emerged victorious from the Second World War, the Labour Party under Clement Attlee
Clement Attlee
came to power and created a comprehensive welfare state, with the establishment of the National Health Service giving free healthcare to all British citizens, and other reforms to benefits. The Bank of England, railways, heavy industry, and coal mining were all nationalised. The most controversial issue was nationalisation of steel, which was profitable unlike the others. Economic recovery was slow, housing was in short supply, bread was rationed along with many necessities in short supply. It was an "age of austerity". American loans and Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
grants kept the economy afloat
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Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to simply as Gaelic (Gàidhlig [ˈkaːlikʲ] ( listen)) or the Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels
Gaels
of Scotland. A member of the Goidelic branch of the Celtic languages, Scottish Gaelic, like Modern Irish and Manx, developed out of Middle Irish. Most of modern Scotland was once Gaelic-speaking, as evidenced especially by Gaelic-language placenames.[3] In the 2011 census of Scotland, 57,375 people (1.1% of the Scottish population aged over three years old) reported as able to speak Gaelic, 1,275 fewer than in 2001
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Cornish Language
Cornish (Kernowek) is a revived language that became extinct as a first language in the late 18th century.[5][6] It is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language that was native to Cornwall
Cornwall
in south-west England. A revival began in the early 20th century. The language is considered to be an important part of Cornish identity, culture and heritage.[7][8] Cornish is currently a recognised minority language under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.[9]. It has a growing number of second language speakers.[10] A few parents are inspired to create new first language speakers, by teaching their children the language from birth.[11][12][13][14] Along with Welsh and Breton, Cornish is descended directly from the Common Brittonic
Common Brittonic
language spoken throughout much of Britain before the English language
English language
came to dominate
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Welsh Language
Welsh (Cymraeg [kəmˈrɑːɨɡ] (listen) or y Gymraeg [ə gəmˈrɑːɨɡ]) is a Brittonic language of the Celtic language family. It is spoken natively in Wales, by some in England, and in Y Wladfa (the Welsh colony in Chubut Province, Argentina).[10] Historically, it has also been known in English as 'British',[11] 'Cambrian',[12] 'Cambric'[13] and 'Cymric'.[14] According to the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Census 2011, 19 percent of residents in Wales
Wales
aged three and over were able to speak Welsh. According to the 2001 Census, 21 per cent of the population aged 3+ were able to speak Welsh. This suggests that there was a decrease in the number of Welsh speakers in Wales
Wales
from 2001 to 2011 – from about 582,000 to 562,000 respectively
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United Kingdom In The Napoleonic Wars
Between 1803 and 1815, Great Britain was the most constant of Napoleon's enemies. Through its command of the sea, subsidies to allies on the European mainland, and active military intervention in the Peninsular War, Britain played the central role in Napoleon's downfall even as all the other major powers switched back and forth.Contents1 Overview1.1 Civilian support network 1.2 Financing the war2 See also 3 References 4 BibliographyOverview[edit] In May 1803, war was declared again. Napoleon's plans to invade Britain failed due to the inferiority of his navy, and in 1805, Lord Nelson's fleet decisively defeated the French and Spanish at the Battle of Trafalgar, which was the last significant naval action of the Napoleonic Wars.Battle of TrafalgarBattle of NivelleThe series of naval and colonial conflicts, including a large number of minor naval actions, resembled those of the French Revolutionary Wars and the preceding centuries of European warfare
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London
London
London
(/ˈlʌndən/ ( listen)) is the capital and most populous city of England
England
and the United Kingdom.[7][8] Standing on the River Thames
River Thames
in the south east of the island of Great Britain, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. It was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium.[9] London's ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1.12-square-mile (2.9 km2) medieval boundaries
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William Pitt The Elder
William
William
is a popular given name of an old Germanic origin.[1] It became very popular in the English language
English language
after the Norman conquest of England in 1066,[2] and remained so throughout the Middle Ages and into the modern era. It is sometimes abbreviated "Wm." Shortened familiar versions in English include Will, Willy, Bill, and Billy. A common Irish form is Liam. Female forms are Willa, Willemina, Willamette, Wilma and Wilhelmina. Etymology[edit]This article is missing information about the etymology of "Bill". Please expand the article to include this information. Further details may exist on the talk page. (October 2015) William
William
comes ultimately from the given name Wilhelm (cf. Old German Wilhelm > German Wilhelm and Old Norse
Old Norse
Vilhjálmr)
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Unitary State
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme. The central government may create (or abolish) administrative divisions (sub-national units).[1] Such units exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate. Although political power may be delegated through devolution to regional or local governments by statute, the central government may abrogate the acts of devolved governments or curtail (or expand) their powers. A large majority of the world's states (166 of the 193 UN member states) have a unitary system of government.[2] Unitary states stand in contrast with federations, also known as federal states. In federations, the provincial governments share powers with the central government as equal actors through a written constitution, to which the consent of both is required to make amendments
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