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King Xuan Of Chu
KING XUAN OF CHU (Chinese : 楚宣王; pinyin : Chǔ Xuān Wáng, died 340 BC) was from 369 to 340 BC the king of the state of Chu during the Warring States period
Warring States period
of ancient China. He was born XIONG LIANGFU (Chinese : 熊良夫) and King Xuan was his posthumous title . King Xuan succeeded his older brother King Su of Chu , who died without issue in 370 BC. Under his reign, Chu sent troops to help rescue the State of Zhao against an invasion by the State of Wei
State of Wei
in 354 BC. King Xuan died in 340 BC after 30 years of reign, and was succeeded by his son King Wei of Chu . REFERENCES * ^ A B Sima Qian
Sima Qian
. "楚世家 (House of Chu)". Records of the Grand Historian (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 10 March 2012. Retrieved 1 March 2012
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State Of Wei
WEI (Chinese : 魏; pinyin : Wèi; Old Chinese
Old Chinese
: *N-qʰuj-s) was an ancient Chinese state during the Warring States period
Warring States period
. Its territory lay between the states of Qin and Qi and included parts of modern-day Henan
Henan
, Hebei
Hebei
, Shanxi
Shanxi
, and Shandong
Shandong
. After its capital was moved from Anyi to Daliang (present-day Kaifeng
Kaifeng
) during the reign of King Hui , Wei was also called LIANG (Chinese : 梁; pinyin : Liáng)
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Posthumous Title
A POSTHUMOUS NAME is an honorary name given to royalty, nobles, and sometimes others, in East Asia
East Asia
after the person's death, and is used almost exclusively instead of one's personal name or other official titles during his life. The posthumous name is commonly used when naming royalty of China , Korea
Korea
, Vietnam
Vietnam
, and Japan
Japan
. Posthumous names in China and Vietnam
Vietnam
were also given to honor lifetime accomplishments of many people who did not have hereditary titles – for example, to successful courtiers. A posthumous name should not be confused with the era name and temple name
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Sima Qian
SIMA QIAN (Chinese : 司馬遷; Wade–Giles : SSU-MA CH\'IEN), was a Chinese historian of the early Han dynasty
Han dynasty
(206 BC – AD 220). He is considered the father of Chinese historiography for his Records of the Grand Historian , a Jizhuanti -style (history presented in a series of biographies) general history of China
China
, covering more than two thousand years from the Yellow Emperor
Yellow Emperor
to his time, during the reign of Emperor Wu of Han
Emperor Wu of Han
, a work that had much influence for centuries afterwards on history-writing not only in China, but in Korea, Japan and Vietnam as well
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Records Of The Grand Historian
The RECORDS OF THE GRAND HISTORIAN (太史公書), now usually known as the SHǐJì (史記, "The Scribe's Records"), is a monumental history of ancient China and the world finished around 94 BC by the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
official Sima Qian after having been started by his father, Sima Tan , Grand Astrologer to the imperial court. The work covers the world as it was then known to the Chinese and a 2500-year period from the age of the legendary Yellow Emperor
Yellow Emperor
to the reign of Emperor Wu of Han
Emperor Wu of Han
in the author's own time. The Records has been called a "foundational text in Chinese civilization"
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Chinese Surname
CHINESE SURNAMES are used by Han Chinese and Sinicized ethnic groups in Mainland China , Hong Kong
Hong Kong
, Macau
Macau
, Malaysia
Malaysia
, Brunei
Brunei
, Taiwan
Taiwan
, Korea
Korea
, Singapore
Singapore
, Indonesia
Indonesia
, Vietnam
Vietnam
and among overseas Chinese communities. In ancient times two types of surnames existed, namely xing (Chinese : 姓; pinyin : xìng) or CLAN NAMES, and shi (Chinese : 氏; pinyin : shì) or LINEAGE NAMES. Chinese family names are patrilineal , passed from father to children (in adoption, the adoptee usually also takes the same surname). Women do not normally change their surnames upon marriage, except in places with more Western influences such as Hong Kong. Traditionally Chinese surnames have been exogamous
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Traditional Chinese Characters
TRADITIONAL CHINESE CHARACTERS (traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字; simplified Chinese : 正体字/繁体字; Pinyin : Zhèngtǐzì/Fántĭzì) are Chinese characters
Chinese characters
in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan
Taiwan
, of Hong Kong and Macau
Macau
or in the Kangxi Dictionary
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State Of Zhao
ZHAO (Chinese : 趙) was one of the seven major states during the Warring States period
Warring States period
of ancient China. It was created from the three-way Partition of Jin , together with Han and Wei , in the 5th century BC. Zhao gained significant strength from the military reforms initiated during King Wuling 's reign, but suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of Qin at the Battle of Changping . Its territory included areas now in modern Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
, Hebei
Hebei
, Shanxi
Shanxi
and Shaanxi
Shaanxi
provinces. It bordered the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
, the states of Qin, Wei and Yan . Its capital was Handan , in modern Hebei
Hebei
Province
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Warring States Period
The WARRING STATES PERIOD (Chinese : 戰國時代; pinyin : Zhànguó shídài) was an era in ancient Chinese history following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state 's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
. Although different scholars point toward different dates ranging from 481 BC to 403 BC as the true beginning of the Warring States, Sima Qian 's choice of 475 BC is generally the most often cited and popularly accepted one. The Warring States era also overlaps with the second half of the Eastern Zhou dynasty , though the Chinese sovereign , known as the king of Zhou, ruled merely as a figurehead and served as a backdrop against the machinations of the warring states
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Posthumous Name
A POSTHUMOUS NAME is an honorary name given to royalty, nobles, and sometimes others, in East Asia
East Asia
after the person's death, and is used almost exclusively instead of one's personal name or other official titles during his life. The posthumous name is commonly used when naming royalty of China , Korea
Korea
, Vietnam
Vietnam
, and Japan
Japan
. Posthumous names in China and Vietnam
Vietnam
were also given to honor lifetime accomplishments of many people who did not have hereditary titles, for example to successful courtiers. A posthumous name should not be confused with the era name and temple name
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Chinese Given Name
CHINESE GIVEN NAMES (Chinese : 名; pinyin : míng) are the given names adopted by native speakers of the Chinese language
Chinese language
, both in majority-Sinophone countries and among the Chinese diaspora . CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Common Chinese names * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links DESCRIPTIONChinese given names are almost always made up of one or two characters and are written after the surname. Therefore, Wei (伟) of the Zhang (张) family is called "Zhang Wei" and not "Wei Zhang". Despite the relative paucity of Chinese surnames , given names can theoretically include any of the Chinese language's 100,000 characters and contain almost any meaning. It is considered disrespectful in China to name a child after an older relative, and both bad practice and disadvantageous for the child's fortune to copy the names of celebrities or famous historical figures
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Pinyin
HANYU PINYIN ROMANIZATION (simplified Chinese : 汉语拼音; traditional Chinese : 漢語拼音; literally: "Han Chinese spelling of sounds"), often abbreviated to PINYIN, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
in mainland China
China
and to some extent in Taiwan
Taiwan
. It is often used to teach Standard (Mandarin) Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters
Chinese characters
. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones . Pinyin
Pinyin
without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet , and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang , based on earlier form romanizations of Chinese
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Chinese Language
LEGEND: Countries identified Chinese as a primary, administrative, or native language Countries with more than 5,000,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 1,000,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 500,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 100,000 Chinese speakers Major Chinese-speaking settlements THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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King Wen Of Chu
KING WEN OF CHU (Chinese : 楚文王; pinyin : Chǔ Wén Wáng, died 677 BC) was from 689 to 677 BC king of the state of Chu during the Spring and Autumn period
Spring and Autumn period
of ancient China. He was born XIONG ZI (Chinese : 熊貲) and King Wen was his posthumous title . King Wen succeeded his father King Wu of Chu , who died in 690 BC. He died in 677 BC and was succeeded by his son Du\'ao . He also had another son, King Cheng of Chu . REFERENCES * ^ A B Sima Qian
Sima Qian
. "楚世家 (House of Chu)". Records of the Grand Historian (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 10 March 2012. Retrieved 1 March 2012
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Du'ao
DU\'AO (Chinese : 堵敖, died 672 BC), also called ZHUANG\'AO (Chinese : 莊敖), was from 676 to 672 BC king of the state of Chu during the Spring and Autumn period
Spring and Autumn period
of ancient China. He was born XIONG JIAN (Chinese : 熊艱) and Du'ao was his posthumous title . Du'ao succeeded his father King Wen of Chu , who died in 677 BC. In 672 BC he tried to kill his younger brother Xiong Yun, who escaped to the state of Sui . Xiong Yun attacked and killed Du'ao with the help of Sui, and succeeded Du'ao as King Cheng of Chu . REFERENCES * ^ A B Sima Qian
Sima Qian
. "楚世家 (House of Chu)". Records of the Grand Historian (in Chinese). Retrieved 1 March 2012
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King Cheng Of Chu
KING CHENG OF CHU (Chinese : 楚成王; pinyin : Chǔ Chéng Wáng, died 626 BC) was from 671 to 626 BC king of the state of Chu during the Spring and Autumn period
Spring and Autumn period
of ancient China. He was born XIONG YUN (Chinese : 熊惲) to King Wen of Chu , and King Cheng was his posthumous title . In 672 BC Xiong Yun's older brother king Du\'ao tried to kill him, and he escaped to the state of Sui . He then attacked and killed Du'ao with the help of Sui, and succeeded Du'ao as king of Chu. King Cheng's wife was Zheng Mao
Zheng Mao
. Their son was possibly King Mu of Chu . REFERENCES * ^ A B Sima Qian
Sima Qian
. "楚世家 (House of Chu)". Records of the Grand Historian (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 10 March 2012. Retrieved 1 March 2012. * ^ Hong Lee and Stefanowsky (2007)
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