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King Abdullah I
Abdullah I bin al-Hussein, King of Jordan
King of Jordan
(Arabic: عبد الله الأول بن الحسين‎, Abd Allāh ibn al-Husayn, February 1882 – 20 July 1951), born in Mecca, Hejaz, Ottoman Empire, was the second of three sons of Hussein bin Ali, Sharif and Emir
Emir
of Mecca
Mecca
and his first wife Abdiyya bint Abdullah (d. 1886). According to Abdullah, he was a 38th-generation direct descendant of Muhammad
Muhammad
as he belongs to the Hashemite
Hashemite
family. He was educated in Constantinople
Constantinople
and Hejaz. From 1909 to 1914, Abdullah sat in the Ottoman legislature, as deputy for Mecca, but allied with Britain during World War I. Between 1916 and 1918, working with the British guerrilla leader T. E
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Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener
Franco-Prussian War Mahdist War:Battle of Ferkeh Battle of Atbara Battle of OmdurmanSecond Boer
Boer
War:Battle of PaardebergFirst World WarAwards Knight of the Order of the Garter Knight of the Order of St Patrick Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath Member of the Order of Merit Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Indian EmpireField Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st
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Ta'if
Ta'if
Ta'if
(Arabic: الطائف‎; (aṭ-Ṭā'if)) is a city in Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
at an elevation of 1,879 m (6,165 ft) on the slopes of Sarawat Mountains
Sarawat Mountains
(Al-Sarawat Mountains). It has a population of 1,200,000 people[1] and is the unofficial summer capital
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Emir
An emir (/əˈmɪər, eɪˈmɪər, ˈeɪmɪər/; Arabic: أمير‎ ʾamīr [ʔaˈmiːr]), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries and Afghanistan. It means "commander", "general", or "prince". The feminine form is emira (أميرة ʾamīrah). When translated as "prince", the word "emirate" is analogous to a sovereign principality.[1] Contents1 Origins 2 Princely, ministerial and noble titles 3 Military ranks and titles 4 Other uses 5 In popular culture 6 See also 7 NotesOrigins[edit] Emir
Emir
of Kano, Sanusi Lamido SanusiHRH Crown Prince
Prince
Farouk, amir of the Kingdom of Egypt
Kingdom of Egypt
and the Sudan, on ascension to the throne 1936 as HM King Farouk IAmir, meaning "lord" or "commander-in-chief", is derived from the Arabic
Arabic
root a-m-r, "command"
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League Of Nations Mandate
A League of Nations
League of Nations
mandate was a legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another following World War I, or the legal instruments that contained the internationally agreed-upon terms for administering the territory on behalf of the League of Nations. These were of the nature of both a treaty and a constitution, which contained minority rights clauses that provided for the rights of petition and adjudication by the International Court.[1] The mandate system was established under Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations, entered into on 28 June 1919. With the dissolution of the League of Nations
League of Nations
after World War II, it was stipulated at the Yalta Conference
Yalta Conference
that the remaining Mandates should be placed under the trusteeship of the United Nations, subject to future discussions and formal agreements
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Young Turks
Young Turks
Young Turks
(Turkish: Jön Türkler, from French: Les Jeunes Turcs)[citation needed] was a Turkish nationalist party in the early 20th century that consisted of Ottoman exiles, students, civil servants, and army officers.[1] They favoured the replacement of the Ottoman Empire's absolute monarchy with a constitutional government. Later, their leaders led a rebellion against the absolute rule of Sultan
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Cairo Conference (1921)
The 1921 Cairo
Cairo
Conference, described in the official minutes as Middle East Conference held in Cairo
Cairo
and Jerusalem, March 12 to 30, 1921, was a series of meetings by British officials for examining and discussing Middle Eastern problems, and to frame a common policy.[1] Particular concerns of the conference related to resolving the conflicting policies defined in the McMahon letters (1915), the Sykes-Picot agreement (1916) and the Balfour Declaration
Balfour Declaration
(1917). Winston Churchill, the newly appointed Colonial Secretary, called all the British Military Leaders and civil administrators in the Middle East to a conference at the Semiramis hotel in Cairo
Cairo
to discuss these issues
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United Kingdom
The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(UK)[15] or Britain,[note 11] is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, and many smaller islands.[16] Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
is the only part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland
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Henry McMahon (diplomat)
Lieutenant- Colonel
Colonel
Sir
Sir
Vincent Arthur Henry McMahon
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McMahon-Hussein Correspondence
The McMahon–Hussein Correspondence[a] was a series of letters exchanged during World War I
World War I
in which the British government agreed to recognize Arab independence after the war in exchange for the Sharif of Mecca launching the Arab Revolt
Arab Revolt
against the Ottoman Empire.[2][3] The correspondence was composed of ten letters exchanged from July 1915 to March 1916,[4], between Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca, and Lieutenant Colonel Sir Henry McMahon, British High Commissioner to Egypt
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Krupp 7.5 Cm Model 1903
1904-1945  German Empire Korean Empire  Denmark  Nazi Germany  Ottoman Empire  Romania  Kingdom of Serbia  Thailand ChinaWars Balkan Wars World War I World War IIProduction historyDesigner KruppManufacturer KruppSpecificationsWeight 1,079 kilograms (2,379 lb)Barrel length 2.25 metres (7 ft 5 in) L/30Crew 7Shell 8.671 kilograms (19.12 lb)Caliber 75 mm (2.95 in)Breech horizontal sliding blockRecoil hydro-springCarriage pole trailElevation -9° to +15°Traverse 7°Rate of fire 8 rpmMuzzle velocity 546 m/s (1,790 ft/s)Maximum firing range 6,000 metres (6,600 yd)The Krupp
Krupp
7.5 cm Model 1903 was a field gun used by a number of European armies in both World War I
World War I
and World War II
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Arab Revolt
Kingdom of Hejaz British Empire Southern Rhodesia  India France  Ottoman Empire German Empire Emirate of Jabal ShammarCommanders and leaders Hussein bin Ali Faisal Abdullah Edmund Allenby T. E
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Howitzer
A howitzer /ˈhaʊ.ɪtsər/ is a type of artillery piece characterized by a relatively short barrel and the use of comparatively small propellant charges to propel projectiles over relatively high trajectories, with a steep angle of descent.Pre- World War I
World War I
290 mm howitzer battery at Charlottenlund
Charlottenlund
Fort, Denmark.In the taxonomies of artillery pieces used by European (and European-style) armies in the 17th to 20th centuries, the howitzer stood between the "gun" (characterized by a longer barrel, larger propelling charges, smaller shells, higher velocities, and flatter trajectories) and the "mortar" (which was meant to fire at even higher angles of ascent and descent)
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Medina
Medina
Medina
(/məˈdiːnə/; Arabic: المدينة المنورة‎, al-Madīnah al-Munawwarah, "the radiant city"; or المدينة, al-Madīnah (Hejazi pronunciation: [almaˈdiːna]), "the city"), also transliterated as Madīnah, is a city in the Hejaz
Hejaz
region of the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
and administrative headquarters of the Al-Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia. At the city's heart is al-Masjid an-Nabawi ("the Prophet's Mosque"), which is the burial place of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and is the second-holiest city in Islam
Islam
after Mecca. Medina
Medina
was Muhammad's destination of his Hijrah (migration) from Mecca, and became the capital of a rapidly increasing Muslim
Muslim
Empire, under Muhammad's leadership
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Winston Churchill
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer. He was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
from 1940 to 1945, when he led Britain to victory in the Second World War, and again from 1951 to 1955. Churchill represented five constituencies during his career as a Member of Parliament (MP). Ideologically an economic liberal and imperialist, for most of his career he was a member of the Conservative Party, which he led from 1940 to 1955, but from 1904 to 1924 was a member of the Liberal Party. Of mixed English and American parentage, Churchill was born in Oxfordshire
Oxfordshire
to a wealthy, aristocratic family
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Faisal I Of Iraq
Faisal I bin Hussein bin Ali
Ali
al-Hashemi, (Arabic: فيصل بن الحسين بن علي الهاشمي‎, Fayṣal al-Awwal ibn al-Ḥusayn ibn ‘Alī al-Hāshimī; 20 May 1885[1][2] [5] – 8 September 1933) was King of the Arab Kingdom of Syria
Arab Kingdom of Syria
or Greater Syria in 1920, and was King of Iraq
King of Iraq
from 23 August 1921 to 1933. He was the third son of Hussein bin Ali, the Grand Sharif of Mecca, who had proclaimed himself King of the Arab lands in October 1916. Faisal fostered unity between Sunni and Shiite Muslims to encourage common loyalty and promote pan-Arabism in the goal of creating an Arab state that would include Iraq, Syria
Syria
and the rest of the Fertile Crescent
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