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Khoisan Languages
The Khoisan languages
Khoisan languages
(/ˈkɔɪsɑːn/; also Khoesan or Khoesaan) are a group of African languages originally classified together by Joseph Greenberg.[1][2] Khoisan languages
Khoisan languages
share click consonants and do not belong to other African language families. For much of the 20th century, they were thought to be genealogically related to each other, but this is no longer accepted. They are now held to comprise three distinct language families and two language isolates. All Khoisan languages
Khoisan languages
but two are indigenous to southern Africa
Africa
and belong to three language families. The Khoi family appears to have migrated to southern Africa
Africa
not long before the Bantu expansion.[3] Ethnically, their speakers are the Khoikhoi
Khoikhoi
and the San (Bushmen)
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Samo Language (Burkina)
Samo (Sane, San, Sa) is a dialect cluster of Mande languages spoken in Burkina Faso. Intelligibility between its varieties is low. The following have been coded as separate languages by ISO:Matya Samo Maya Samo Southern Samo[3]Notes[edit]^ Matya Samo at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) Maya Samo at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) Southern Samo at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Mande Samo". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ The Seenku a.k.a
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Khoikhoi
The Khoikhoi
Khoikhoi
(/ˈkɔɪˌkɔɪ/; "people people" or "real people") or Khoi, spelt Khoekhoe in standardised Khoekhoe/Nama orthography, are a group of Khoisan
Khoisan
people native to southwestern Africa. Unlike the neighbouring hunter-gatherer San people, the Khoikhoi
Khoikhoi
traditionally practised nomadic pastoral agriculture.[1] When European immigrants colonised the area after 1652, the Khoikhoi
Khoikhoi
maintained large herds of Nguni cattle
Nguni cattle
in the Cape region
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Sprachbund
A sprachbund (German: [ˈʃpʁaːxbʊnt], "federation of languages") – also known as a linguistic area, area of linguistic convergence, diffusion area or language crossroads – is a group of languages that have common features resulting from geographical proximity and language contact. They may be genetically unrelated, or only distantly related. Where genetic affiliations are unclear, the sprachbund characteristics might give a false appearance of relatedness
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Australian Languages
The Australian
The Australian
Aboriginal languages consist of around 290–363[1] languages belonging to an estimated twenty-eight language families and isolates, spoken by Aboriginal Australians
Aboriginal Australians
of mainland Australia
Australia
and a few nearby islands.[2] The relationships between these languages are not clear at present
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Papuan Languages
The Papuan languages
Papuan languages
are the non- Austronesian
Austronesian
and non-Australian languages spoken on the western Pacific island of New Guinea, and neighbouring islands, by around 4 million people.[1] It is a strictly geographical grouping, and does not imply a genetic relationship. The concept of Papuan peoples
Papuan peoples
as distinct from Melanesians
Melanesians
was first suggested and named by Sidney Herbert Ray
Sidney Herbert Ray
in 1892.Contents1 Languages 2 Greenberg's classification 3 Wurm's classification 4 Ross's classification4.1 Papuan families proposed by Ross 4.2 Language isolates 4.3 Other5 Usher's classification 6 External relations 7 See also 8 References8.1 Notes 8.2 General references9 External linksLanguages[edit] New Guinea
New Guinea
is one of the most linguistically diverse regions in the world
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Inflectional Morpheme
In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood. The inflection of verbs is also called conjugation, and one can refer to the inflection of nouns, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, determiners, participles, prepositions, postpositions, numerals, articles etc, as declension. An inflection expresses one or more grammatical categories with a prefix, suffix or infix, or another internal modification such as a vowel change.[2] For example, the Latin verb ducam, meaning "I will lead", includes the suffix -am, expressing person (first), number (singular), and tense (future). The use of this suffix is an inflection
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Analytic Language
In linguistic typology, an analytic language is a language that primarily conveys relationships between words in sentences by way of helper words (particles, prepositions, etc.) and word order, as opposed to utilizing inflections (changing the form of a word to convey its role in the sentence). For example, in English the phrase "The cat chases the ball" conveys the fact that the cat is acting on the ball analytically via word order. This can be contrasted to synthetic languages that rely heavily on inflections to convey word relationships (e.g. the phrases "The cat chases the ball" and "The cat chased the ball" convey different time frames via changing the form of the word chase). Most languages are not purely analytic but many rely primarily on analytic syntax. Typically analytic languages have a low morpheme-per-word ratio, especially with respect to inflectional morphemes
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Pharyngealised
Pharyngealization is a secondary articulation of consonants or vowels by which the pharynx or epiglottis is constricted during the articulation of the sound.Contents1 IPA symbols 2 Usage2.1 Examples of pharyngealized consonants2.1.1 Stops 2.1.2 Fricatives 2.1.3 Nasals 2.1.4 Approximants3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 Further readingIPA symbols[edit] In the International Phonetic Alphabet, pharyngealization can be indicated by one of two methods:A tilde or swung dash through the letter indicates velarization, uvularization or pharyngealization, as in [ᵶ], the pharyngealized equivalent of [z]. The symbol ⟨ˤ⟩ (a superscript variant of ⟨ʕ⟩, the voiced pharyngeal approximant; graphically a reversed glottal stop) after the letter standing for the pharyngealized consonant, as in [tˤ] (the pharyngealized equivalent of [t]).The swung dash or combining tilde diacritic (U+0334) was originally intended to combine with other let
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Postalveolar Click
The alveolar or postalveolar clicks are a family of click consonants found only in Africa
Africa
and in the Damin ritual jargon of Australia. The tongue is more or less concave (depending on the language), and is pulled down rather than back as in the palatal clicks, making a hollower sound than those consonants. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
that represents the place of articulation of these sounds is ⟨ǃ⟩. The symbol is not an exclamation mark in origin, but rather a vertical bar with a subscript dot, ⟨ ǀ̣ ⟩, the dot being the old diacritic for retroflex consonants. Prior to 1989, ⟨ʗ⟩ (stretched c) was the IPA letter for the alveolar clicks, and this is still preferred by some phoneticians
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Phoneme
A phoneme (/ˈfoʊniːm/) is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language. For example, in most dialects of English, the sound patterns /θʌm/ (thumb) and /dʌm/ (dumb) are two separate words distinguished by the substitution of one phoneme, /θ/, for another phoneme, /d/. (Two words like this that differ in meaning through a contrast of a single phoneme form what is called a minimal pair). In many other languages these would be interpreted as exactly the same set of phonemes (i.e. /θ/ and /d/ would be considered the same). In linguistics, phonemes (usually established by the use of minimal pairs, such as kill vs kiss or pat vs bat) are written between slashes, e.g. /p/
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Extinct Languages
An extinct language is a language that no longer has any speakers,[1] especially if it has no living descendants. In contrast, a dead language is "one that is no longer the native language of any community", even if it is still in use, like Latin.[2] In the modern period, language death has typically resulted from the process of cultural assimilation leading to language shift, and the gradual abandonment of a native language in favour of a foreign lingua franca. A language that currently has living native speakers is called a modern language. As of the 2000s, a total of roughly 7,000 natively spoken languages existed worldwide
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Moribund Language
An endangered language, or moribund language, is a language that is at risk of falling out of use as its speakers die out or shift to speaking another language. Language
Language
loss occurs when the language has no more native speakers and becomes a "dead language". If no one can speak the language at all, it becomes an "extinct language". A dead language may still be studied through recordings or writings, but it is still dead or extinct unless there are fluent speakers.[1] Although languages have always become extinct throughout human history, they are currently dying at an accelerated rate because of globalization, neocolonialism[2] and linguicide (language killing).[3] Language
Language
shift most commonly occurs when speakers switch to a language associated with social or economic power or spoken more widely, the ultimate result being language death
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Endangered Languages
An endangered language, or moribund language, is a language that is at risk of falling out of use as its speakers die out or shift to speaking another language. Language
Language
loss occurs when the language has no more native speakers and becomes a "dead language". If no one can speak the language at all, it becomes an "extinct language". A dead language may still be studied through recordings or writings, but it is still dead or extinct unless there are fluent speakers.[1] Although languages have always become extinct throughout human history, they are currently dying at an accelerated rate because of globalization, neocolonialism[2] and linguicide (language killing).[3] Language
Language
shift most commonly occurs when speakers switch to a language associated with social or economic power or spoken more widely, the ultimate result being language death
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Kalahari Desert
The Kalahari Desert
Desert
is a large semi-arid sandy savanna in Southern Africa
Africa
extending for 900,000 square kilometres (350,000 sq mi), covering much of Botswana
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Namibia
Coordinates: 22°S 17°E / 22°S 17°E / -22; 17 Republic
Republic
of Namibia8 National language namesRepubliek van Namibië  (Afrikaans)[1] Republik Namibia  (German)[2] Namibiab Republiki dib  (Nama)[3] Republika yaNamibia  (Herero)[4] Orepublika yaNamibia  (Kwanyama)[5] Republika zaNamibia  (Kwangali)[6] Repaboleki ya Namibia  (Tswana)[7]
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