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Khmer Language
KHMER /kmɛər/ or CAMBODIAN (natively ភាសាខ្មែរ , or more formally ខេមរភាសា ) is the language of the Khmer people
Khmer people
and the official language of Cambodia
Cambodia
. With approximately 16 million speakers, it is the second most widely spoken Austroasiatic language (after Vietnamese ). Khmer has been influenced considerably by Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Pali , especially in the royal and religious registers , through Hinduism
Hinduism
and Buddhism
Buddhism
. The more colloquial registers have influenced, and have been influenced by, Thai , Lao , Vietnamese , and Cham , all of which, due to geographical proximity and long-term cultural contact, form a sprachbund in peninsular Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia

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Glottolog
GLOTTOLOG is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and maintained first at the former Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig
Leipzig
, Germany, and since 2015 at the new Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena
Jena
, Germany. In addition to the languoid catalogue (the catalog of the world's languages and language families), Glottolog provides a comprehensive bibliography on the world's smaller languages
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Linguasphere Observatory
The LINGUASPHERE OBSERVATORY (or "Observatoire", based upon its original French and legal title: Observatoire Linguistique) is a transnational linguistic research network. It was created in Quebec
Quebec
in 1983 and was subsequently established and registered in Normandy
Normandy
as a non-profit association under the honorary presidency of the late Léopold Sédar Senghor , a French-language poet and the first president of Senegal
Senegal
. Its founding director is David Dalby, former director of the International African Institute and emeritus reader in the University of London, and its first research secretary was Philippe Blanchet, a Provençal-language poet currently serving as Professor of Sociolinguistics at the University of Rennes
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ISO 639-1
ISO 639-1:2002, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 1: Alpha-2 code, is the first part of the ISO 639 series of international standards for language codes . Part 1 covers the registration of two-letter codes. There are 184 two-letter codes registered as of October 2015. The registered codes cover the world's major languages. These codes are a useful international and formal shorthand for indicating languages
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Abugida
An ABUGIDA /ˌɑːbᵿˈɡiːdə/ (from Ge\'ez : አቡጊዳ ’abugida), or ALPHASYLLABARY, also known as avugida, is a segmental writing system in which consonant–vowel sequences are written as a unit: each unit is based on a consonant letter, and vowel notation is secondary. This contrasts with a full alphabet , in which vowels have status equal to consonants, and with an abjad , in which vowel marking is absent, partial , or optional. (In less formal contexts, all three types of script may be termed alphabets.) The terms also contrast them with a syllabary , in which the symbols cannot be split into separate consonants and vowels. Abugidas include the extensive Brahmic family of scripts of South and Southeast Asia, Semitic Ethiopic scripts , and Canadian Aboriginal syllabics
Canadian Aboriginal syllabics
(which are themselves based in part on Brahmic scripts)
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Analytic Language
In linguistic typology , an ANALYTIC LANGUAGE is a language with a low morpheme -per-word ratio, as opposed to synthetic language , with a high morpheme-per-word ratio. An analytic language conveys grammatical relationships with relatively minimal use, or in some cases no use, of inflectional morphemes . A grammatical construction can similarly be called ANALYTIC if it uses unbound morphemes , which are separate words, and/or word order . Analytic languages rely heavier on the use of definite and indefinite articles , which tend to be less prominently used or absent in strongly synthetic languages; stricter word order; various prepositions , postpositions , particles and modifiers , and context . CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Isolating language * 3 List of analytic languages * 4 See also * 5 References BACKGROUNDThe term "analytic" is commonly used in a relative rather than an absolute sense
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Replacement Character
SPECIALS is a short Unicode
Unicode
block allocated at the very end of the Basic Multilingual Plane
Basic Multilingual Plane
, at U+FFF0–FFFF. Of these 16 code points, five are assigned as of Unicode
Unicode
10.0: * U+FFF9 INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION ANCHOR, marks start of annotated text * U+FFFA INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION SEPARATOR, marks start of annotating character(s) * U+FFFB INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION TERMINATOR, marks end of annotation block * U+FFFC  OBJECT REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, placeholder in the text for another unspecified object, for example in a compound document . * U+FFFD � REPLACEMENT CHARACTER used to replace an unknown, unrecognized or unrepresentable character * U+FFFE not a character. * U+FFFF not a character.FFFE and FFFF are not unassigned in the usual sense, but guaranteed not to be a Unicode
Unicode
character at all
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Official Language
An OFFICIAL LANGUAGE is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction . Typically a country's official language refers to the language used within government (e.g., courts, parliament, administration). Since "the means of expression of a people cannot be changed by any law", the term "official language" does not typically refer to the language used by a people or country, but by its government. Worldwide, 178 countries have at least one official language, and 101 of these countries recognise more than one language. Many of the world's constitutions mention one or more official or national languages . Some countries use the official language designation to empower indigenous groups by giving them access to the government in their native languages
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Southeast Asia
SOUTHEAST ASIA or SOUTHEASTERN ASIA is a subregion of Asia
Asia
, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China
China
, east of India
India
, west of New Guinea
New Guinea
and north of Australia
Australia

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Buddhism
BUDDHISM ( /ˈbʊdɪzəm/ or /ˈbuːdɪzəm/ ) is a religion and dharma that encompasses a variety of traditions , beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on original teachings attributed to the Buddha
Buddha
and resulting interpreted philosophies . Buddhism originated in Ancient India
Ancient India
sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, from where it spread through much of Asia
Asia
, whereafter it declined in India
India
during the Middle Ages
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Hinduism
ARTS * Bharatanatyam
Bharatanatyam
* Kathak * Kathakali
Kathakali
*
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Register (sociolinguistics)
In linguistics , a REGISTER is a variety of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting. For example, when speaking in a formal setting, an English speaker may be more likely to use features of prescribed grammar than in an informal setting—such as pronouncing words ending in -ing with a velar nasal instead of an alveolar nasal (e.g. "walking", not "walkin'"), choosing more formal words (e.g. father vs. dad, child vs. kid, etc.), and refraining from using words considered nonstandard, such as ain\'t . As with other types of language variation, there tends to be a spectrum of registers rather than a discrete set of obviously distinct varieties—numerous registers could be identified, with no clear boundaries between them
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Writing System
A WRITING SYSTEM is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication . While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages , writing differs in also being a reliable form of information storage and transfer . The processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing
Writing
is usually recorded onto a durable medium , such as paper or electronic storage , although non-durable methods may also be used, such as writing on a computer display , on a blackboard, in sand, or by skywriting . The general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets , syllabaries , or logographies . Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category
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ISO 639-3
ISO 639-3:2007, Codes for the representation of names of languages – Part 3: Alpha-3 code for comprehensive coverage of languages, is an international standard for language codes in the ISO 639 series. It defines three-letter codes for identifying languages. The standard was published by ISO on 1 February 2007. ISO 639-3 extends the ISO 639-2 alpha-3 codes with an aim to cover all known natural languages . The extended language coverage was based primarily on the language codes used in the Ethnologue (volumes 10-14) published by SIL International , which is now the registration authority for ISO 639-3. It provides an enumeration of languages as complete as possible, including living and extinct, ancient and constructed, major and minor, written and unwritten. However, it does not include reconstructed languages such as Proto-Indo-European
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Language Family
A LANGUAGE FAMILY is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics , which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree , or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy . Linguists therefore describe the daughter languages within a language family as being genetically related. According to Ethnologue the 7,099 living human languages are distributed in 141 different language families. A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people. There are also many dead and extinct languages, as well as some that are still insufficiently studied to be classified, or are even unknown outside their respective speech communities
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Conjugation (grammar)
In linguistics , CONJUGATION (/ˌkɒndʒʊˈɡeɪʃən/ ) is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (alteration of form according to rules of grammar ). Conjugation may be affected by person , number , gender , tense , aspect , mood , voice , case , and other grammatical categories such as possession , definiteness , politeness , causativity , clusivity , interrogativity , transitivity , valency , polarity , telicity , volition , mirativity , evidentiality , animacy , associativity, pluractionality , reciprocity , agreement , polypersonal agreement , incorporation , noun class , noun classifiers , and verb classifiers in some languages. Agglutinative
Agglutinative
and polysynthetic languages tend to have the most complex conjugations albeit some fusional languages such as Archi can also have extremely complex conjugation. Typically the principal parts are the root and/or several modifications of it (stems )
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