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Khalji Dynasty
The Khalji or Khilji[a] dynasty was a Muslim
Muslim
dynasty which ruled large parts of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
between 1290 and 1320.[2][3][4] It was founded by Jalal ud din Firuz Khalji
Jalal ud din Firuz Khalji
and became the second dynasty to rule the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate
Sultanate
of India
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Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq
Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq
Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq
(reign: 1394 − February 1413 CE) was the last sultan of the Tughlaq dynasty
Tughlaq dynasty
to rule the Islamic Delhi Sultanate. History[edit] During his reign in 1398, Amir Timur
Timur
the Chagtai ruler invaded India. He carried away with him a large booty from Delhi
Delhi
and the surrounding area. Soon after the invasion, the Tughlaq dynasty
Tughlaq dynasty
came to an end."For about three years, from 1394 to 1397...Sultan Mahmud, a grandson of Firuz Shah Tughlaq, was recognized as king in Old Delhi, while his relative Nusrat Shah, claimed similar rank in Firuzabad."[1]Successor[edit] The succeeding sultan of the Delhi Sultanate
Delhi Sultanate
was Khizr Khan, the first of the Sayyid dynasty. References[edit]^ Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History
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Nasir Ud Din Mahmud
Nasir ud din Mahmud, Nasir ud din Firuz Shah (reigned: 1246–1266) was the eighth sultan of the Mamluk Sultanate (Slave dynasty). He was the son of Nasiruddin Mahmud (died 1229), who was the eldest son of Shams ud din Iltutmish
Shams ud din Iltutmish
(1211–36) and was said to succeed his father but died suddenly; however, he did become the governor of Bengal. He was named after his father, by Shams ud din Iltutmish, for he had grown an intense filial attachment, to the only begot son of his posthumous child. He was also the nephew of Razia Sultan. He succeeded Ala ud din Masud
Ala ud din Masud
after the chiefs replaced Masud when they felt that he began to behave as a tyrant. As a ruler, Mahmud was known to be very religious, spending most of his time in prayer and copying the Quran
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Aram Shah
Aram Shah was the second sultan of the Mamluk dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate.[1] He reigned from 1210 to 1211.Contents1 Origins 2 Succession 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksOrigins[edit] The relationship of Aram Shah with Qutb al-Din Aibak (the first sultan of Delhi, who ruled from 1206 to 1210) is a subject of controversy.[2][3] According to some, he was Aibak's son, but Minhaj-i-Siraj distinctly writes that Qutb al-Din only had three daughters. Abul Fazl has made the "astonishing statement" that Aram Shah was Qutb al-Din's brother. A modern writer has hazarded the opinion that "he was no relation of Qutb al-Din" but was selected as his successor as he was available on the spot. Succession[edit] There were no fixed rules governing the succession in the Sultanate, with Aram being selected by Turkic amirs (nobles) at Lahore.[4] However, Aram was ill-qualified to govern a kingdom
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Iltutmish
Shams ud-Din Iltutmish
Iltutmish
(r. 1211–1236) was the third ruler of the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate, belonging to the Mamluk dynasty. Iltutmish consolidated the position of the sultanate in the Indian subcontinent. He conquered Multan
Multan
and Bengal
Bengal
from contesting rulers, and Ranathambhore and Siwalik
Siwalik
from their rulers. He expanded his domain by defeating the Muslim rulers of Ghazni, Multan
Multan
and Bengal, which had previously annexed some of his territories and threatened his domain
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Rukn Ud Din Firuz
Rukn ud din Firuz
Rukn ud din Firuz
was the seventh sultan of the Mamluk Sultanate (Slave Dynasty), who ruled for a little over six months,[1] which is said to be a very less time compared to other rulers and was the Governor of the Royal state of Badayun. He was the son of Iltutmish (1211–36) and was raised to become Iltutmish's heir. As the newly crowned ruler he had the following qualities; physical aristocracy, courteous behaviour and resolved consciousness. He was a self-endowed person and spent much of his time resolving in music. Taking advantage of his vulnerability as a king, his mother Shah Turkan embraced the entire power of the throne to herself. As a person, Shah Turkan was a tyrannical ruler on her command many people of the kingdom were killed
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Razia Sultana
Raziya Sultana, sometime Raziyya Sultan, (1205 – October 13, 1240) was the Sultan
Sultan
of Delhi
Delhi
from 10 November 1236 to 14 October 1240. A member of the Mamluk dynasty, she is known for being the only female ever to rule the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate.[1]Contents1 Early life and career 2 Love life and marriage 3 Death 4 Legacy4.1 In popular culture5 Claimed burial sites 6 References 7 Bibliography 8 External linksEarly life and career[edit] Razia Sultana
Razia Sultana
was the daughter of Shams-ud-din Iltutmish,[2] who had begun life as a Turk slave and ended it as Sultan
Sultan
of Delhi.[3] Iltutmish
Iltutmish
had been a great favorite of his master, Qutb ud din Aibak, the first Sultan
Sultan
of Delhi, and had been married to his daughter Turkan Khatun
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Muiz Ud Din Bahram
Muiz ud-Din Bahram (r. 1240–42) was the sixth sultan of the Mamluk Dynasty (or Slave Dynasty). He was the son of Shams ud din Iltutmish (1210–36) and the half-brother of Razia Sultan (1236–40).[1] While his sister was in Bathinda, he declared himself king with the support of forty chiefs. His sister tried to regain the throne with the aid of her husband Altunia, a chief of Bathinda, though they were eventually arrested and executed. Even so, during Muiz ud din Bahram's two years as king, the chiefs that had originally supported him became disordered and constantly bickered among each other. It was during this period of unrest that he was murdered by his own army in 1242 (died 15 May 1242). After his death, he was succeeded by his nephew Ala ud din Masud, a son of his half-brother Rukn ud din Firuz. Ögedei Khan
Ögedei Khan
of the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
appointed Dayir commander of Ghazni and Menggetu commander in Kunduz
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Indian Subcontinent
The Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
or the subcontinent is a southern region of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate
Indian Plate
and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
from the Himalayas
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Muslim
65–75% Sunni
Sunni
Islam[22][note 1] 10–13% Shia
Shia
Islam[22] 15–20% Non-denominational Islam[23] ~1% Ahmadiyya[24] ~1% Other Muslim
Muslim
traditions, e.g
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Nepal
Nepal
Nepal
(/nəˈpɔːl/ ( listen);[12] Nepali: नेपाल  Nepāl [neˈpal]), officially the Federal Democratic Republic
Republic
of Nepal
Nepal
(Nepali: सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल Sanghiya Loktāntrik Ganatantra Nepāl),[13] is a landlocked country in South Asia
South Asia
located in the Himalaya. With an estimated population of 26.4 million, it is 48th largest country by population and 93rd largest country by area.[2][14] It borders China
China
in the north and India
India
in the south, east, and west while Bangladesh
Bangladesh
is located within only 27 km (17 mi) of its southeastern tip and Bhutan
Bhutan
is separated from it by the Indian state of Sikkim
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Ala Ud Din Masud
Ala ud-Din Masud (fl. 1242–46) was the seventh sultan of the Mamluk dynasty (Slave dynasty). He was the son of Rukn ud-Din Firuz (1236), grandson of Shah Turkan and the nephew of Raziya al-Din (1236–40). After his predecessor and uncle Muiz ud-Din Bahram was murdered by the army in 1242 after years of disorder, the chiefs chose for him to become the next ruler. However, he was more of a puppet for the chiefs and did not actually have much power or influence in the government. Instead, he became infamous for his fondness for entertainment and wine
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India
India, officially the Republic
Republic
of India
India
(IAST: Bhārat Gaṇarājya),[e] is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people), and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan
Pakistan
to the west;[f] China, Nepal, and Bhutan
Bhutan
to the northeast; and Myanmar
Myanmar
and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India
India
is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and the Maldives
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Ghiyas Ud Din Balban
Ghiyas ud din Balban
Ghiyas ud din Balban
(reigned: 1266–1287) (Urdu: غیاث الدین بلبن‬‎) was the ninth sultan of the Mamluk dynasty of Delhi. Ghiyas ud Din was the wazir and heir of the last Shamsi Sultan, Nasir ud-Din. He reduced the power of the treacherous nobility and heightened the stature of the sultan. In spite of having only few military achievements, he was the most powerful ruler of the sultanate between Shamsuddin Iltutmish
Iltutmish
and Alauddin Khalji. Balban was the greatest of the Slave Kings.[citation needed] His Original name was Baha Ud Din. He was an Ilbari Turk. When he was young he was captured by the Mongols carried to Ghazni
Ghazni
and sold to Khawaja Jamal din of Basra, a Muslim
Muslim
indoctrinator. The latter then brought him to Delhi
Delhi
in 1232 AD along with other slaves and all of them were purchased by Iltutmish
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Qutb Al-Din Aibak
Quṭb al-Dīn Aibak[2] also spelt Quṭb ud-Dīn Aibak or Qutub ud-Din Aybak, (1150–1210), was the founder of the Mamluk dynasty and the first sultan of the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate.Contents1 History1.1 Works 1.2 Death and successor2 ReferencesHistory[edit] Quṭb al-Din Aibak was born to Turkic parents in Turkistan. In his childhood, Aibak was sold as a slave and raised at Nishapur, Persia, where he was purchased by the local Qazi.[1] After the death of his master, he was sold by his master's son and eventually became a slave of Muhammad of Ghor
Muhammad of Ghor
who made him the Amir-i-Akhur, the Master of Slave.[1] Eventually, Aibak was appointed to military command and became an able general of Muhammad of Ghor. In 1193 and after conquering Delhi,[1] his master returned to Khorāsān and left the consolidation of the Ghūrid conquests in northwest India to him
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Ghiyath Al-Din Tughluq
Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq, Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq, or Ghazi Malik (Ghazi means 'fighter for Islam'),[1] (died c. 1325[2]) was the founder of the Tughluq dynasty
Tughluq dynasty
in India, who reigned over the Sultanate of Delhi
Delhi
from 1320 to 1325. He founded the city of Tughluqabad
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