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Key Escrow
Key escrow (also known as a “fair” cryptosystem) is an arrangement in which the keys needed to decrypt encrypted data are held in escrow so that, under certain circumstances, an authorized third party may gain access to those keys. These third parties may include businesses, who may want access to employees' private communications, or governments, who may wish to be able to view the contents of encrypted communications. The technical problem is a largely structural one since access to protected information must be provided only to the intended recipient and at least one third party. The third party should be permitted access only under carefully controlled conditions, as for instance, a court order. Thus far, no system design has been shown to meet this requirement fully on a technical basis alone
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Encryption
In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding a message or information in such a way that only authorized parties can access it and those who are not authorized cannot. Encryption
Encryption
does not itself prevent interference, but denies the intelligible content to a would-be interceptor. In an encryption scheme, the intended information or message, referred to as plaintext, is encrypted using an encryption algorithm – a cipher – generating ciphertext that can be read only if decrypted. For technical reasons, an encryption scheme usually uses a pseudo-random encryption key generated by an algorithm. It is in principle possible to decrypt the message without possessing the key, but, for a well-designed encryption scheme, considerable computational resources and skills are required
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Escrow
An escrow is a contractual arrangement in which a third party receives and disburses money or documents for the primary transacting parties, with the disbursement dependent on conditions agreed to by the transacting parties, or an account established by a broker for holding funds on behalf of the broker's principal or some other person until the consummation or termination of a transaction;[1] or, a trust account held in the borrower's name to pay obligations such as property taxes and insurance premiums
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Court Order
A court order is an official proclamation by a judge (or panel of judges) that defines the legal relationships between the parties to a hearing, a trial, an appeal or other court proceedings. Such ruling requires or authorizes the carrying out of certain steps by one or more parties to a case. A court order must be signed by a judge; some jurisdictions may require it to be notarized. The content and provisions of a court order depend on the type of proceeding, the phase of the proceedings in which they are issued, and the procedural[notes 1] and evidentiary[notes 2] rules that govern the proceedings. An order can be as simple as setting a date for trial or as complex as restructuring contractual relationships by and between many corporations in a multi-jurisdictional dispute. It may be a final order (one that concludes the court action), or an interim order (one during the action). Most orders are written, and are signed by the judge
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Self Incrimination
Self-incrimination is the act of exposing oneself generally, by making a statement "to an accusation or charge of crime; to involve oneself or another [person] in a criminal prosecution or the danger thereof."[1] Self-incrimination can occur either directly or indirectly: directly, by means of interrogation where information of a self-incriminatory nature is disclosed; or indirectly, when information of a self-incriminatory nature is disclosed voluntarily without pressure from another person. In many legal systems, accused criminals cannot be compelled to incriminate themselves—they may choose to speak to police or other authorities, but they cannot be punished for refusing to do so
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Key Management
Key management
Key management
refers to management of cryptographic keys in a cryptosystem. This includes dealing with the generation, exchange, storage, use, crypto-shredding (destruction) and replacement of keys. It includes cryptographic protocol design, key servers, user procedures, and other relevant protocols.[1] Key management
Key management
concerns keys at the user level, either between users or systems. This is in contrast to key scheduling, which typically refers to the internal handling of keys within the operation of a cipher. Successful key management is critical to the security of a cryptosystem
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Data Securities International
Data Securities International, DSI was a technology escrow administration company based in San Francisco, California. Founded in 1982, the company escrows source code and other maintenance materials for licensees. The company was acquired by Iron Mountain Incorporated in 1997. DSI History[edit] Data Securities International was founded in 1982.[1] The company grew steadily over the years before being sold to Iron Mountain in 1997.[2] Data Securities International introduced the concept in the mid 1980s for a Total software Value (TSV) that uses the composites of Ownership Value (OV) or the software inventory, Market Value (MV), and Internal Cost Savings (ICS) as values and influencing variables of software as a financial asset
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Related-key Attack
In cryptography, a related-key attack is any form of cryptanalysis where the attacker can observe the operation of a cipher under several different keys whose values are initially unknown, but where some mathematical relationship connecting the keys is known to the attacker. For example, the attacker might know that the last 80 bits of the keys are always the same, even though they don't know, at first, what the bits are. This appears, at first glance, to be an unrealistic model; it would certainly be unlikely that an attacker could persuade a human cryptographer to encrypt plaintexts under numerous secret keys related in some way.Contents1 KASUMI 2 WEP 3 Preventing related-key attacks 4 ReferencesKASUMI[edit] KASUMI
KASUMI
is an eight round, 64-bit block cipher with a 128-bit key
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Free On-line Dictionary Of Computing
Denis Howe, many contributors ARevenue YesWebsite foldoc.orgAlexa rank 563,655 (April 2014[update])[1]Commercial NoRegistration NoneLaunched 1985Current status ActiveThe Free On-line Dictionary of Computing
Computing
(FOLDOC) is an online, searchable, encyclopedic dictionary of computing subjects.[2][3]Contents1 History 2 Open sourcing 3 Recognition 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] FOLDOC was founded in 1985 by Denis Howe and was hosted by Imperial College London. In May 2015, the site was updated to state that it was "no longer supported by Imperial College Department of Computing". Howe has served as the editor-in-chief since the dictionary's inception, with visitors to the website able to make suggestions for additions or corrections to articles.[4] Open sourcing[edit] The dictionary incorporates the text of other free resources, such as the Jargon File, as well as covering many other computing-related topics
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GNU Free Documentation License
The GNU
GNU
Free Documentation License ( GNU
GNU
FDL or simply GFDL) is a copyleft license for free documentation, designed by the Free Software Foundation (FSF) for the GNU
GNU
Project. It is similar to the GNU
GNU
General Public License, giving readers the rights to copy, redistribute, and modify (only when without "invariant sections" restrictions) a work and requires all copies and derivatives to be available under the same license. Copies may also be sold commercially, but, if produced in larger quantities (greater than 100), the original document or source code must be made available to the work's recipient. The GFDL was designed for manuals, textbooks, other reference and instructional materials, and documentation which often accompanies GNU software. However, it can be used for any text-based work, regardless of subject matter
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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Cryptography
Cryptography
Cryptography
or cryptology (from Greek κρυπτός kryptós, "hidden, secret"; and γράφειν graphein, "to write", or -λογία -logia, "study", respectively[1]) is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties called adversaries.[2] More generally, cryptography is about constructing and analyzing protocols that prevent third parties or the public from reading private messages;[3] various aspects in information security such as data confidentiality, data integrity, authentication, and non-repudiation[4] are central to modern cryptography. Modern cryptography exists at the intersection of the disciplines of mathematics, computer science, electrical engineering, communication science, and physics
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Key Disclosure Law
Key disclosure laws, also known as mandatory key disclosure, is legislation that requires individuals to surrender cryptographic keys to law enforcement. The purpose is to allow access to material for confiscation or digital forensics purposes and use it either as evidence in a court of law or to enforce national security interests. Similarly, mandatory decryption laws force owners of encrypted data to supply decrypted data to law enforcement.[1] Nations vary widely in the specifics of how they implement key disclosure laws. Some, such as Australia, give law enforcement wide-ranging power to compel assistance in decrypting data from any party. Some, such as Belgium, concerned with self-incrimination, only allow law enforcement to compel assistance from non-suspects. Some require only specific third parties such as telecommunications carriers, certification providers, or maintainers of encryption services to provide assistance with decryption
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Clipper Chip
The Clipper chip
Clipper chip
was a chipset that was developed and promoted by the United States National Security Agency[1] (NSA) as an encryption device that secured “voice and data messages"[2] with a built-in backdoor. It was intended to be adopted by telecommunications companies for voice transmission. It could not only encode messages but decode them as well
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Key Escrow
Key escrow (also known as a “fair” cryptosystem) is an arrangement in which the keys needed to decrypt encrypted data are held in escrow so that, under certain circumstances, an authorized third party may gain access to those keys. These third parties may include businesses, who may want access to employees' private communications, or governments, who may wish to be able to view the contents of encrypted communications. The technical problem is a largely structural one since access to protected information must be provided only to the intended recipient and at least one third party. The third party should be permitted access only under carefully controlled conditions, as for instance, a court order. Thus far, no system design has been shown to meet this requirement fully on a technical basis alone
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