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Keratin
KERATIN (/ˈkɛrətɪn/ ) is one of a family of fibrous structural proteins . Keratin
Keratin
is the protein that protects epithelial cells from damage or stress. Keratin
Keratin
is extremely insoluble in water and organic solvents. It is the key structural material making up the outer layer of human skin . Keratin
Keratin
monomers assemble into bundles to form intermediate filaments , which are tough and form strong unmineralized epidermal appendages found in reptiles , birds , amphibians , and mammals . The only other biological matter known to approximate the toughness of keratinized tissue is chitin
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Carotene
The term CAROTENE (also CAROTIN, from the Latin _carota_, "carrot" ) is used for many related unsaturated hydrocarbon substances having the formula C40Hx, which are synthesized by plants but in general cannot be made by animals (with the exception of some aphids and spider mites which acquired the synthesizing genes from fungi). Carotenes are photosynthetic pigments important for photosynthesis . Carotenes contain no oxygen atoms. They absorb ultraviolet, violet, and blue light and scatter orange or red light, and (in low concentrations) yellow light. Carotenes are responsible for the orange colour of the carrot , for which this class of chemicals is named, and for the colours of many other fruits, vegetables and fungi (for example, sweet potatoes , chanterelle and orange cantaloupe melon). Carotenes are also responsible for the orange (but not all of the yellow) colours in dry foliage. They also (in lower concentrations) impart the yellow coloration to milk-fat and butter
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Kerosene
KEROSENE, also known as PARAFFIN, LAMP OIL, and COAL OIL (an obsolete term), is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid which is derived from petroleum , widely used as a fuel in industry as well as households. Its name derives from Greek : κηρός (_keros_) meaning wax , and was registered as a trademark by Abraham Gesner in 1854 before evolving into a genericized trademark . It is sometimes spelled KEROSINE in scientific and industrial usage. The term KEROSENE is common in much of Argentina , Australia , Canada , India , New Zealand , and the United States , while the term PARAFFIN is used in Chile , eastern Africa , South Africa , and in the United Kingdom . and the term LAMP OIL is common in majority of Asia . Liquid paraffin (called mineral oil in the US) is a more viscous and highly refined product which is used as a laxative
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Chitin
CHITIN (C 8H 13O 5N )n (/ˈkaɪtᵻn/ KY-tin ), a long-chain polymer of N-acetylglucosamine , is a derivative of glucose . It is a primary component of cell walls in fungi , the exoskeletons of arthropods , such as crustaceans (e.g., crabs , lobsters and shrimps ) and insects , the radulae of molluscs , cephalopod beaks , and the scales of fish and lissamphibians . The structure of chitin is comparable to another polysaccharide - cellulose , forming crystalline nanofibrils or whiskers. In terms of function, it may be compared to the protein keratin . Chitin
Chitin
has proved useful for several medicinal, industrial and biotechnological purposes
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Creatine
CREATINE (/ˈkriːətiːn/ or /ˈkriːətɪn/ ) is a nitrogenous organic acid that occurs naturally in vertebrates . Its main role is to facilitate recycling of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the energy currency of the cell, primarily in muscle and brain tissue. This is achieved by recycling adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to ATP via donation of phosphate groups . Creatine
Creatine
also acts as a pH buffer in tissues. Creatine
Creatine
synthesis primarily occurs in the liver and kidneys. On average, it is produced endogenously at an estimated rate of about 8.3 mmol or 1 gram per day in young adults. Creatine
Creatine
is also obtained through the diet at a rate of about 1 gram per day from an omnivorous diet. Most of the human body's total creatine and phosphocreatine stores are found in skeletal muscle, while the remainder is distributed in the blood , brain, and other tissues
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Keratan Sulphate
KERATAN SULFATE (KS), also called KERATOSULFATE, is any of several sulfated glycosaminoglycans (structural carbohydrates) that have been found especially in the cornea , cartilage , and bone . It is also synthesized in the central nervous system where it participates both in development and in the glial scar formation following an injury. Keratan sulfates are large, highly hydrated molecules which in joints can act as a cushion to absorb mechanical shock . CONTENTS* 1 Structure * 1.1 KS classes * 1.2 Corneal
Corneal
KSI * 1.3 Non-corneal KSI * 1.4 KSII * 1.5 KSIII * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links STRUCTURELike other glycosaminoglycans keratan sulfate is a linear polymer that consists of a repeating disaccharide unit. Keratan sulfate occurs as a proteoglycan (PG) in which KS chains are attached to cell-surface or extracellular matrix proteins, termed core proteins
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Collagen
COLLAGEN /ˈkɒlədʒᵻn/ is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies. As the main component of connective tissue, it is the most abundant protein in mammals, making up from 25% to 35% of the whole-body protein content. Depending upon the degree of mineralization, collagen tissues may be rigid (bone), compliant (tendon), or have a gradient from rigid to compliant (cartilage). Collagen, in the form of elongated fibrils , is mostly found in fibrous tissues such as tendons , ligaments and skin . It is also abundant in corneas , cartilage , bones , blood vessels , the gut , intervertebral discs , and the dentin in teeth. In muscle tissue , it serves as a major component of the endomysium . Collagen
Collagen
constitutes one to two percent of muscle tissue, and accounts for 6% of the weight of strong, tendinous muscles. The fibroblast is the most common cell that creates collagen
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Scleroprotein
SCLEROPROTEINS or FIBROUS PROTEINS constitute one of the three main types of proteins (alongside globular and membrane proteins ). There are many scleroprotein superfamilies including keratin , collagen , elastin , and fibroin . The roles of such proteins include protection and support, forming connective tissue , tendons , bone matrices , and muscle fiber . BIOMOLECULAR STRUCTUREA scleroprotein forms long protein filaments , which are shaped like rods or wires. Scleroproteins are structural proteins or storage proteins that are typically inert and water-insoluble . A scleroprotein occurs as an aggregate due to hydrophobic side chains that protrude from the molecule . A scleroprotein's peptide sequence often has limited residues with repeats; these can form unusual secondary structures , such as a collagen helix . The structures often feature cross-links between chains (e.g., cys-cys disulfide bonds between keratin chains)
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Epithelial
EPITHELIUM (_epi-_ + _thele_ + _-ium_ ) is one of the four basic types of animal tissue , along with connective tissue , muscle tissue and nervous tissue . Epithelial tissues line the cavities and surfaces of blood vessels and organs throughout the body. There are three principal shapes of epithelial cell: squamous, columnar, and cuboidal. These can be arranged in a single layer of cells as simple epithelium, either squamous, columnar, cuboidal, pseudo-stratified columnar or in layers of two or more cells deep as stratified (layered), either squamous, columnar or cuboidal. All glands are made up of epithelial cells. Functions of epithelial cells include secretion , selective absorption , protection, transcellular transport , and sensing . Epithelial layers contain no blood vessels, so they must receive nourishment via diffusion of substances from the underlying connective tissue, through the basement membrane
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Skin
SKIN is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates . Other animal coverings , such as the arthropod exoskeleton , have different developmental origin , structure and chemical composition . The adjective CUTANEOUS means "of the skin" (from Latin
Latin
_cutis_, skin). In mammals , the skin is an organ of the integumentary system made up of multiple layers of ectodermal tissue , and guards the underlying muscles , bones , ligaments and internal organs . Skin
Skin
of a different nature exists in amphibians , reptiles , and birds . All mammals have some hair on their skin, even marine mammals like whales , dolphins , and porpoises which appear to be hairless. The skin interfaces with the environment and is the first line of defense from external factors. For example, the skin plays a key role in protecting the body against pathogens and excessive water loss
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Monomer
A MONOMER (/ˈmɒnəmər/ _MON-ə-mər_ ) (_mono-_, "one" + _-mer_, "part") is a molecule that, as a unit, binds chemically or supramolecularly to other molecules to form a supramolecular polymer . Large numbers of monomer units combine to form polymers in a process called polymerization . Molecules of a small number of monomer units (up to a few dozen) are called oligomers . The term "monomeric protein " may also be used to describe one of the proteins making up a multiprotein complex
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Intermediate Filament
INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS (IFS) are cytoskeletal components found in the cells of vertebrate animal species, and perhaps also in other animals, fungi, plants, and unicellular organisms. They are composed of a family of related proteins sharing common structural and sequence features. Initially designated 'intermediate' because their average diameter (10 nm) is between those of narrower microfilaments (actin) and wider myosin filaments found in muscle cells, the diameter of Intermediate filaments is now commonly compared to actin microfilaments (7 nm) and microtubules (25 nm). Most types of intermediate filaments are cytoplasmic , but one type, the lamins , are nuclear. Unlike microtubules, IFs distribution in cells show no good correlation with the distribution of either mitochondria or endoplasmic reticulum
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Mineralization (biology)
Note 1: A particular case is the process by which living organisms produce and structure minerals often to harden or stiffen existing tissues. (See biomineralization .) Note 2: In the case of polymer biodegradation, this term is used to reflect conversion to CO2 and H2O and other inorganics. CH4 can be considered as part of the mineralization process because it comes up in parallel to the minerals in anaerobic composting, also called methanization. In biology, MINERALIZATION refers to a process where an inorganic substance precipitates in an organic matrix. This may be due to normal biological processes that take place during the life of an organism such as the formation of bones, egg shells, teeth, coral, and other exoskeletons. This term may also refer to abnormal processes that result in kidney and gall stones
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Reptile
See text for extinct groups. Global reptile distributionREPTILES are tetrapod (four-limbed vertebrate) animals in the class REPTILIA, comprising today's turtles , crocodilians , snakes , amphisbaenians , lizards , tuatara , and their extinct relatives. The study of these traditional reptile orders , historically combined with that of modern amphibians , is called herpetology . Because some reptiles are more closely related to birds than they are to other reptiles (e.g., crocodiles are more closely related to birds than they are to lizards), the traditional groups of "reptiles" listed above do not together constitute a monophyletic grouping (or clade ). For this reason, many modern scientists prefer to consider the birds part of Reptilia as well, thereby making Reptilia a monophyletic class
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Bird
BIRDS (AVES) are a group of endothermic vertebrates , characterised by feathers , toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart , and a strong yet lightweight skeleton . Birds live worldwide and range in size from the 5 cm (2 in) bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m (9 ft) ostrich . They rank as the class of tetrapods with the most living species, at approximately ten thousand, with more than half of these being passerines , sometimes known as perching birds. Birds are the closest living relatives of crocodilians . Birds are descendants of extinct dinosaurs with feathers , making them the only surviving dinosaurs according to cladistics
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Amphibian
AMPHIBIANS are ectothermic , tetrapod vertebrates of the class AMPHIBIA. Modern amphibians are all Lissamphibia . They inhabit a wide variety of habitats , with most species living within terrestrial , fossorial , arboreal or freshwater aquatic ecosystems . Thus amphibians typically start out as larvae living in water, but some species have developed behavioural adaptations to bypass this. The young generally undergo metamorphosis from larva with gills to an adult air-breathing form with lungs . Amphibians use their skin as a secondary respiratory surface and some small terrestrial salamanders and frogs lack lungs and rely entirely on their skin. They are superficially similar to lizards but, along with mammals and birds, reptiles are amniotes and do not require water bodies in which to breed
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