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Kephale (Byzantine Empire)
In the late Byzantine Empire, the term kephale (Greek: κεφαλή, romanizedkephalē, lit. 'head') was used to denote local and provincial governors. It entered use in the second half of the 13th century, and was derived from the colloquial language. Consequently, it never became an established title or rank of the Byzantine imperial hierarchy, but remained a descriptive term.[1] In essence, the kephalē replaced the Komnenian-era doux as the civil and military governor of a territorial administrative unit, known as a katepanikion (κατεπανίκιον, katepaníkion),[2] but also termed a kephalatikion (κεφαλατίκιον, kephalatíkion)
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Valentinianic Dynasty
The Valentinianic dynasty or Valentinian dynasty, produced five Roman emperors during Late Antiquity, reigning over the Roman Empire from 364 to 392 and from 424 to 455. The dynasty's patriarch was Gratian the Elder, whose sons Valentinian I and Valens were both made Roman emperor in 364. Valentinian's two sons both became emperors, while his daughter married Theodosius the Great, producing a daughter that became an empress and whose son also became emperor. The dynasty of Valentinian succeeded the Constantinian dynasty (r. 293–363) and ruled concurrently with members of the Theodosian dynasty (r. 379–457). The dynasty has been labelled as Pannonian, based on the family origin in Pannonia Secunda in the Balkans. Valentinian III, who married Licinia Eudoxia, daughter of Theodosius II, was a member of both the Valentinianic dynasty and the Theodosian dynasty, and was the last male emperor from either lineage
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Sack Of Constantinople

The Massacre of the Latins (Italian: Massacro dei Latini; Greek: Σφαγή τῶν Λατίνων), a massacre of the Roman Catholic or "Latin" inhabitants of Constantinople by the usurper Andronikos Komnenos and his supporters in May 1182,[5][6] had effect on the politics between Western Europe and the Byzantine Empire and led to Sack of Thessalonica by Normans.[7] Although regular trade agreements were soon resumed between Byzantine and Latin States, some Westerners sought some form of revenge. However, because of previous sAfter the city's sacking, most of the Byzantine Empire's territories were divided up among the Crusaders. Byzantine aristocrats also established a number of small independent splinter states, one of them being the Empire of Nicaea, which would eventually recapture Constantinople in 1261 and proclaim the reinstatement of the Empire
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Roman Empire
The Roman Empire (Latin: Imperium Romanum [ɪmˈpɛri.ũː roːˈmaːnũː]; Koinē Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, romanized: Basileía tōn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican period of ancient Rome. As a polity it included large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Northern Africa, and Western Asia ruled by emperors. From the accession of Caesar Augustus to the military anarchy of the third century, it was a principate with Italy as metropole of the provinces and the city of Rome as sole capital (27 BC – 286 AD). After the military crisis, the empire was ruled by multiple emperors who shared rule over the Western Roman Empire (based in Milan and later in Ravenna) and over the Eastern Roman Empire (also known as the Byzantine Empire; centred on Nicomedia and Antioch, later based in Constantinople)
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Oxford Dictionary Of Byzantium

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium (ODB) is a three-volume historical dictionary published by the English Oxford University Press. With more than 5,000 entries, it contains comprehensive information in English on topics relating to the Byzantine Empire. It was edited by Alexander Kazhdan, and was first published in 1991.[1] Kazhdan was a professor at Princeton University who became a Senior Research Associate at Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, DC, before his death. He contributed to many of the articles in the Dictionary and always signed his initials A.K. at the end of the article to indicate his contribution. The dictionary is available in printed and e-reference text versions from Oxford Reference Online
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Alexander Kazhdan
Alexander Petrovich Kazhdan (Russian: Алекса́ндр Петро́вич Кажда́н; 3 September 1922 – 29 May 1997) was a Soviet-American Byzantinist. Born in Moscow, Kazhdan was educated at the Pedagogical Institute of Ufa and the University of Moscow, where he studied with the historian of medieval England, Evgenii Kosminskii.[1] A post-war Soviet initiative to revive Russian-language Byzantine studies led Kazhdan to write a dissertation on the agrarian history of the late Byzantine empire (published in 1952 as Agrarnye otnosheniya v Vizantii XIII-XIV vv.) Despite a growing reputation in his field, anti-Semitic prejudice in the Joseph Stalin-era Soviet academy forced Kazhdan to accept a series of positions as a provincial teacher (in Ivanovo, 1947–49, and Tula, 1949–52).[1] Following the death of Stalin in 1953, however, Kazhdan's situation improved, and he was hired by a college in Velikie Luki
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Bulgarian Language
Bulgarian (/bʌlˈɡɛəriən/ (listen), /bʊlˈ-/ bu(u)l-GAIR-ee-ən; български, bǎlgarski, pronounced [ˈbɤɫɡɐrski] (listen)) is a South Slavic language spoken in Southeastern Europe, primarily in Bulgaria. It is the language of Bulgarians. Along with the closely related Macedonian language (collectively forming the East South Slavic languages), it is a member of the Balkan sprachbund and South Slavic dialect continuum. The two languages have several characteristics that set them apart from all other Slavic languages: changes include the elimination of case declension, the development of a suffixed definite article and the lack of a verb infinitive, but it retains and has further developed the Proto-Slavic verb system
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Romanization Of Greek
Romanization of Greek is the transliteration (letter-mapping) or transcription (sound-mapping) of text from the Greek alphabet into the Latin alphabet. The conventions for writing and romanizing Ancient Greek and Modern Greek differ markedly, which can create confusion. The sound of the English letter B (/b/) was written as β in ancient Greek but is now written as the digraph μπ, while the modern β sounds like the English letter V (/v/) instead. The Greek name Ἰωάννης became Johannes in Latin and then John in English, but in modern Greek has become Γιάννης; this might be written as Yannis, Jani, Ioannis, Yiannis, or Giannis, but not Giannes or Giannēs as it would be for ancient Greek
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