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Kashtan Ciws
The Kashtan (Russian: Каштан, English: Chestnut) close-in weapon system (CIWS) is a modern naval air defence gun-missile system deployed by the Russian Navy.[8][9] It is found on the aircraft carrier Admiral Kuznetsov, Kirov class battlecruisers, Neustrashimy class frigates, China's Sovremenny class destroyers, and other modern designs. Most typically deployed as a combined gun and missile system, it provides defence against anti-ship missiles, anti-radar missiles and guided bombs
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Close-in Weapon System
A close-in weapon system (CIWS), often pronounced as SEE-wiz,[1] is a point-defense weapon system for detecting and destroying short-range incoming missiles and enemy aircraft which have penetrated the outer defenses, typically mounted shipboard in a naval capacity. Nearly all classes of modern warships are equipped with some kind of CIWS device. There are two types of CIWS systems. A gun-based CIWS usually consists of a combination of radars, computers, and multiple-barrel, rotary rapid-fire cannons placed on a rotating gun mount. Missile
Missile
systems use infra-red, passive radar/ESM or semi-active radar terminal guidance to guide missiles to the targeted enemy aircraft or other threats. In some cases, CIWS are used on land to protect military bases
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SACLOS
Semi-automatic command to line of sight (SACLOS) is a method of missile command guidance. In SACLOS, the operator has to continually point a sighting device at the target while the missile is in flight. Electronics in the sighting device and/or the missile then guide it to the target. SACLOS devices commonly work using one of these methods: wire-guided, radio-guided, or beam-riding. Wire and radio-guided SACLOS[edit] With wire- and radio-guided SACLOS, the sighting device can calculate the angular difference in direction from the missile position to the target location. It can then give electronic instructions to the missile that correct its flight path so it is flying along a straight line from the sighting device to the target. Most antitank SACLOS systems such as Milan and TOW use a strobe or flare (visible, infrared (IR) or ultraviolet (UV) light) in the tail of the missile with an appropriate sensor on the firing post, to track the missile's flight path
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Sovremenny-class Destroyer
The Sovremenny-class destroyer is the principal anti-surface warship of the Russian Navy ("Sovremenny" translates like "Modern"). The Soviet designation for the class was Project 956 Sarych (Buzzard). The primary role of this guided missile destroyer is to attack enemy warships while also providing sea and air defense for warships and transports under escort. It complements the Udaloy-class destroyers in anti-submarine operations.Contents1 History 2 Design2.1 Command and control 2.2 Missiles 2.3 Guns 2.4 Anti submarine systems 2.5 Helicopter 2.6 Countermeasures 2.7 Sensors2.7.1 Radar 2.7.2 Sonar2.8 Propulsion3 PLAN variants 4 Ships 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit]Sovremenny-class destroyer OsmotritelnyyThe project began in the late 1960s when it was becoming obvious in the Soviet Navy that naval guns still had an important role particularly in support of amphibious landings, but existing gun cruisers and destroyers were showing their age
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Soviet Aircraft Carrier Admiral Kuznetsov
25 December 1990[1][N 1] (Fully operational in 1995)Refit: May – August 2015[3]Status: in active serviceGeneral characteristicsClass and type: Kuznetsov-class aircraft carrierDisplacement:43,000 tonnes (42,000 long tons; 47,000 short tons), light[4][1] 55,000 tonnes (54,000 long tons; 61,000 short tons), standard[4][1] 58,600 tonnes (57,700 long tons; 64,600 short tons), max[4]Length:305 m (1,001 ft) o/a[1] 270 m (890 ft) w/lBeam:72 m (236 ft)[1] o/a 35 m (115 ft) w/l[1]Draft: 10 m (33 ft)[1]Propulsion:Steam turbines, 8 turbo-pressurised boilers, 4 shafts, 200,000 hp (150 MW) 4 × 50,000 hp (37 MW) turbines 9 × 2,011 hp (1,500 kW) turbogenerators 6 × 2,011 hp (1,500 kW) diesel generators 4 × fixed pitch propellersSpeed: 29 knots (33 mph; 54 km/h)[1]Range: 8,500 nmi (15,700&#
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FLIR
Forward looking infrared
Forward looking infrared
(FLIR) cameras, typically used on military and civilian aircraft, use a thermographic camera that senses infrared radiation.[1] The sensors installed in forward-looking infrared cameras—as well as those of other thermal imaging cameras—use detection of infrared radiation, typically emitted from a heat source (thermal radiation), to create an image assembled for video output. They can be used to help pilots and drivers steer their vehicles at night and in fog, or to detect warm objects against a cooler background. The wavelength of infrared that thermal imaging cameras detect is 3 to 12 μm, and differs significantly from that of night vision, which operates in the visible light and near-infrared ranges (0.4 to 1.0 μm).Contents1 Design 2 Properties 3 Origin of the term 4 History 5 Uses 6 Cost 7 Police actions 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksDesign[edit]FLIR imagery from a U.S
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9M311
2 × 30 mm 2А38M (ru) guns (1,904 rounds carried)Engine V-46-6-MS centrifugal turbocharged V-12 direct fuel injection rotating at 2,000 rpm water cooled 4-stroke multi-fuel diesel starts at up to −5 °C functions at −40 to 50 °C with a relative humidity of 98 per cent by 20 °C and up to 3,000 m altitude[2] 780 hp without input and output resistance 840 hp maximumTransmission hydromechanicalSuspension HydropneumaticGround clearance 17–57 cmOperational range500 km (310 mi)Speed 65 km/h (40 mph) maximum on the roadThe 2K22 Tunguska (Russian: 2К22 "Тунгуска"; English: Tunguska) is a Russian tracked self-propelled anti-aircraft weapon armed with a surface-to-air gun and missile system. It is designed to provide day and night protection for infantry and tank regiments against low-flying aircraft, helicopters, and cruise missiles in all weather conditions
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GAU-8
The General Electric
General Electric
GAU-8/A Avenger is a 30 mm hydraulically driven seven-barrel Gatling-type autocannon that is typically mounted in the United States
United States
Air Force's Fairchild Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II. Designed specifically for the anti-tank role, the Avenger delivers very powerful rounds at a high rate of fire. The GAU-8/A is also used in the Goalkeeper CIWS
Goalkeeper CIWS
ship weapon system, which provides defense against short-range threats such as highly maneuverable missiles, aircraft, and fast maneuvering surface vessels.Contents1 History 2 Design2.1 Firing system2.1.1 Accuracy 2.1.2 Recoil3 Variants 4 Specifications 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] The GAU-8 was created as a parallel program with the A-X (or Attack Experimental) competition that produced the A-10
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Goalkeeper (CIWS)
Goalkeeper is a Dutch close-in weapon system (CIWS) introduced in 1979. It is an autonomous and completely automatic weapon system for short-range defence of ships against highly maneuverable missiles, aircraft and fast maneuvering surface vessels. Once activated the system automatically undertakes the entire air defense process from surveillance and detection to destruction, including selection of the next priority target.Contents1 Development 2 Description2.1 Target selection 2.2 Target engagement 2.3 Operational history 2.4 Comparison with current CIWS3 Specifications 4 Operators4.1 Current operators 4.2 Former operators5 References 6 External linksDevelopment[edit] Development of the system began in 1975 with Hollandse Signaalapparaten B.V. or in short Hollandse Signaal or Signaal (now Thales Nederland) working with General Dynamics, which supplied the GAU-8 gun
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M61 Vulcan
The M61 Vulcan
M61 Vulcan
is a hydraulically or pneumatically driven, six-barrel, air-cooled, electrically fired Gatling-style rotary cannon which fires 20 mm rounds at an extremely high rate (typically 6,000 rounds per minute). The M61 and its derivatives have been the principal cannon armament of United States
United States
military fixed-wing aircraft for fifty years.[1] The M61 was originally produced by General Electric. After several mergers and acquisitions, it is currently produced by General Dynamics.[1]Contents1 Development 2 Description2.1 Ammunition3 Applications and first combat use 4 See also 5 References 6 Bibliography 7 External linksDevelopment[edit] At the end of World War II, the United States Army Air Forces
United States Army Air Forces
began to consider new directions for future military aircraft guns
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Phalanx CIWS
5X Block 1B 8.56M pound to UK 9X Block 1B 13.66M USD each for SK 13 sets MK15 Phalanx Block 1B Baseline 2 for TW, 8 set is for upgrading the current Block 0 to MK15 Phalanx Block 1B Baseline 2, total cost: 0.416B with 260K MK 244 MOD 0 armor piercing bullet, Baseline2 is the newest model in Block 1B on 11/2016 (price may vary for different amounts of ammo, technical protocols, and personnel training)[1]Produced 1978[2]SpecificationsWeight 12,500 lb (5,700 kg), later models 13,600 lb (6,200 kg)[2]Barrel length • Block 0 & 1 (L76 gun barrel): 60 in (1,500 mm) • Block 1B (L99 gun barrel): 78 in (2,000 mm)[3]Height 15.5 ft (4.7 m)Crew Automated, with human oversightShell • Naval: Armor-piercing tungsten penetrator rounds with discarding sabots. • Land: High-Explosive Incendiary Tracer, Self-Destruct.Caliber 20×102 mmBarrels 6-barrel (progressive RH parabolic tw
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Depleted Uranium
Depleted uranium
Depleted uranium
(DU; also referred to in the past as Q-metal, depletalloy or D-38) is uranium with a lower content of the fissile isotope U-235 than natural uranium.[2] Natural uranium contains about 0.72% U-235, while the DU used by the U.S. Department of Defense contains 0.3% U-235 or less. Uses of DU take advantage of its very high density of 19.1 g/cm3 (68.4% denser than lead). The less radioactive and non-fissile uranium-238 constitutes the main component of depleted uranium. Civilian uses include counterweights in aircraft, radiation shielding in medical radiation therapy and industrial radiography equipment, and containers for transporting radioactive materials. Military uses include armor plating and armor-piercing projectiles. Most depleted uranium arises as a by-product of the production of enriched uranium for use as fuel in nuclear reactors and in the manufacture of nuclear weapons
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9K22 Tunguska
2 × 30 mm 2А38M (ru) guns (1,904 rounds carried)Engine V-46-6-MS centrifugal turbocharged V-12 direct fuel injection rotating at 2,000 rpm water cooled 4-stroke multi-fuel diesel starts at up to −5 °C functions at −40 to 50 °C with a relative humidity of 98 per cent by 20 °C and up to 3,000 m altitude[2] 780 hp without input and output resistance 840 hp maximumTransmission hydromechanicalSuspension HydropneumaticGround clearance 17–57 cmOperational range500 km (310 mi)Speed 65 km/h (40 mph) maximum on the roadThe 2K22 Tunguska
2K22 Tunguska
(Russian: 2К22 "Тунгуска"; English: Tunguska) is a Russian tracked self-propelled anti-aircraft weapon armed with a surface-to-air gun and missile system. It is designed to provide day and night protection for infantry and tank regiments against low-flying aircraft, helicopters, and cruise missiles in all weather conditions
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Track-via-missile
Track-via-missile or TVM refers to a missile guidance technique which combines features of semi-active radar homing (SARH) and radio command guidance.Contents1 Explanation 2 Advantages 3 Disadvantages 4 Examples 5 ReferencesExplanation[edit] TVM guidance requires a radar ground station and a missile with a radar receiver. As with semi-active homing missiles, the ground-based radar illuminates the target with radar energy which is then reflected off the target and detected by the missile. However, unlike a SARH missile, the missile itself does not compute interception with this information. Instead, data from the radar returns is relayed back to the ground station via a data link which also serves for passing the guidance commands to the missile. Advantages[edit]Unlike an active radar homing missile, the missile does not alert the target to the fact that it is homing in on it by illuminating it with radio waves
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Anti-radiation Missile
An anti-radiation missile (ARM) is a missile designed to detect and home in on an enemy radio emission source.[1] Typically, these are designed for use against an enemy radar, although jammers[2] and even radios used for communications can also be targeted in this manner.Contents1 Air-to-surface 2 Surface-to-surface 3 Surface-to-air 4 Air-to-air 5 See also 6 ReferencesAir-to-surface[edit] Most ARM designs to date have been intended for use against ground-based radars. Commonly carried by specialist aircraft in the Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses
Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses
(SEAD) role (known to the United States Air Force as "Wild Weasels"), the primary purpose of this type of missile is to degrade enemy air defenses in the first period of a conflict in order to increase the chances of survival for the following waves of strike aircraft. They can also be used to quickly shut down unexpected surface-to-air missile (SAM) sites during an air raid
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CIWS
A close-in weapon system (CIWS), often pronounced as SEE-wiz,[1] is a point-defense weapon system for detecting and destroying short-range incoming missiles and enemy aircraft which have penetrated the outer defenses, typically mounted shipboard in a naval capacity. Nearly all classes of modern warships are equipped with some kind of CIWS device. There are two types of CIWS systems. A gun-based CIWS usually consists of a combination of radars, computers, and multiple-barrel, rotary rapid-fire cannons placed on a rotating gun mount. Missile
Missile
systems use infra-red, passive radar/ESM or semi-active radar terminal guidance to guide missiles to the targeted enemy aircraft or other threats. In some cases, CIWS are used on land to protect military bases
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