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Karma
KARMA (Sanskrit : कर्म, translit. _karma_; IPA: ( listen ); Pali : kamma;) means action, work or deed; it also refers to the spiritual principle of cause and effect where intent and actions of an individual (cause) influence the future of that individual (effect). Good intent and good deed contribute to good karma and future happiness, while bad intent and bad deed contribute to bad karma and future suffering. Karma
Karma
is closely associated with the idea of rebirth in many schools of Asian religions. In these schools, karma in the present affects one's future in the current life, as well as the nature and quality of future lives - one's saṃsāra . With origins in ancient India, karma is a key concept in Hinduism , Buddhism
Buddhism
, Jainism
Jainism
, Sikhism , and Taoism
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Karma (other)
KARMA in several Eastern religions is the concept of "action" or "deed", understood as that which causes the entire cycle of cause and effect
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Sanskrit Language
A few attempts at revival have been reported in Indian and Nepalese newspapers. India : 14135 Indians claimed Sanskrit to be their mother tongue in the 2001 Census of India : Nepal : 1669 Nepalis in 2011 Nepal census reported Sanskrit as their mother tongue. LANGUAGE FAMILY Indo-European * Indo-Iranian * Indo-Aryan * SANSKRIT EARLY FORM Vedic Sanskrit WRITING SYSTEM Devanagari (official) Also written in various Brahmic scripts
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Romanization Of Sanskrit
There are several methods of transliteration from Devanāgarī to the Roman script (a process known as romanization ) which share similarities, although no single system of transliteration has emerged as the standard
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Pali Language
PALI (Pāli) is a Prakrit
Prakrit
language native to the Indian subcontinent . It is widely studied because it is the language of much of the earliest extant literature of Buddhism
Buddhism
as collected in the Pāli Canon or Tipiṭaka and is the sacred language of some religious texts of Hinduism
Hinduism
and all texts of Theravāda Buddhism
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Reincarnation
REINCARNATION is the philosophical or religious concept that an aspect of a living being starts a new life in a different physical body or form after each biological death . In simpler terms, Reincarnation
Reincarnation
is the resurgance of ones soul, passed on to another lifeform. It is also called rebirth or transmigration, and is a part of the Saṃsāra doctrine of cyclic existence. It is a central tenet of all major Indian religions , namely Buddhism
Buddhism
, Hinduism , Jainism
Jainism
, and Sikhism . The idea of reincarnation is found in many ancient cultures, and a belief in rebirth/metempsychosis was held by Greek historic figures, such as Pythagoras
Pythagoras
, Socrates , and Plato
Plato

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Saṃsāra
SAṃSāRA is a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word that means "wandering" or "world", with the connotation of cyclic, circuitous change. It also refers to the theory of rebirth and "cyclicality of all life, matter, existence", a fundamental assumption of all Indian religions . Saṃsāra
Saṃsāra
is sometimes referred to with terms or phrases such as transmigration, karmic cycle, reincarnation , and "cycle of aimless drifting, wandering or mundane existence". The concept of Saṃsāra
Saṃsāra
has roots in the Vedic literature , but the theory is not discussed there. It appears in developed form, but without mechanistic details, in the early Upanishads
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Karma In Hinduism
Karma is a concept in Hinduism which explains causality through a system where beneficial effects are derived from past beneficial actions and harmful effects from past harmful actions, creating a system of actions and reactions throughout a soul's (Atman 's) reincarnated lives forming a cycle of rebirth. The causality is said to be applicable not only to the material world but also to our thoughts, words, actions and actions that others do under our instructions
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Karma In Buddhism
KARMA (Sanskrit, also _karman_, Pāli: _kamma_) is a Sanskrit term that literally means "action" or "doing". In the Buddhist tradition, _karma_ refers to action driven by intention (_cetanā _) which leads to future consequences. Those intentions are considered to be the determining factor in the kind of rebirth in _samsara _, the cycle of rebirth
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Karma In Jainism
KARMA is the basic principle within an overarching psycho-cosmology in Jainism
Jainism
. Human moral actions form the basis of the transmigration of the soul (_jīva _). The soul is constrained to a cycle of rebirth, trapped within the temporal world (_saṃsāra _), until it finally achieves liberation (_mokṣa _). Liberation is achieved by following a path of purification. Jains believe that karma is a physical substance that is everywhere in the universe. Karma
Karma
particles are attracted to the soul by the actions of that soul. Karma
Karma
particles are attracted when we do, think, or say things, when we kill something, when we lie, when we steal and so on
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Sikhism
SIKHISM (/ˈsikᵻzəm/ ), or SIKHI (Punjabi : ਸਿੱਖੀ _Sikkhī_, pronounced , from _Sikh_, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a monotheistic/panentheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent about the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib , include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, unity of all humankind, engaging in selfless service , striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all , and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak , the first Guru, and the ten successive Sikh gurus
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Taoism
TAOISM (/ˈdaʊɪzəm/ or /ˈtaʊɪzəm/ ), also known as DAOISM, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao
Tao
(道, literally "Way", also romanized as Dao ). The Tao
Tao
is a fundamental idea in most Chinese philosophical schools; in Taoism, however, it denotes the principle that is the source, pattern and substance of everything that exists. Taoism
Taoism
differs from Confucianism by not emphasizing rigid rituals and social order. Taoist ethics vary depending on the particular school, but in general tend to emphasize wu wei (effortless action), "naturalness", simplicity, spontaneity, and the Three Treasures : 慈 "compassion", 儉 "frugality", and 不敢為天下先 "humility". The roots of Taoism
Taoism
go back at least to the 4th century BCE
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Indologists
INDOLOGY or SOUTH ASIAN STUDIES is the academic study of the history and cultures , languages , and literature of India and as such is a subset of Asian studies . The term Indology or (in German) Indologie is often associated with German scholarship, and is used more commonly in departmental titles in German and continental European universities than in the anglophone academy. In the Netherlands the term Indologie was used to designate the study of Indonesian history and culture in preparation for colonial service in the Dutch East Indies . Specifically, Indology includes the study of Sanskrit literature and Hinduism along with the other Indian religions , Jainism , Buddhism and Pāli literature, and Sikhism
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Wendy Doniger
WENDY DONIGER O\'FLAHERTY (born November 20, 1940) is an American Indologist whose professional career has spanned five decades. A scholar of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Indian textual traditions, her major works include, Asceticism and Eroticism in the Mythology
Mythology
of Siva; Hindu Myths: A Sourcebook; The Origins of Evil in Hindu Mythology; Women, Androgynes, and Other Mythical Beasts; and The Rig Veda: An Anthology, 108 Hymns Translated from the Sanskrit. She is the Mircea Eliade Distinguished Service Professor of History of Religions at the University of Chicago , and has taught there since 1978. She served as president of the Association for Asian Studies in 1998
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Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
The _BRIHADARANYAKA UPANISHAD_ (Sanskrit: बृहदारण्यक उपनिषद्, Bṛhadāraṇyakopaniṣat) is one of the Principal Upanishads and one of the oldest Upanishadic scriptures of Hinduism . A key scripture to various schools of Hinduism , the _Brihadaranyaka Upanisad_ is tenth in the Muktikā
Muktikā
or "canon of 108 Upanishads". The _Brihadaranyaka Upanishad_ is estimated to have been composed about 700 BCE, excluding some parts estimated to have been composed after the _ Chandogya Upanishad _. The Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language text is contained within the _Shatapatha Brahmana
Brahmana
_, which is itself a part of the Shukla Yajur Veda
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Vāsanā
VāSANā (Sanskrit; Devanagari: वासना) is a behavioural tendency or karmic imprint which influences the present behaviour of a person. It is a technical term in Indian religions , particularly Buddhist philosophy and