HOME TheInfoList.com
Providing Lists of Related Topics to Help You Find Great Stuff
[::MainTopicLength::#1500] [::ListTopicLength::#1500] [::ListLength::#15] [::ListAdRepeat::#3]

picture info

Karma
KARMA (Sanskrit : कर्म, translit. _karma_; IPA: ( listen ); Pali : kamma;) means action, work or deed; it also refers to the spiritual principle of cause and effect where intent and actions of an individual (cause) influence the future of that individual (effect). Good intent and good deed contribute to good karma and future happiness, while bad intent and bad deed contribute to bad karma and future suffering. Karma
Karma
is closely associated with the idea of rebirth in many schools of Asian religions. In these schools, karma in the present affects one's future in the current life, as well as the nature and quality of future lives - one's saṃsāra . With origins in ancient India, karma is a key concept in Hinduism , Buddhism
Buddhism
, Jainism
Jainism
, Sikhism , and Taoism
[...More...]

"Karma" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Karma (other)
KARMA in several Eastern religions is the concept of "action" or "deed", understood as that which causes the entire cycle of cause and effect
[...More...]

"Karma (other)" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Sanskrit Language
A few attempts at revival have been reported in Indian and Nepalese newspapers. India : 14135 Indians claimed Sanskrit to be their mother tongue in the 2001 Census of India : Nepal : 1669 Nepalis in 2011 Nepal census reported Sanskrit as their mother tongue. LANGUAGE FAMILY Indo-European * Indo-Iranian * Indo-Aryan * SANSKRIT EARLY FORM Vedic Sanskrit WRITING SYSTEM Devanagari (official) Also written in various Brahmic scripts . LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-1 sa ISO 639-2 san ISO 639-3 san GLOTTOLOG sans1269 SANSKRIT ( IAST : _Saṃskṛtam_; Devanagari : संस्कृतम्; IPA : ) is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism ; a philosophical language of Hinduism , Sikhism , Buddhism , and Jainism ; and a literary language and lingua franca of ancient and medieval India and Nepal . As a result of transmission of Hindu and Buddhist culture to Southeast Asia and parts of Central Asia , it was also a language of high culture in some of these regions during the early-medieval era
[...More...]

"Sanskrit Language" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Romanization Of Sanskrit
There are several methods of transliteration from Devanāgarī to the Roman script (a process known as romanization ) which share similarities, although no single system of transliteration has emerged as the standard
[...More...]

"Romanization Of Sanskrit" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Pali Language
PALI (_Pāli_) is a Prakrit language native to the Indian subcontinent . It is widely studied because it is the language of much of the earliest extant literature of Buddhism as collected in the _ Pāli Canon _ or _Tipiṭaka _ and is the sacred language of some religious texts of Hinduism and all texts of _Theravāda _ Buddhism
[...More...]

"Pali Language" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Reincarnation
REINCARNATION is the philosophical or religious concept that an aspect of a living being starts a new life in a different physical body or form after each biological death . In simpler terms, Reincarnation
Reincarnation
is the resurgance of ones soul, passed on to another lifeform. It is also called rebirth or transmigration, and is a part of the Saṃsāra doctrine of cyclic existence. It is a central tenet of all major Indian religions , namely Buddhism
Buddhism
, Hinduism , Jainism
Jainism
, and Sikhism . The idea of reincarnation is found in many ancient cultures, and a belief in rebirth/metempsychosis was held by Greek historic figures, such as Pythagoras
Pythagoras
, Socrates , and Plato
Plato
. It is also a common belief of various ancient and modern religions such as Spiritism , Theosophy , and Eckankar and is found as well in many tribal societies around the world, in places such as Australia
Australia
, East Asia
East Asia
, Siberia
Siberia
, and South America
South America

[...More...]

"Reincarnation" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Saṃsāra
SAṃSāRA is a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word that means "wandering" or "world", with the connotation of cyclic, circuitous change. It also refers to the theory of rebirth and "cyclicality of all life, matter, existence", a fundamental assumption of all Indian religions . Saṃsāra
Saṃsāra
is sometimes referred to with terms or phrases such as transmigration, karmic cycle, reincarnation , and "cycle of aimless drifting, wandering or mundane existence". The concept of Saṃsāra
Saṃsāra
has roots in the Vedic literature , but the theory is not discussed there. It appears in developed form, but without mechanistic details, in the early Upanishads . The full exposition of the Saṃsāra
Saṃsāra
doctrine is found in Sramanic religions such as Buddhism
Buddhism
and Jainism
Jainism
, as well as the various schools of Hindu philosophy , after about the mid 1st millennium BCE. The Saṃsāra doctrine is tied to the Karma theory of Indian religions and the liberation from Saṃsāra
Saṃsāra
has been at the core of the spiritual quest of Indian traditions, as well as their internal disagreements. The liberation from Saṃsāra
Saṃsāra
is called Moksha , Nirvana , Mukti or Kaivalya
[...More...]

"Saṃsāra" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Karma In Hinduism
Karma
Karma
is a concept in Hinduism which explains causality through a system where beneficial effects are derived from past beneficial actions and harmful effects from past harmful actions, creating a system of actions and reactions throughout a soul's (Atman 's) reincarnated lives forming a cycle of rebirth. The causality is said to be applicable not only to the material world but also to our thoughts, words, actions and actions that others do under our instructions
[...More...]

"Karma In Hinduism" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Karma In Buddhism
KARMA (Sanskrit, also _karman_, Pāli: _kamma_) is a Sanskrit term that literally means "action" or "doing". In the Buddhist tradition, _karma_ refers to action driven by intention (_cetanā _) which leads to future consequences. Those intentions are considered to be the determining factor in the kind of rebirth in _samsara _, the cycle of rebirth. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Buddhist understanding of _karma_ * 2.1 Rebirth * 2.2 Karma * 2.3 Karmaphala * 2.4 Complex process * 2.5 Liberation from _samsara_ * 3 Within the Pali suttas * 4 Within Buddhist traditions * 4.1 Early Indian Buddhism * 4.1.1 Origins * 4.1.2 Pre-sectarian Buddhism * 4.1.3 Vaibhāṣika-Sarvāstivādin tradition * 4.1.4 Dārṣṭāntika- Sautrāntika * 4.2 Theravādin tradition * 4.2.1 Canonical texts * 4.2.2 Transfer of merit * 4.3 Mahayana tradition * 4.3.1 Indian Yogācāra tradition * 4.3.2 Mādhyamaka philosophy * 4.3.3 Tibetan Buddhism * 4.3.4 East Asian traditions * 4.3.4.1 Zen * 4.3.4.2 Tendai * 5 Modern interpretations and controversies * 5.1 Social conditioning * 5.2 Karma theory ">_ Tibetan Bhavacakra_ or "Wheel of Life" in Sera , Lhasa . _Karma_ and _karmaphala_ are fundamental concepts in Buddhism
[...More...]

"Karma In Buddhism" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Karma In Jainism
KARMA is the basic principle within an overarching psycho-cosmology in Jainism
Jainism
. Human moral actions form the basis of the transmigration of the soul (_jīva _). The soul is constrained to a cycle of rebirth, trapped within the temporal world (_saṃsāra _), until it finally achieves liberation (_mokṣa _). Liberation is achieved by following a path of purification. Jains believe that karma is a physical substance that is everywhere in the universe. Karma
Karma
particles are attracted to the soul by the actions of that soul. Karma
Karma
particles are attracted when we do, think, or say things, when we kill something, when we lie, when we steal and so on. Karma
Karma
not only encompasses the causality of transmigration, but is also conceived of as an extremely subtle matter, which infiltrates the soul —obscuring its natural, transparent and pure qualities. Karma
Karma
is thought of as a kind of pollution, that taints the soul with various colours (_leśyā _). Based on its karma, a soul undergoes transmigration and reincarnates in various states of existence—like heavens or hells, or as humans or animals. Jains cite inequalities, sufferings, and pain as evidence for the existence of karma. Various types of karma are classified according to their effects on the potency of the soul
[...More...]

"Karma In Jainism" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Sikhism
SIKHISM (/ˈsikᵻzəm/ ), or SIKHI (Punjabi : ਸਿੱਖੀ _Sikkhī_, pronounced , from _Sikh_, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a monotheistic/panentheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent about the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib , include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, unity of all humankind, engaging in selfless service , striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all , and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak , the first Guru, and the ten successive Sikh gurus . Guru Nanak established Kartarpur (Creator's town) around 1520 and gathered the original core of the Sikh Panth (community) there. After the death of the tenth Guru , Guru Gobind Singh , the Sikh scripture, Guru Granth Sahib , became the literal embodiment of the eternal, impersonal Guru , where the scripture's word serves as the spiritual guide for Sikhs. An Indian religion, Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth
[...More...]

"Sikhism" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Taoism
TAOISM (/ˈdaʊɪzəm/ or /ˈtaʊɪzəm/ ), also known as DAOISM, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao
Tao
(道, literally "Way", also romanized as Dao ). The Tao
Tao
is a fundamental idea in most Chinese philosophical schools; in Taoism, however, it denotes the principle that is the source, pattern and substance of everything that exists. Taoism
Taoism
differs from Confucianism by not emphasizing rigid rituals and social order. Taoist ethics vary depending on the particular school, but in general tend to emphasize wu wei (effortless action), "naturalness", simplicity, spontaneity, and the Three Treasures : 慈 "compassion", 儉 "frugality", and 不敢為天下先 "humility". The roots of Taoism
Taoism
go back at least to the 4th century BCE. Early Taoism
Taoism
drew its cosmological notions from the School of Yinyang (Naturalists), and was deeply influenced by one of the oldest texts of Chinese culture, the Yijing , which expounds a philosophical system about how to keep human behavior in accordance with the alternating cycles of nature
[...More...]

"Taoism" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Indologists
INDOLOGY or SOUTH ASIAN STUDIES is the academic study of the history and cultures , languages , and literature of India and as such is a subset of Asian studies . The term Indology or (in German) Indologie is often associated with German scholarship, and is used more commonly in departmental titles in German and continental European universities than in the anglophone academy. In the Netherlands the term Indologie was used to designate the study of Indonesian history and culture in preparation for colonial service in the Dutch East Indies . Specifically, Indology includes the study of Sanskrit literature
Sanskrit literature
and Hinduism along with the other Indian religions , Jainism , Buddhism and Pāli
Pāli
literature, and Sikhism . Dravidology is the separate branch dedicated to the Dravidian languages of South India. Some scholars distinguish Classical Indology from Modern Indology, the former more focussed on Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and other ancient language sources, the latter on contemporary India, its politics and sociology
[...More...]

"Indologists" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Wendy Doniger
WENDY DONIGER O\'FLAHERTY (born November 20, 1940) is an American Indologist whose professional career has spanned five decades. A scholar of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Indian textual traditions, her major works include, Asceticism and Eroticism in the Mythology
Mythology
of Siva; Hindu Myths: A Sourcebook; The Origins of Evil in Hindu Mythology; Women, Androgynes, and Other Mythical Beasts; and The Rig Veda: An Anthology, 108 Hymns Translated from the Sanskrit. She is the Mircea Eliade Distinguished Service Professor of History of Religions at the University of Chicago
University of Chicago
, and has taught there since 1978. She served as president of the Association for Asian Studies in 1998. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Reception * 2.1 Recognition * 2.2 Criticism * 2.3 The Hindus * 3 Recognition * 4 Works * 4.1 Interpretive works * 4.2 Translations * 4.3 Edited volumes * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links BIOGRAPHYDoniger was born in New York City to immigrant non-observant Jewish parents, and raised in Great Neck
Great Neck
, New York, where her father, Lester L. Doniger (1909–1971), ran a publishing business. While in high school, she studied dance under George Balanchine and Martha Graham
[...More...]

"Wendy Doniger" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
The _BRIHADARANYAKA UPANISHAD_ (Sanskrit: बृहदारण्यक उपनिषद्, Bṛhadāraṇyakopaniṣat) is one of the Principal Upanishads and one of the oldest Upanishadic scriptures of Hinduism . A key scripture to various schools of Hinduism , the _Brihadaranyaka Upanisad_ is tenth in the Muktikā
Muktikā
or "canon of 108 Upanishads". The _Brihadaranyaka Upanishad_ is estimated to have been composed about 700 BCE, excluding some parts estimated to have been composed after the _ Chandogya Upanishad _. The Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language text is contained within the _Shatapatha Brahmana
Brahmana
_, which is itself a part of the Shukla Yajur Veda . The _Brihadaranyaka Upanishad_ is a treatise on Ātman (Soul, Self), includes passages on metaphysics , ethics and a yearning for knowledge that influenced various Indian religions
Indian religions
, ancient and medieval scholars, and attracted secondary works such as those by Madhvacharya and Adi Shankara
[...More...]

"Brihadaranyaka Upanishad" on:
Wikipedia</