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Karma
KARMA (/ˈkɑːrmə/ ; Sanskrit : कर्म, translit. karma, IPA: ( listen ); Pali : kamma) means action, work or deed; it also refers to the spiritual principle of cause and effect where intent and actions of an individual (cause) influence the future of that individual (effect). Good intent and good deed contribute to good karma and future happiness, while bad intent and bad deed contribute to bad karma and future suffering. Karma
Karma
is closely associated with the idea of rebirth in many schools of Indian religions . In these schools, karma in the present affects one's future in the current life, as well as the nature and quality of future lives - one's saṃsāra . With origins in ancient India, karma is a key concept in Hinduism , Buddhism
Buddhism
, Jainism
Jainism
, Sikhism , and Taoism
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Consciousness
CONSCIOUSNESS is the state or quality of awareness , or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself. It has been defined variously in terms of sentience , awareness, qualia , subjectivity , the ability to experience or to feel , wakefulness , having a sense of selfhood or soul , the fact that there is something "that it is like" to "have" or "be" it, and the executive control system of the mind . In contemporary philosophy its definition is often hinted at via the logical possibility of its absence, the philosophical zombie , which is defined as a being whose behavior and function are identical to one's own yet there is "no-one in there" experiencing it. Despite the difficulty in definition, many philosophers believe that there is a broadly shared underlying intuition about what consciousness is
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Soteriology
SOTERIOLOGY (/səˌtɪəriˈɒlədʒi/ ; Greek : σωτηρία sōtēria "salvation " from σωτήρ sōtēr "savior, preserver" and λόγος logos "study" or "word" ) is the study of religious doctrines of salvation . Salvation
Salvation
theory occupies a place of special significance in many religions. In the academic field of religious studies , soteriology is understood by scholars as representing a key theme in a number of different religions and is often studied in a comparative context; that is, comparing various ideas about what salvation is and how it is obtained
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Anushasana Parva
ANUSHASANA PARVA (Sanskrit : अनुशासन पर्व, IAST : Anuśāsanaparva) or the "Book of Instructions", is the thirteenth of eighteen books of the Indian Epic Mahabharata . It has 2 sub-books and 168 chapters. Sometimes this parva is referred to as the "Book of Precepts". Anushasana Parva continues the theme of Shanti Parva , a discussion of duties of a ruler, the rule of law, instructions on dharma for those close to the leader. The dialogue is between Yudhishthira , Bhishma and other sages. The book debates the duties, behaviors and habits of individuals, with chapters dedicated to men and to women. Various types of marriages are mentioned and their merits compared. The parva also recites many symbolic tales and legends such as the legend of Nachiketa , as well as the death and last rites of Bhishma, the eldest member of the Kuru family
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Indologists
INDOLOGY or SOUTH ASIAN STUDIES is the academic study of the history and cultures , languages , and literature of India and as such is a subset of Asian studies . The term Indology or (in German) Indologie is often associated with German scholarship, and is used more commonly in departmental titles in German and continental European universities than in the anglophone academy. In the Netherlands the term Indologie was used to designate the study of Indonesian history and culture in preparation for colonial service in the Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies

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Vedic Sanskrit
VEDIC SANSKRIT is an Indo-European language , more specifically one branch of the Indo-Iranian group. It is the ancient language of the Vedas
Vedas
of Hinduism
Hinduism
, texts compiled over the period of the mid-2nd to mid-1st millennium BCE. It was orally preserved , predating the advent of Brahmi script
Brahmi script
by several centuries. Vedic Sanskrit
Sanskrit
is an archaic language, whose consensus translation has been challenging. Extensive ancient literature in the Vedic Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language has survived into the modern era, and this has been a major source of information about Indo-European parent language. Quite early in the pre-historic era, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
separated from the Avestan language (an Eastern Iranian language )
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Romanization Of Hindi
There are several methods of transliteration from Devanāgarī
Devanāgarī
to the Roman script (a process known as romanization ) which share similarities, although no single system of transliteration has emerged as the standard
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Udayana
VEDANTA * Advaita * Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
* Dvaita
Dvaita
Vedanta <
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Romanization Of Sanskrit
There are several methods of transliteration from Devanāgarī
Devanāgarī
to the Roman script (a process known as romanization ) which share similarities, although no single system of transliteration has emerged as the standard
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Wilhelm Halbfass
WILHELM HALBFASS (11 May 1940 in Northeim
Northeim
– 25 May 2000) was a German -born Indologist . LIFEHalbfass studied Philosophy, Indology and Classical Philology at the universities of Vienna and Göttingen, and successfully defended his doctoral thesis on Indian Philosophy at Göttingen University
Göttingen University
in 1967. He was a professor in the departments of Asian and Middle Eastern Studies and South Asia Regional Studies at the University of Pennsylvania from 1982 until his death in 2000. Along with Prof. Ludo Rocher , Prof. Ernest Bender , Prof. George Cardona , and several other Sanskritists, he made the University of Pennsylvania
University of Pennsylvania
the center of Sanskrit learning in North America
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Satapatha Brahmana
DIVISIONS * Samhita * Brahmana
Brahmana
* Aranyaka * Upanishads
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Taoism
TAOISM (/ˈdaʊɪzəm/ or /ˈtaʊɪzəm/ ), also known as DAOISM, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao
Tao
(道, literally "Way", also romanized as Dao ). The Tao
Tao
is a fundamental idea in most Chinese philosophical schools; in Taoism, however, it denotes the principle that is the source, pattern and substance of everything that exists. Taoism
Taoism
differs from Confucianism
Confucianism
by not emphasizing rigid rituals and social order. Taoist ethics vary depending on the particular school, but in general tend to emphasize wu wei (effortless action), "naturalness", simplicity, spontaneity, and the Three Treasures : 慈 "compassion", 儉 "frugality", and 不敢為天下先 "humility". The roots of Taoism
Taoism
go back at least to the 4th century BCE
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Wendy Doniger
WENDY DONIGER O\'FLAHERTY (born November 20, 1940) is an American Indologist whose professional career has spanned five decades. A scholar of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Indian textual traditions, her major works include, Asceticism and Eroticism in the Mythology
Mythology
of Siva; Hindu Myths: A Sourcebook; The Origins of Evil in Hindu Mythology; Women, Androgynes, and Other Mythical Beasts; and The Rig Veda: An Anthology, 108 Hymns Translated from the Sanskrit. She is the Mircea Eliade Distinguished Service Professor of History of Religions at the University of Chicago
University of Chicago
, and has taught there since 1978. She served as president of the Association for Asian Studies in 1998
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Sikhism
SIKHISM (/ˈsikᵻzəm/ ), or SIKHI (Punjabi : ਸਿੱਖੀ Sikkhī, pronounced , from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a panentheistic Indian religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
about the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib
Guru Granth Sahib
, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, unity of all humankind, engaging in selfless service , striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all , and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. In the early 21st century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them living in the Indian state of Punjab
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Hindi Language
HINDI ( Devanagari
Devanagari
: हिन्दी, IAST
IAST
: Hindī), or MODERN STANDARD HINDI ( Devanagari
Devanagari
: मानक हिन्दी, IAST
IAST
: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and sanskritised register of the Hindustani language . Modern Hindi
Hindi
and its literary tradition evolved towards the end of the 18th century. Along with the English language
English language
, Hindi
Hindi
written in the Devanagari script is the official language of the Government of India
India
. On 14 September 1949, the Constituent Assembly of India
India
adopted Hindi written in Devanagari script as the official language of the Republic of India
India

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Sanskrit Language
A few attempts at revival have been reported in Indian and Nepalese newspapers. India
India
: 14,135 Indians claimed Sanskrit
Sanskrit
to be their mother tongue in the 2001 Census of India
India
: Nepal
Nepal
: 1,669 Nepalis in 2011 Nepal
Nepal
census reported Sanskrit
Sanskrit
as their mother tongue. LANGUAGE FAMILY Indo-European * Indo-Iranian * Indo-Aryan * SANSKRIT EARLY FORM Vedic Sanskrit WRITING SYSTEM Devanagari
Devanagari
Also written in various Brahmic scripts
Brahmic scripts

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