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Karl Von Pflanzer-Baltin
Karl Freiherr von Pflanzer-Baltin (1 June 1855, Pécs, Hungary
Hungary
- 8 April 1925, Vienna) was an Austro-Hungarian general who was active in World War I.Contents1 Biography 2 Decorations and awards 3 Notes 4 ReferencesBiography[edit] Pflanzer-Baltin became General of Cavalry from October 1912 and he served on the general staff, but in 1914 he was unattached, due to precarious health. It was only in the autumn of that year, when Romania
Romania
appeared to be turning against the Central Powers, that he was charged with the defense of Transylvania. When the Russians crossed the Carpathians, and there was immediate danger of their eruption into the Hungarian plains, Pflanzer-Baltin, with an improvised division, threw himself on them, and conducted a defense with a series of offensive movements. He was promoted to Colonel-General
Colonel-General
in 1916
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Berat
Official Website UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage SiteOfficial name Historic Centres of Berat
Berat
and GjirokastraType CulturalCriteria iii, ivDesignated 2005Reference no. 569Region Berat
Berat
CountyEurope 2005–present Berat
Berat
(Albanian pronunciation: [ˈbɛ:rat], definite Albanian form: Berati), historically known as Poulcheriopólis and Antipatreia, is the ninth most populous city of the Republic of Albania
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Fier
Fier
Fier
(definite Albanian form: Fieri) is a city and a municipality in Fier County
Fier County
in southwest Albania. Fier
Fier
is 11 km (7 mi) from the ruins of the ancient city of Apollonia. The population of the former municipality at the 2011 census was 85,845.[1] Geographically, it is located on the center of the country surrounded by hills. The city is located some 16 kilometres east of the Adriatic Sea and 100 kilometres south of Tirana. The ruins of Apollonia are situated in the Fier
Fier
region
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Moritz Auffenberg-Komarow
Moritz Auffenberg, from 1869 Ritter
Ritter
von Auffenberg, from 1915 Freiherr Auffenberg von Komarów (22 May 1852 – 18 May 1928) was a general of infantry for the Austro-Hungarian Army
Austro-Hungarian Army
and Minister of War. At the outbreak of World War I, he took command of the Fourth Army.Contents1 Biography 2 Books 3 Notes 4 ReferencesBiography[edit] Auffenberg entered the army at age 19. As a young staff officer, he served in the army which occupied Bosnia
Bosnia
in 1878. He later commanded the XV. Army Corps at Sarajevo. In 1910, he reached the rank of general. His active spirit led him to take a vigorous part in the internal politics of the monarchy, his knowledge of the Hungarian and more especially of the Southern Slav question being intimate
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Public Domain
The legal term public domain refers to works whose exclusive intellectual property rights have expired,[1] have been forfeited,[2] have been expressly waived, or are inapplicable.[3] For example, the works of Shakespeare
Shakespeare
and Beethoven, and most early silent films are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired.[1] Some works are not covered by copyright, and are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes,[4] and all computer software created prior to 1974.[5]
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Order Of Saint Stephen Of Hungary
The Royal Hungarian Order of Saint Stephen
Order of Saint Stephen
(Hungarian: Magyar Királyi Szent István Iovagrend; German: Königlich Ungarische Sankt-Stephans-Orden) was an order of knighthood founded by Holy Roman Empress Maria Theresa in 1764. The Order was terminated at the time of the proclamation of the Republic of Hungary
Hungary
in 1946. It was recreated in 2011 as the Hungarian Order of Saint Stephen, and to this day remains the highest order in Hungary.[1][2][3]Royal Hungarian Order of Saint Stephen, Grand CrossCape and gown of a knight of the orderContents1 Significance of St. Stephen to Hungarians 2 Creation of the Order and qualifications for membership 3 Insignia 4 Partial list of members4.1 Grand Masters 4.2 Knights, Grand Cross 4.3 Knights Commander 4.4 Knights5 Sources 6 References 7 External linksSignificance of St
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Gallipoli Star (Ottoman Empire)
The Gallipolli Star is a military decoration awarded by the Ottoman Empire. It was known as the Ottoman War Medal (Turkish: Harp Madalyası) or the Iron Crescent
Crescent
(from German Eiserner Halbmond, in allusion to the Iron Cross). It was instituted by Sultan Mehmed V
Mehmed V
on 1 March 1915
1915
for gallantry in battle. This decoration was awarded for the duration of World War I
World War I
to Ottoman and other Central Powers troops, primarily in Ottoman areas of engagement.Contents1 Design and composition 2 Wear 3 References 4 GalleryDesign and composition[edit]The Gallipoli Star
Gallipoli Star
was instituted by Mehmed V.The award includes a badge, ribbon and campaign bar. The medal, made of nickel-plated brass, has a vaulted star-shaped badge, 56 mm across the diagonal span of the arms
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Military Merit Medal (Austria-Hungary)
The Military Merit Medal (German: Militär-Verdienstmedaille, Hungarian: Katonai Érdemérem, Croatian: Vojna medalja za zasluge)[1] was a military decoration of the Empire of Austria-Hungary. It was founded by Emperor Franz Joseph I
Franz Joseph I
on March 12, 1890. The Military Merit Medal is often referred to as the "Signum Laudis" (Latin for "sign of praise") after the inscription on the reverse of the medal.Contents1 History and description 2 Post-World War I 3 Notable recipients of the Signum Laudis 4 See also 5 ReferencesHistory and description[edit] The Military Merit Medal was only awarded to officers and officials of similar rank. In the Austro-Hungarian order of precedence, the Military Merit Medal ranked below orders, such as the Order of the Iron Crown, and the Military Merit Cross
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Iron Cross
The Iron Cross
Iron Cross
(German:  Eisernes Kreuz (help·info), abbreviated EK) was a military decoration in the Kingdom of Prussia, and later in the German Empire
German Empire
(1871–1918) and Nazi Germany (1933–1945). It was established by King Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia in March 1813 backdated to the birthday of his late wife Queen Louise on 10 March 1813 during the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
(EK 1813). Louise was the first person to receive this decoration (posthumous).[1] The recommissioned Iron Cross
Iron Cross
was also awarded during the Franco-Prussian War (EK 1870), World War I
World War I
(EK 1914), and World War II
World War II
(EK 1939, re-introduced with a swastika added in the center)
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Decoration For Services To The Red Cross
The Decoration for Services to the Red Cross
Red Cross
(Ehrenzeichen für Verdienste um das Rote Kreuz) was an Austro-Hungarian award instituted on 17 August 1914 by Emperor Franz Josef I to mark the 50th Anniversary of the Geneva Convention. It was intended to honour individuals who had worked in the voluntary emergency services of the Red Cross, either in peacetime or in war. The order consists of four classes, as well as an associated medal in two classes:1st: Star 2nd: Merit Cross, 1st class 3rd: Officer's Cross 4th: Merit Cross, 2nd class Silver Medal Bronze MedalAwards for military services was augmented with a war decoration for the ceremony.This article related to orders, decorations, and medals is a stub
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Military Order Of Maria Theresa
The Military Order of Maria Theresa
Military Order of Maria Theresa
(German: Militär-Maria-Theresien-Orden, Hungarian: Katonai Mária Terézia-rend, Czech: Vojenský řád Marie Terezie, Polish: Wojskowy Order Marii Teresy, Slovene: Vojaški red Marije Terezije, Croatian: Vojni Red Marije Terezije was an Order of the Austro-Hungarian Empire founded on 18 June 1757, the day of the Battle of Kolin, by the Empress Maria Theresa to reward especially meritorious and valorous acts by commissioned officers, including and especially the courageous act of defeating an enemy, and thus "serving" their monarch. It was specifically given for "successful military acts of essential impact to a campaign that were undertaken on [the officer's] own initiative, and might have been omitted by an honorable officer without reproach." This gave rise to a popular myth that it was awarded for (successfully) acting against an explicit order
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Geheimrat
Geheimrat was the title of the highest advising officials at the Imperial, royal or princely courts of the Holy Roman Empire, who jointly formed the Geheimer Rat reporting to the ruler. The term remained in use during subsequent monarchic reigns in German-speaking areas of Europe until the end of the First World War. At its origin the literal meaning of the word in German was 'trusted advisor'. The English-language equivalent is Privy Councillor. The office contributing to the state's politics and legislation had its roots in the age of absolutism from the 17th century onward, when a governmental administration by a dependent bureaucracy was established similar to the French Conseil du Roi. A precursor was the Reichshofrat, a judicial body established by Emperor Maximilian I of Habsburg
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Order Of Leopold (Austria)
The Austrian Imperial Order of Leopold (German: Österreichisch-kaiserlicher Leopold-Orden) was founded by Franz I of Austria on 8 January 1808. The order's statutes stipulated only three grades: Grand Cross, Commander and Knight. During the war, in common with the other Austro-Hungarian decorations, crossed swords were instituted to reward bravery in the face of the enemy. An Imperial Decree of 1 February 1901 ordered that in future, the senior grade would be split into two separate awards
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Order Of The Iron Crown (Austria)
The Austrian Imperial Order of the Iron Crown
Order of the Iron Crown
(German: Kaiserlicher Orden der Eisernen Krone; Italian: Ordine imperiale della Corona ferrea) was one of the highest orders of merit of Austria
Austria
and Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
until 1918. It was re-established in 1815 by Emperor Franz I of Austria. The original Order of the Iron Crown
Order of the Iron Crown
had previously been an order of the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy. The order had three classes and all classes conferred automatic hereditary ennoblement; the third class conferred the rank of Ritter, the second class conferred the rank of Baron
Baron
and the first class conferred the title of Privy Councillor, the style of Excellency, and the right to attend court
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Military Merit Cross (Austria-Hungary)
The Military Merit Cross (German: Militärverdienstkreuz, Hungarian: Katonai Érdemkereszt, Croatian: Vojni križ za zasluge)[1] was a decoration of the Empire of Austria and, after the establishment of the Dual Monarchy
Dual Monarchy
in 1867, the Empire of Austria-Hungary. It was first established on October 22, 1849 and underwent several revisions to its design and award criteria over the years of its existence. It became obsolete in 1918 with the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.Contents1 History 2 Description 3 Notable recipients 4 ReferencesHistory[edit] The Military Merit Cross was established on October 22, 1849 by Emperor Franz Joseph I, based on the recommendation of Field Marshal Count Radetzky
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Austro-Hungarian Army
The Austro-Hungarian Army
Army
(German: Landstreitkräfte Österreich-Ungarns; Hungarian: Császári és Királyi Hadsereg) was the ground force of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy
Dual Monarchy
from 1867 to 1918. It was composed of three parts: the joint army (Gemeinsame Armee, "Common Army", recruited from all parts of the country), the Imperial Austrian Landwehr
Landwehr
(recruited from Cisleithania), and the Royal Hungarian Honved
Royal Hungarian Honved
(recruited from Transleithania). In the wake of fighting between the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
and the Hungarian Kingdom and the two decades of uneasy co-existence following, Hungarian soldiers served either in mixed units or were stationed away from Hungarian areas. With the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867
Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867
the new tripartite army was brought into being
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