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Kannada Language
KANNADA (/ˈkɑːnədə, ˈkæn-/ ; ಕನ್ನಡ kannaḍa ), also known as CANARESE or KANARESE /kænəˈriːz/ , is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Kannada people
Kannada people
in India
India
, mainly in the state of Karnataka
Karnataka
(ಕರ್ನಾಟಕ), and by linguistic minorities in the states of Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
, Telangana
Telangana
, Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
, Maharashtra , Kerala
Kerala
, and Goa
Goa
. The language has roughly 40 million native speakers who are called Kannadigas
Kannadigas
(Kannadigaru), and a total of 50.8 million speakers according to a 2001 census. It is one of the scheduled languages of India
India
and the official and administrative language of the state of Karnataka
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Tamil Nadu
^# Jana Gana Mana
Jana Gana Mana
is the national anthem, while "Invocation to Tamil Mother" is the state song/anthem. ^† Established in 1773; Madras State was formed in 1950 and renamed as Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
on 14 January 1969 ^^ Tamil is the official language of the state. English is declared as an additional official language for communication purposes
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Languages With Official Status In India
LANGUAGE is the ability to acquire and use complex systems of communication , particularly the human ability to do so, and A LANGUAGE is any specific example of such a system. The scientific study of language is called linguistics . Questions concerning the philosophy of language , such as whether words can represent experience, have been debated since Gorgias
Gorgias
and Plato
Plato
in Ancient Greece . Thinkers such as Rousseau
Rousseau
have argued that language originated from emotions while others like Kant have held that it originated from rational and logical thought. 20th-century philosophers such as Wittgenstein argued that philosophy is really the study of language. Major figures in linguistics include Ferdinand de Saussure and Noam Chomsky
Noam Chomsky
. Estimates of the number of languages in the world vary between 5,000 and 7,000
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Ministry Of Culture
MINISTRY may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Government * 2 Religion * 3 Music * 4 Fiction * 5 See also GOVERNMENT * Ministry (collective executive) , the complete body of government ministers under the leadership of a prime minister * Ministry (government department) , a department of a governmentRELIGION* Christian ministry , activity by Christians to spread or express their faith *
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Linguasphere Observatory
The LINGUASPHERE OBSERVATORY (or "Observatoire", based upon its original French and legal title: Observatoire Linguistique) is a transnational linguistic research network. It was created in Quebec
Quebec
in 1983 and was subsequently established and registered in Normandy
Normandy
as a non-profit association under the honorary presidency of the late Léopold Sédar Senghor , a French-language poet and the first president of Senegal
Senegal
. Its founding director is David Dalby, former director of the International African Institute and emeritus reader in the University of London, and its first research secretary was Philippe Blanchet, a Provençal-language poet currently serving as Professor of Sociolinguistics at the University of Rennes
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Glottolog
GLOTTOLOG is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and formerly maintained at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig
Leipzig
, Germany. There are two components: Languoid catalogue, the catalog of the world's languages and language families; and Langdoc, the bibliography. It differs from the similar catalogue Ethnologue in several ways, in that it attempts only to accept languages which the editors have been able to confirm both exist and are distinct (varieties which have not been confirmed, but are inherited from another source, are tagged as "spurious" or "unattested"); it attempts only to classify languages into families which have been demonstrated to be valid; extensive bibliographic information is provided, especially for lesser-known languages; and, to a limited extent, alternative names are listed according to the sources which use them
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ISO 639-2
ISO 639-2:1998, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code, is the second part of the ISO 639 standard , which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages . The three-letter codes given for each language in this part of the standard are referred to as "Alpha-3" codes. There are 464 entries in the list of ISO 639-2 codes . The US Library of Congress is the registration authority for ISO 639-2 (referred to as ISO 639-2/RA). As registration authority, the LOC receives and reviews proposed changes; they also have representation on the ISO 639-RA Joint Advisory Committee responsible for maintaining the ISO 639 code tables
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ISO 639-3
ISO 639-3:2007, Codes for the representation of names of languages – Part 3: Alpha-3 code for comprehensive coverage of languages, is an international standard for language codes in the ISO 639 series. It defines three-letter codes for identifying languages. The standard was published by ISO on 1 February 2007. ISO 639-3 extends the ISO 639-2 alpha-3 codes with an aim to cover all known natural languages . The extended language coverage was based primarily on the language codes used in the Ethnologue (volumes 10-14) published by SIL International , which is now the registration authority for ISO 639-3. It provides an enumeration of languages as complete as possible, including living and extinct, ancient and constructed, major and minor, written and unwritten. However, it does not include reconstructed languages such as Proto-Indo-European
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Government Of India
EXECUTIVE : * President * Vice President * Prime Minister * Union Council of Ministers
Union Council of Ministers
* Cabinet Secretary of India
Cabinet Secretary of India
* Civil Services of India
Civil Services of India
-------------------------PARLIAMENT : * Rajya Sabha * Lok Sabha * The Chairman * The Speaker -------------------------JUDICIARY : * Supreme Court of India
Supreme Court of India
* Chief Justice of India
Chief Justice of India
* High Courts * District Courts Elections ELECTION COMMISSION : * Chief Election Commissioner Political parties * National parties * State parties -------------------------NATIONAL COALITIONS: * National Democratic Alliance (NDA) * United Progressive Alliance
United Progressive Alliance
(UPA) State Govt. and Local Govt
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Central Institute Of Indian Languages
The CENTRAL INSTITUTE OF INDIAN LANGUAGES (CIIL) is an Indian research and teaching institute based in Mysore
Mysore
, part of the Language Bureau of the Ministry of Human Resource Development . It was founded on 17 July 1969. CONTENTS * 1 Centres * 2 Notes and references * 3 See also * 4 External links CENTRESThe Central Institute of Indian Languages has seven centres: * Centre for Classical Languages * Centre for Tribal, Minor, Endangered Languages and Languages Policy * Centre for Lexicography, Folklore, Literature and Translation Studies * Centre for Literacy Studies * Centre for Testing -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;"> * ^ "Home page". Central Institute of Indian Languages. Archived from the original on 13 December 2004. Retrieved 18 April 2013. * ^ "Central Institute of Indian Languages: A legend". Central Institute of Indian Languages
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Tadbhava
TADBHAVA (IPA: ) is the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word for one of three etymological classes defined by native grammarians of Middle Indo-Aryan languages . A "tadbhava" is a word with an Indo-Aryan origin and related to Sanskrit
Sanskrit
but which had been changed to fit the phonology of the Prakrit
Prakrit
or Apabhraṃśa in question. Tadbhavas were distinguished from tatsamas , a term applied to borrowed words which retained their Sanskrit
Sanskrit
form, and deśi ("native"), a term applied to words that were not borrowings. In the modern context, the terms "tadbhava" and "tatsama" are applied to Sanskrit
Sanskrit
loanwords not only in Indo-Aryan languages , but also in Dravidian , Munda and other South Asian languages
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Tatsama
TATSAMA ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
; IPA: ) are Sanskrit
Sanskrit
loanwords in modern Indo-Aryan languages
Indo-Aryan languages
like Bengali , Marathi , Oriya , Hindi
Hindi
, Gujarati , Sinhala and Dravidian languages
Dravidian languages
like Malayalam
Malayalam
, Kannada
Kannada
, Telugu , and Tamil . They belong to a higher and more erudite register than common words , many of which are (in modern Indo-Aryan languages) directly inherited from Old Indo-Aryan (tadbhava ). The tatsama register can be compared to the use of words of Greek origin in English (e.g. hubris)
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Pāṇini
PANINI ( IAST
IAST
PāṇINI, fl. 4th century BCE ) is the name of an ancient Sanskrit
Sanskrit
philologist, grammarian, and a revered scholar in Hinduism
Hinduism
. Considered the father of Indian linguistics , Pāṇini likely lived in the northwest Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
during the early Mahajanapada
Mahajanapada
era. Pāṇini
Pāṇini
is known for his text Ashtadhyayi, a sutra -style treatise on Sanskrit
Sanskrit
grammar , 3,959 "verses" or rules on linguistics , syntax and semantics in "eight chapters" which is the foundational text of the Vyākaraṇa
Vyākaraṇa
branch of the Vedanga
Vedanga
, the auxiliary scholarly disciplines of the Vedic period
Vedic period

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Iravatham Mahadevan
IRAVATHAM MAHADEVAN (born 2 October 1930) is an Indian epigraphist and former civil servant, known for his successful decipherment of Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions and for his expertise on the epigraphy of the Indus Valley Civilization . CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Civil service * 3 Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions * 4 Indus script * 5 Significant contributions * 6 Awards and honours * 7 Publications * 8 References * 9 External links EARLY LIFE Iravatham Mahadevan was born on 2 October 1930 in a Tamil Brahmin family of Thanjavur district . He was conceived in British Burma where his father Iravatham was practising as a doctor. Mahadevan had his schooling in the town of Tiruchirapalli and graduated in Chemistry
Chemistry
from the Vivekananda College, Chennai and law from the Madras Law College
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Prakrit
The PRAKRITS ( Sanskrit : प्राकृत prākṛta, Shauraseni : pāuda, Magadhi Prakrit : pāua) are any of several Middle Indo-Aryan languages . The Ardhamagadhi (or simply Magadhi ) Prakrit, which was used extensively to write the scriptures of Jainism , is often considered to be the definitive form of Prakrit, while others are considered variants thereof. Prakrit
Prakrit
grammarians would give the full grammar of Ardhamagadhi first, and then define the other grammars with relation to it. For this reason, courses teaching 'Prakrit' are often regarded as teaching Ardhamagadhi
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Pali
PALI (Pāli) is a Prakrit
Prakrit
language native to the Indian subcontinent . It is widely studied because it is the language of much of the earliest extant literature of Buddhism
Buddhism
as collected in the Pāli Canon or Tipiṭaka and is the sacred language of some religious texts of Hinduism
Hinduism
and all texts of Theravāda Buddhism
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