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KPa
The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit
SI derived unit
of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus
Young's modulus
and ultimate tensile strength. It is defined as one newton per square metre.[1] It is named after the French polymath Blaise Pascal. Common multiple units of the pascal are the hectopascal (1 hPa = 100 Pa) which is equal to one millibar, and the kilopascal (1 kPa = 1000 Pa) which is equal to one centibar. The unit of measurement called standard atmosphere (atm) is defined as 101325 Pa.[2] Meteorological reports typically state atmospheric pressure in millibars.Contents1 Etymology 2 Definition 3 Standard units 4 Uses4.1 Hectopascal and millibar units5 See also 6 References 7 External linksEtymology[edit] The unit is named after Blaise Pascal, noted for his contributions to hydrodynamics and hydrostatics, and experiments with a barometer
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Pressure Gauge
Pressure
Pressure
measurement is the analysis of an applied force by a fluid (liquid or gas) on a surface. Pressure
Pressure
is typically measured in units of force per unit of surface area. Many techniques have been developed for the measurement of pressure and vacuum. Instruments used to measure and display pressure in an integral unit are called pressure gauges or vacuum gauges. A manometer is a good example as it uses a column of liquid to both measure and indicate pressure
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Materials Science
The interdisciplinary field of materials science, also commonly termed materials science and engineering is the design and discovery of new materials, particularly solids. The intellectual origins of materials science stem from the Enlightenment, when researchers began to use analytical thinking from chemistry, physics, and engineering to understand ancient, phenomenological observations in metallurgy and mineralogy.[1][2] Materials science
Materials science
still incorporates elements of physics, chemistry, and engineering. As such, the field was long considered by academic institutions as a sub-field of these related fields
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Unicode
Unicode
Unicode
is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems. The latest version contains a repertoire of 136,755 characters covering 139 modern and historic scripts, as well as multiple symbol sets
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CJK Compatibility
CJK Compatibility is a Unicode block containing square symbols (both CJK and Latin alphanumeric) encoded for compatibility with east Asian character sets.Contents1 Block 2 History 3 See also 4 ReferencesBlock[edit]CJK Compatibility[1] Official Unicode
Unicode
Consortium code chart (PDF)  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E FU+330x ㌀
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Deprecate
In several fields, deprecation is the discouragement of use of some terminology, feature, design, or practice, typically because it has been superseded or is no longer considered efficient or safe, without completely removing it or prohibiting its use. It can also imply that a feature, design, or practice will be removed or discontinued entirely in the future.[1]Contents1 Etymology 2 Software deprecation 3 Other usage 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksEtymology[edit] In general English usage, the infinitive "to deprecate" means "to express disapproval of (something)". It derives from the Latin
Latin
verb deprecare, meaning "to ward off (a disaster) by prayer". In current technical usage, for one to state that a feature is deprecated is merely a recommendation against using it
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Imperial Measurement System
The system of imperial units or the imperial system (also known as British Imperial[1] or Exchequer Standards of 1825) is the system of units first defined in the British Weights and Measures Act of 1824, which was later refined and reduced. The Imperial units
Imperial units
replaced the Winchester Standards, which were in effect from 1588 to 1825.[2] The system came into official use across the British Empire. By the late 20th century, most nations of the former empire had officially adopted the metric system as their main system of measurement, although some imperial units are still used in the United Kingdom, Canada
Canada
and other countries formerly part of the British Empire
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US Customary System
United States
United States
customary units are a system of measurements commonly used in the United States. The United States
United States
customary system (USCS or USC) developed from English units
English units
which were in use in the British Empire before the U.S. became an independent country. However, the United Kingdom's system of measures was overhauled in 1824 to create the imperial system, changing the definitions of some units. Therefore, while many U.S. units are essentially similar to their Imperial counterparts, there are significant differences between the systems. The majority of U.S
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Geophysics
Geophysics
Geophysics
/dʒiːoʊfɪzɪks/ is a subject of natural science concerned with the physical processes and physical properties of the Earth
Earth
and its surrounding space environment, and the use of quantitative methods for their analysis
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Medical Ultrasonography
Medical ultrasound
Medical ultrasound
(also known as diagnostic sonography or ultrasonography) is a diagnostic imaging technique based on the application of ultrasound. It is used to see internal body structures such as tendons, muscles, joints, blood vessels, and internal organs. Its aim is often to find a source of a disease or to exclude any pathology. The practice of examining pregnant women using ultrasound is called obstetric ultrasound, and is widely used. Ultrasound
Ultrasound
is sound waves with frequencies which are higher than those audible to humans (>20,000 Hz). Ultrasonic images, also known as sonograms, are made by sending pulses of ultrasound into tissue using a probe. The sound echoes off the tissue; with different tissues reflecting varying degrees of sound. These echoes are recorded and displayed as an image to the operator. Many different types of images can be formed using sonographic instruments
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Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Magnetic resonance imaging
Magnetic resonance imaging
is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease. MRI scanners use strong magnetic fields, electric field gradients, and radio waves to generate images of the organs in the body. MRI does not involve X-rays and the use of ionizing radiation, which distinguishes it from CT or CAT scans. Magnetic resonance imaging
Magnetic resonance imaging
is a medical application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). NMR can also be used for imaging in other NMR applications such as NMR spectroscopy. While the hazards of X-rays
X-rays
are now well-controlled in most medical contexts, MRI may still be seen as a better choice than CT. MRI is widely used in hospitals and clinics for medical diagnosis, staging of disease and follow-up without exposing the body to radiation
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Shear Modulus
In materials science, shear modulus or modulus of rigidity, denoted by G, or sometimes S or μ, is defined as the ratio of shear stress to the shear strain:[1] G   = d e f   τ x y γ x y = F / A Δ x / l = F l A Δ x displaystyle G stackrel mathrm def = frac tau _ xy gamma _ xy = frac F/A Delta x/l = frac Fl ADelta x where τ x y = F / A<
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Engineering
Engineering
Engineering
is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more specialized fields of engineering, each with a more specific emphasis on particular areas of applied mathematics, applied science, and types of application
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International Organization For Standardization
The International Organization for Standardization
Standardization
(ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations. Founded on 23 February 1947, the organization promotes worldwide proprietary, industrial and commercial standards
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Tensile Strength
Ultimate tensile strength
Ultimate tensile strength
(UTS), often shortened to tensile strength (TS), ultimate strength, or Ftu within equations,[1][2][3] is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate, as opposed to compressive strength, which withstands loads tending to reduce size. In other words, tensile strength resists tension (being pulled apart), whereas compressive strength resists compression (being pushed together). Ultimate tensile strength
Ultimate tensile strength
is measured by the maximum stress that a material can withstand while being stretched or pulled before breaking. In the study of strength of materials, tensile strength, compressive strength, and shear strength can be analyzed independently. Some materials break very sharply, without plastic deformation, in what is called a brittle failure
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Compressive Strength
Compressive strength
Compressive strength
or compression strength is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to reduce size, as opposed to tensile strength, which withstands loads tending to elongate. In other words, compressive strength resists compression (being pushed together), whereas tensile strength resists tension (being pulled apart). In the study of strength of materials, tensile strength, compressive strength, and shear strength can be analyzed independently. Some materials fracture at their compressive strength limit; others deform irreversibly, so a given amount of deformation may be considered as the limit for compressive load
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