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KPa
The PASCAL (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit
SI derived unit
of pressure used to quantify internal pressure , stress , Young\'s modulus and ultimate tensile strength . It is defined as one newton per square metre . It is named after the French polymath Blaise Pascal
Blaise Pascal
. Common multiple units of the pascal are the hectopascal (1 hPa = 100 Pa) which is equal to one millibar , and the kilopascal (1 kPa = 1000 Pa) which is equal to one centibar. The unit of measurement called standard atmosphere (atm) is defined as 101,325 Pa and approximates to the average pressure at sea-level at the latitude 45° N. Meteorological reports typically state atmospheric pressure in hectopascals
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Shear Modulus
In materials science , SHEAR MODULUS or MODULUS OF RIGIDITY, denoted by G, or sometimes S or μ, is defined as the ratio of shear stress to the shear strain : G = d e f x y x y = F / A x / l = F l A x {displaystyle G {stackrel {mathrm {def} }{=}} {frac {tau _{xy}}{gamma _{xy}}}={frac {F/A}{Delta x/l}}={frac {Fl}{ADelta x}}} where x y = F / A {displaystyle tau _{xy}=F/A,} = shear stress F {displaystyle F} is the force which acts A {displaystyle A} is the area on which the force acts x y {displaystyle gamma _{xy}} = shear strain
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Magnetic Resonance Imaging
MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease. MRI scanners use strong magnetic fields , radio waves , and field gradients to generate images of the organs in the body. MRI does not involve x-rays , which distinguishes it from computed tomography (CT or CAT). While the hazards of x-rays are now well-controlled in most medical contexts, MRI still may be seen as superior to CT in this regard. MRI often may yield different diagnostic information compared with CT. There may be risks and discomfort associated with MRI scans. Compared with CT, MRI scans typically take greater time, are louder, and usually require that the subject go into a narrow, confined tube. In addition, people with some medical implants or other non-removable metal inside the body may be unable to undergo an MRI examination safely
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Materials Science
The interdisciplinary field of MATERIALS SCIENCE, also commonly termed MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING, involves the discovery and design of new materials, with an emphasis on solids . The intellectual origins of materials science stem from the Enlightenment , when researchers began to use analytical thinking from chemistry , physics , and engineering to understand ancient, phenomenological observations in metallurgy and mineralogy . Materials science still incorporates elements of physics, chemistry, and engineering. As such, the field was long considered by academic institutions as a sub-field of these related fields. Beginning in the 1940s, materials science began to be more widely recognized as a specific and distinct field of science and engineering, and major technical universities around the world created dedicated schools of the study
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Engineering
ENGINEERING is the application of scientific knowledge and mathematical methods to practical purposes of the design, analysis, or operation of structures, machines, or systems. See glossary of engineering . The discipline of engineering encompasses a range of more specialized fields of engineering , each with a more specific emphasis on particular areas of applied mathematics , applied science, and types of application. The term engineering is derived from the Latin
Latin
ingenium, meaning "cleverness" and ingeniare, meaning "to contrive, devise"
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Tensile Strength
ULTIMATE TENSILE STRENGTH (UTS), often shortened to TENSILE STRENGTH (TS) or ULTIMATE STRENGTH, is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate, as opposed to compressive strength , which withstands loads tending to reduce size. In other words, tensile strength resists tension (being pulled apart), whereas compressive strength resists compression (being pushed together). Ultimate tensile strength is measured by the maximum stress that a material can withstand while being stretched or pulled before breaking. In the study of strength of materials , tensile strength, compressive strength, and shear strength can be analyzed independently. Some materials break very sharply, without plastic deformation , in what is called a brittle failure . Others, which are more ductile , including most metals, experience some plastic deformation and possibly necking before fracture
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Medical Ultrasonography
MEDICAL ULTRASOUND (also known as DIAGNOSTIC SONOGRAPHY or ULTRASONOGRAPHY) is a diagnostic imaging technique based on the application of ultrasound . It is used to see internal body structures such as tendons , muscles , joints, vessels and internal organs. Its aim is often to find a source of a disease or to exclude any pathology . The practice of examining pregnant women using ultrasound is called obstetric ultrasound , and is widely used. Ultrasound
Ultrasound
is sound waves with frequencies which are higher than those audible to humans (>20,000 Hz). Ultrasonic images also known as sonograms are made by sending pulses of ultrasound into tissue using a probe . The sound echoes off the tissue; with different tissues reflecting varying degrees of sound. These echoes are recorded and displayed as an image to the operator. Many different types of images can be formed using sonographic instruments
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Geophysics
GEOPHYSICS /dʒiːoʊfɪzɪks/ is a subject of natural science concerned with the physical processes and physical properties of the Earth
Earth
and its surrounding space environment, and the use of quantitative methods for their analysis. The term geophysics sometimes refers only to the geological applications: Earth's shape ; its gravitational and magnetic fields ; its internal structure and composition ; its dynamics and their surface expression in plate tectonics , the generation of magmas , volcanism and rock formation. However, modern geophysics organizations use a broader definition that includes the water cycle including snow and ice; fluid dynamics of the oceans and the atmosphere ; electricity and magnetism in the ionosphere and magnetosphere and solar-terrestrial relations; and analogous problems associated with the Moon
Moon
and other planets
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CJK Compatibility
CJK COMPATIBILITY is a Unicode block containing square symbols (both CJK and Latin alphanumeric) encoded for compatibility with east Asian character sets
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Deprecate
In several fields, DEPRECATION is the discouragement of use of some terminology, feature, design, or practice; typically because it has been superseded or is no longer considered efficient or safe – but without completely removing it or prohibiting its use. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Software deprecation * 3 Other usage * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links ETYMOLOGYIn general English usage, the infinitive "to deprecate" means "to express disapproval of (something)". It derives from the Latin
Latin
verb deprecare, meaning "to ward off (a disaster ) by prayer". In current technical usage, for one to state that a feature is deprecated is merely a recommendation against using it. It is still possible to produce a program or product without heeding the deprecation
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Imperial Measurement System
The system of IMPERIAL UNITS or the IMPERIAL SYSTEM (also known as BRITISH IMPERIAL or EXCHEQUER STANDARDS of 1825) is the system of units first defined in the British Weights and Measures Act of 1824, which was later refined and reduced. The Imperial units
Imperial units
replaced the Winchester Standards, which were in effect from 1588 to 1825. The system came into official use across the British Empire
British Empire
. By the late 20th century, most nations of the former empire had officially adopted the metric system as their main system of measurement, although some imperial units are still used in the United Kingdom, Canada
Canada
and other countries formerly part of the British Empire. The imperial system developed from what were first known as English units
English units
, as did the related system of United States customary units
United States customary units

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US Customary System
A CONVENTION is a set of agreed, stipulated, or generally accepted standards, norms , social norms , or criteria, often taking the form of a custom . Certain types of rules or customs may become law and regulatory legislation may be introduced to formalize or enforce the convention (for example, laws that define on which side of the road vehicles must be driven). In a social context , a convention may retain the character of an "unwritten law" of custom (for example, the manner in which people greet each other, such as by shaking each other's hands). In physical sciences , numerical values (such as constants, quantities, or scales of measurement) are called conventional if they do not represent a measured property of nature, but originate in a convention, for example an average of many measurements, agreed between the scientists working with these values
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Compressive Strength
COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH or COMPRESSION STRENGTH is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to reduce size, as opposed to tensile strength , which withstands loads tending to elongate. In other words, compressive strength resists compression (being pushed together), whereas tensile strength resists tension (being pulled apart). In the study of strength of materials , tensile strength, compressive strength, and shear strength can be analyzed independently. Some materials fracture at their compressive strength limit; others deform irreversibly, so a given amount of deformation may be considered as the limit for compressive load. Compressive strength
Compressive strength
is a key value for design of structures
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Nylon
NYLON is a generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers , based on aliphatic or semi-aromatic polyamides . Nylon
Nylon
is a thermoplastic silky material that can be melt-processed into fibers, films or shapes. :2 Nylon
Nylon
was the first commercially successful synthetic thermoplastic polymer. DuPont
DuPont
began its research project in 1930. The first example of nylon (nylon 6,6 ) was produced using diamines on February 28, 1935, by Wallace Carothers at DuPont's research facility at the DuPont Experimental Station . In response to Carothers' work, Paul Schlack at IG Farben developed nylon 6 , a different formulation based on caprolactam , on January 29, 1938
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Energy Density
ENERGY DENSITY is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume . Colloquially it may also be used for energy per unit mass , though the accurate term for this is specific energy . Often only the useful or extractable energy is measured, which is to say that inaccessible energy (such as rest mass energy) is ignored. In cosmological and other general relativistic contexts, however, the energy densities considered are those that correspond to the elements of the stress–energy tensor and therefore do include mass energy as well as energy densities associated with the pressures described in the next paragraph
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Electric Potential Energy
ELECTRIC POTENTIAL ENERGY, or ELECTROSTATIC POTENTIAL ENERGY, is a potential energy (measured in joules ) that results from conservative Coulomb forces and is associated with the configuration of a particular set of point charges within a defined system . An object may have electric potential energy by virtue of two key elements: its own electric charge and its relative position to other electrically charged objects. The term "electric potential energy" is used to describe the potential energy in systems with time-variant electric fields , while the term "electrostatic potential energy" is used to describe the potential energy in systems with time-invariant electric fields
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