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K. Ayyappa Panicker
Dr. K. AYYAPPA PANIKER, sometimes spelt "Ayyappa Panicker" (12 September 1930 – 23 August 2006), was an influential Malayalam
Malayalam
poet, literary critic, and an academic and a scholar in modern and post-modern literary theories as well as ancient Indian aesthetics and literary traditions. He was one of the pioneers of modernism in Malayalam
Malayalam
poetry , where his seminal works like Kurukshethram (1960), considered a turning point in Malayalam
Malayalam
poetry, Ayyappapanikkarude Krithikal and Chintha and several essays were an important influence on the playwrights of his generation. In an academic career which ran in consonance with his literary one, and spanned four decades, he taught in various colleges and universities before retiring as the Director, Institute of English, University of Kerala
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K. M. Panikkar
KAVALAM MADHAVA PANIKKAR (1894-1963), was an Indian novelist, journalist, historian, administrator and diplomat. He was born in Travancore
Travancore
, then a princely state in the British Indian Empire and was educated in Madras
Madras
and at the University of Oxford
University of Oxford
. After a period as a Professor at Aligarh Muslim University and later at University of Calcutta , he became editor of Hindustan Times
Hindustan Times
in 1925. Later, he went to Patiala State as Foreign Minister and then to Bikaner State
Bikaner State
later becoming its Prime Minister. When India
India
achieved freedom, Panikkar represented the country at the 1947 session of the UN General Assembly
UN General Assembly

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Kavalam Narayana Panicker
KAVALAM NARAYANA PANICKER (28 April 1928 – 26 June 2016) was an Indian dramatist, theatre director, and poet. He has written over 26 Malayalam
Malayalam
plays, many adapted from classical Sanskrit drama and Shakespeare
Shakespeare
, notably Madhyamavyayogam (1979), Kalidasa 's Vikramorvasiyam (1981, 1996), Shakuntalam (1982), Karnabharam (1984, 2001), Bhasa 's Uru Bhangam (1988), Swapnavasavadattam, and Dootavakyam (1996). He is the founder – director of theatre troupe, Sopanam, which led to the foundation of Bhashabharati: Centre for Performing Arts, Training and Research, in Trivandrum . He was awarded the Sangeet Natak Akademi Award for Direction in 1983 by Sangeet Natak Akademi , and its highest award for lifetime achievement, the Sangeet Natak Akademi Fellowship in 2002
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K. N. Panikkar
K. N. PANIKKAR (born 1936 in Guruvayoor, Kerala) is a leftist Indian historian , associated with the "Marxist school" of historiography . K. N. Panikkar
K. N. Panikkar
has written and edited a number of books, including A Concerned Indian’s Guide to Communalism and the ICHR volume on Towards Freedom, 1940: A Documentary History of the Freedom Struggle (suppressed and withdrawn from press by the former Bharatiya Janata Party -led regime, now forthcoming). His methods and his expressed positions in public life have evoked harsh criticism from exponents of Hindu nationalism , particularly during the period of Bharatiya Janata Party government of 1998 to 2004. Panikkar has been active in criticising the rise of "Nationalist" history in India
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Kavalam
KAVALAM is a village in Kuttanadu , Kerala
Kerala
state, India
India
. CONTENTS * 1 Location * 2 Scenic Beauty * 3 History * 4 Snake Boat race * 5 Famous natives of Kavalam
Kavalam
* 6 References * 7 External links LOCATION Kavalam
Kavalam
is located on the borders of Alapuzha
Alapuzha
and Kottayam districts, on the banks of Vembanad Lake
Vembanad Lake
. SCENIC BEAUTYThe Pampa river flows through the village to merge into the famed Vembanad Lake. Its natural scenic beauty is legendary and has been used by many filmmakers. Relatively untouched by modernity, Kavalam
Kavalam
is a green haven. Interspersed with the kayals (canals) and lakes, this belly of Kerala is serene. The lakes and kayals are filled with flocks of ducks, and in summer the rice paddies of Kuttanad turn golden
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Thiruvananthapuram
THIRUVANANTHAPURAM (IPA: ( listen )), also known as TRIVANDRUM, is the capital and the largest city of the Indian state of Kerala . The city has a population of 957,730 inhabitants and a metropolitan population of 1.68 million making it the most populous city and the fifth most populous urban agglomeration in Kerala . Thiruvananthapuram is a major IT hub in India and contributes 80% of Kerala's software exports. The Technopark, Trivandrum is the largest Information Technology park in Asia in terms of area. Trivandrum is located on the west coast of India near the extreme south of the mainland. Referred to by Mahatma Gandhi as the Evergreen city of India . the city is characterised by its undulating terrain of low coastal hills. It is classified as a tier-2 city by the government of India. The world's richest temple Padmanabhaswamy Temple is located here
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University Of Kerala
The UNIVERSITY OF KERALA (UOK) (Malayalam: കേരള സര്‍വ്വകലാശാല), formerly the UNIVERSITY OF TRAVANCORE, is an affiliating university located in Thiruvananthapuram
Thiruvananthapuram
, capital of the south Indian state of Kerala
Kerala
, India
India
. It was established in 1937, long before the birth of the state of Kerala
Kerala
in India, by a promulgation of the Maharajah of Travancore
Travancore
, Sri Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma who was also the first Chancellor of the university. C. P. Ramaswami Iyer , the then Diwan (Prime Minister) of Travancore, was the first Vice-Chancellor
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Literary Critic
LITERARY CRITICISM (or LITERARY STUDIES) is the study, evaluation , and interpretation of literature . Modern literary criticism is often influenced by literary theory , which is the philosophical discussion of literature's goals and methods. Though the two activities are closely related, literary critics are not always, and have not always been, theorists. Whether or not literary criticism should be considered a separate field of inquiry from literary theory , or conversely from book reviewing, is a matter of some controversy. For example, the Johns Hopkins Guide to Literary Theory and Criticism draws no distinction between literary theory and literary criticism, and almost always uses the terms together to describe the same concept. Some critics consider literary criticism a practical application of literary theory, because criticism always deals directly with particular literary works, while theory may be more general or abstract
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Reader (academic Rank)
The title of READER in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and some universities in the Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
, for example India
India
, Australia
Australia
and New Zealand , denotes an appointment for a senior academic with a distinguished international reputation in research or scholarship. CONTENTS* 1 Overview * 1.1 Associate professor
Associate professor
in place of reader * 2 Comparison * 3 Notable examples * 4 References OVERVIEWIn the traditional hierarchy of British and other Commonwealth universities, reader is an academic rank above senior lecturer (or principal lecturer in the new universities ) and below professor, recognising a distinguished record of original research
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Malayalam
India
India
: * Kerala
Kerala
(State), * Lakshadweep (Territory ) * Mahé , Puducherry (Territory ) REGULATED BY Kerala
Kerala
Sahitya Akademi , Government of Kerala
Kerala
LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-1 ml ISO 639-2 mal ISO 639-3 mal GLOTTOLOG mala1464 LINGUASPHERE 49-EBE-ba Malayalam-speaking area Malayalam
Malayalam
is written in a non- Latin
Latin
script
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Aesthetics
AESTHETICS (/ɛsˈθɛtɪks/ or /iːsˈθɛtɪks/ ; also spelled æSTHETICS and ESTHETICS) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art , beauty , and taste , with the creation and appreciation of beauty. In its more technically epistemological perspective, it is defined as the study of subjective and sensori-emotional values , sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste. More broadly, scholars in the field define aesthetics as "critical reflection on art, culture and nature ". In modern English , the term aesthetic can also refer to a set of principles underlying the works of a particular art movement or theory: one speaks, for example, of the Cubist aesthetic
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Malayalam Poetry
There are two types of meters used in MALAYALA POETRY, the classical Sanskrit
Sanskrit
based and Tamil based ones. SANSKRIT METERS Sanskrit
Sanskrit
meters are primarily based on trisyllabic feet. The short sound is called a LAGHU, a long sound is called a GURU. A guru is twice as long as a laghu. A guru is usually represented by a '-–' and a laghu by a '⌣'. For easy specification of meters, the laghu's and guru's are grouped into feet (called GANAM) as follows: FOOT NAME IDENTIFYING LETTER ⌣ - - yaganam ya (യ) - ⌣ - raganam ra (ര) - - ⌣ thaganam tha (ത) - ⌣ ⌣ bhaganam bha (ഭ) ⌣ - ⌣ jaganam ja (ജ) ⌣ ⌣ - saganam sa (സ) - - - maganam ma (മ) ⌣ ⌣ ⌣ naganam na (ന)Additionally, individual gurus are also identified by 'ga' or 'gam' and laghus by 'la' or 'lam'
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Guru Granth Sahib
_GURU GRANTH SAHIB_ (Punjabi (Gurmukhi) : (_Gurū Gra°th Sāhib Jī_), Punjabi pronunciation: , /ˈɡʊəruː ɡrʌnt səˈhɪb/ ) is the central religious scripture of Sikhism , regarded by Sikhs as the final, sovereign and eternal living Guru following the lineage of the ten human Gurus of the religion, of whom six contributed the bulk. The _Adi Granth,_ the first rendition, was compiled by the fifth Sikh Guru , Guru Arjan (1563–1606). Guru Gobind Singh , the tenth Sikh Guru, did not add any of his own hymns; however, he added all 115 hymns of Guru Tegh Bahadur , the ninth Sikh Guru, to the _Adi Granth_ and affirmed the text as his successor. This second rendition became known as _Guru Granth Sahib_. After Guru Gobind Singh died, Baba Deep Singh and Bhai Mani Singh prepared many copies of the work for distribution
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Indian Literature
INDIAN LITERATURE refers to the literature produced on the Indian subcontinent until 1947 and in the Republic of India thereafter. The Republic of India has 22 officially recognized languages . The earliest works of Indian literature
Indian literature
were orally transmitted. Sanskrit
Sanskrit
literature begins with the oral literature of the Rig Veda a collection of sacred hymns dating to the period 1500–1200 BCE. The Sanskrit
Sanskrit
epics Ramayana
Ramayana
and Mahabharata
Mahabharata
appeared towards the end of the first millennium BCE. Classical Sanskrit
Sanskrit
literature developed rapidly during the first few centuries of the first millennium BCE, as did the Tamil Sangam literature , and the Pāli Canon
Pāli Canon

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Sahitya Akademi
The SAHITYA AKADEMI, India 's National Academy of Letters, is an organisation dedicated to the promotion of literature in the languages of India . Founded on 12 March 1954, it is supported by, though independent of, the Indian government and situated at Rabindra Bhavan near Mandi House in Delhi . The Sahitya Akademi organises national and regional workshops and seminars; provides research and travel grants to authors; publishes books and journals, including the Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature; and presents the annual Sahitya Akademi Award of Rs. 100,000 (approx. USD 1,500 (as in year 2013)) in each of the 24 languages it supports, as well as the Sahitya Akademi Fellowship for lifetime achievement. The Sahitya Akademi Library is one of the largest multi-lingual libraries in India, with a rich collection of books on literature and allied subjects
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IGNCA
INDIRA GANDHI NATIONAL CENTRE FOR THE ARTS, New Delhi
New Delhi
( IGNCA
IGNCA
) ( Devanagari
Devanagari
: इन्दिरा गांधी राष्ट्रीय कला केन्द्र) is a premier government-funded arts organization in India. It is an autonomous institution under the Union Ministry of Culture . It was established in the memory of Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
, with Kapila Vatsyayan as its founding director. The IGNCA
IGNCA
was launched on 19 November 1985 by Prime Minister Shri Rajiv Gandhi at a function where the symbolism of the components was clearly articulated at different levels. The elements - fire, water, earth, sky and vegetation - were brought together
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