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K. Ayyappa Panicker
Dr. K. AYYAPPA PANIKER, sometimes spelt "Ayyappa Panicker" (12 September 1930 – 23 August 2006), was an influential Malayalam
Malayalam
poet, literary critic, and an academic and a scholar in modern and post-modern literary theories as well as ancient Indian aesthetics and literary traditions. He was one of the pioneers of modernism in Malayalam
Malayalam
poetry , where his seminal works like Kurukshethram (1960), considered a turning point in Malayalam
Malayalam
poetry, Ayyappapanikkarude Krithikal and Chintha and several essays were an important influence on the playwrights of his generation. In an academic career which ran in consonance with his literary one, and spanned four decades, he taught in various colleges and universities before retiring as the Director, Institute of English, University of Kerala . He published over 25 works, translated several important work to Malayalam, including Guru Granth Sahib
Guru Granth Sahib
and a book in French; as a scholarly editor he produced numerous anthologies on Indian literature
Indian literature
, he was the chief editor of the Sahitya Akademi 's Indian Literary Encyclopaedia
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K. M. Panikkar
KAVALAM MADHAVA PANIKKAR (1894-1963), was an Indian novelist, journalist, historian, administrator and diplomat. He was born in Travancore
Travancore
, then a princely state in the British Indian Empire and was educated in Madras
Madras
and at the University of Oxford . After a period as a Professor at Aligarh Muslim University and later at University of Calcutta , he became editor of Hindustan Times in 1925. Later, he went to Patiala State as Foreign Minister and then to Bikaner State later becoming its Prime Minister. When India
India
achieved freedom, Panikkar represented the country at the 1947 session of the UN General Assembly
UN General Assembly
. In 1950, he was appointed India's(the first non-Socialist country to recognize People's Republic of China) ambassador to China
China
. After a successful tenure there, he went as envoy to Egypt
Egypt
in 1952. He was appointed as chairman of States Reorganisation Commission set up in 1953. He was also India's ambassador to France and a member of Rajya Sabha , the upper house of the Indian parliament. He also served as Vice chancellor of University of Kashmir and University of Mysore . He was the maternal uncle of the veteran poet, dramatist and lyricist Kavalam Narayana Panicker
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Kavalam Narayana Panicker
KAVALAM NARAYANA PANICKER (28 April 1928 – 26 June 2016) was an Indian dramatist, theatre director, and poet. He has written over 26 Malayalam
Malayalam
plays, many adapted from classical Sanskrit drama and Shakespeare
Shakespeare
, notably Madhyamavyayogam (1979), Kalidasa 's Vikramorvasiyam (1981, 1996), Shakuntalam (1982), Karnabharam (1984, 2001), Bhasa 's Uru Bhangam (1988), Swapnavasavadattam, and Dootavakyam (1996). He is the founder – director of theatre troupe, Sopanam, which led to the foundation of Bhashabharati: Centre for Performing Arts, Training and Research, in Trivandrum
Trivandrum
. He was awarded the Sangeet Natak Akademi Award for Direction in 1983 by Sangeet Natak Akademi , and its highest award for lifetime achievement, the Sangeet Natak Akademi Fellowship in 2002. In 2007, he was awarded the Padma Bhushan
Padma Bhushan
in the field of Arts, by the Government of India . He died in his residence on 26 June 2016, aged 88, a few days after returning from the hospital
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K. N. Panikkar
K. N. PANIKKAR (born 1936 in Guruvayoor, Kerala) is a leftist Indian historian , associated with the "Marxist school" of historiography . K. N. Panikkar has written and edited a number of books, including A Concerned Indian’s Guide to Communalism and the ICHR volume on Towards Freedom, 1940: A Documentary History of the Freedom Struggle (suppressed and withdrawn from press by the former Bharatiya Janata Party -led regime, now forthcoming). His methods and his expressed positions in public life have evoked harsh criticism from exponents of Hindu nationalism , particularly during the period of Bharatiya Janata Party government of 1998 to 2004. Panikkar has been active in criticising the rise of "Nationalist" history in India. His books include Against Lord and State: Religion and Peasant Uprisings in Malabar; Culture and Consciousness in Modern India; Culture, Ideology and Hegemony – Intellectuals and Social Consciousness in Colonial India, and Before the Night Falls. He was appointed by the government of Kerala as chairman of an Expert Committee that looked into the complaints raised from various quarters concerning new textbooks introduced to state-supported schools. The committee submitted its report in October 2008. SEE ALSO * M. G. S. Narayanan * A. Sreedhara Menon * K.K.N Kurup * M.Ganghadharan * M.R Raghava warrier * Rajan Gurukkal * K.N Ganesh REFERENCES Wikimedia Commons has media related to K. N
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Kavalam
KAVALAM is a village in Kuttanadu , Kerala
Kerala
state, India
India
. CONTENTS * 1 Location * 2 Scenic Beauty * 3 History * 4 Snake Boat race * 5 Famous natives of Kavalam
Kavalam
* 6 References * 7 External links LOCATION Kavalam
Kavalam
is located on the borders of Alapuzha and Kottayam districts, on the banks of Vembanad Lake . SCENIC BEAUTYThe Pampa river flows through the village to merge into the famed Vembanad Lake. Its natural scenic beauty is legendary and has been used by many filmmakers. Relatively untouched by modernity, Kavalam
Kavalam
is a green haven. Interspersed with the _kayals_ (canals) and lakes, this belly of Kerala
Kerala
is serene. The lakes and kayals are filled with flocks of ducks, and in summer the rice paddies of Kuttanad turn golden. With a longtime history behind it, Kavalam
Kavalam
is part of Kerala's cultural folklore. HISTORYA decade back, this sleepy village was accessible only by the lake boats provided by the government of Kerala. As in many other remote parts of Kerala, this non-accessibility gave Kavalam
Kavalam
a laidback atmosphere. The place is now accessible from Alleppey, Kottayam and Changanacherry by road
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Thiruvananthapuram
THIRUVANANTHAPURAM (IPA: ( listen )), also known as TRIVANDRUM, is the capital and the largest city of the Indian state of Kerala . The city has a population of 957,730 inhabitants and a metropolitan population of 1.68 million making it the most populous city and the fifth most populous urban agglomeration in Kerala . Thiruvananthapuram is a major IT hub in India and contributes 80% of Kerala's software exports. The Technopark, Trivandrum is the largest Information Technology park in Asia in terms of area. Trivandrum is located on the west coast of India near the extreme south of the mainland. Referred to by Mahatma Gandhi as the Evergreen city of India . the city is characterised by its undulating terrain of low coastal hills. It is classified as a tier-2 city by the government of India. The world's richest temple Padmanabhaswamy Temple is located here. It was ruled by the Ays and was captured by the rulers of Venad in the 10th century . In the late 17th century, Marthanda Varma who inherited the Kingdom of Venad expanded the kingdom by conquering kingdoms of Attingal, Kollam, Kayamkulam, Kottarakara, Kottayam, Changanassery, Meenachil, Poonjar and Ambalapuzha. In 1741 Marthanda Varma defeated the Dutch in the Battle of Colachel
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University Of Kerala
The UNIVERSITY OF KERALA (UOK) (Malayalam: കേരള സര്‍വ്വകലാശാല), formerly the UNIVERSITY OF TRAVANCORE, is an affiliating university located in Thiruvananthapuram
Thiruvananthapuram
, capital of the south Indian state of Kerala
Kerala
, India
India
. It was established in 1937, long before the birth of the state of Kerala
Kerala
in India, by a promulgation of the Maharajah of Travancore
Travancore
, Sri Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma who was also the first Chancellor of the university. C. P. Ramaswami Iyer , the then Diwan (Prime Minister) of Travancore, was the first Vice-Chancellor. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Departments * 3 Study Centres * 4 Affiliated Colleges * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORYOne of the first 16 Universities in India
India
and the first in the state of Kerala, the University of Kerala
Kerala
was founded as the University of Travancore
Travancore
in the erstwhile princely state of Travancore
Travancore
(now southern part of Kerala
Kerala
and some neighboring parts of state of Tamil Nadu) in 1937. During the 7 decades since the University of Kerala
Kerala
grew and shrunk physically and transformed itself in many ways
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Literary Critic
LITERARY CRITICISM (or LITERARY STUDIES) is the study, evaluation , and interpretation of literature . Modern literary criticism is often influenced by literary theory , which is the philosophical discussion of literature's goals and methods. Though the two activities are closely related, literary critics are not always, and have not always been, theorists. Whether or not literary criticism should be considered a separate field of inquiry from literary theory , or conversely from book reviewing, is a matter of some controversy. For example, the Johns Hopkins Guide to Literary Theory and Criticism draws no distinction between literary theory and literary criticism, and almost always uses the terms together to describe the same concept. Some critics consider literary criticism a practical application of literary theory, because criticism always deals directly with particular literary works, while theory may be more general or abstract. Literary criticism is often published in essay or book form. Academic literary critics teach in literature departments and publish in academic journals , and more popular critics publish their reviews in broadly circulating periodicals such as the Times Literary Supplement , the New York Times Book
Book
Review , the New York Review of Books
New York Review of Books
, the London Review of Books
London Review of Books
, The Nation , and The New Yorker
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Reader (academic Rank)
The title of READER in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and some universities in the Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
, for example India
India
, Australia
Australia
and New Zealand , denotes an appointment for a senior academic with a distinguished international reputation in research or scholarship. CONTENTS* 1 Overview * 1.1 Associate professor in place of reader * 2 Comparison * 3 Notable examples * 4 References OVERVIEWIn the traditional hierarchy of British and other Commonwealth universities, reader is an academic rank above senior lecturer (or principal lecturer in the new universities ) and below professor, recognising a distinguished record of original research. Reader is similar to a professor without a chair, similar to the distinction between professor extraordinarius and professor ordinarius at some European universities, professor and chaired professor in Hong Kong and "professor name" (or associate professor) and chaired professor in Ireland. Readers and professors in the UK would correspond to full professors in the US. The promotion criteria applied to a readership in the United Kingdom are similar to those applied to a professorship: advancing from senior lecturer to reader generally requires evidence of a distinguished record of original research
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Malayalam
India
India
: * Kerala
Kerala
(State), * Lakshadweep (Territory ) * Mahé , Puducherry (Territory ) REGULATED BY Kerala
Kerala
Sahitya Akademi , Government of Kerala
Kerala
LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-1 ml ISO 639-2 mal ISO 639-3 mal GLOTTOLOG mala1464 LINGUASPHERE 49-EBE-ba Malayalam-speaking area Malayalam
Malayalam
is written in a non- Latin
Latin
script . Malayalam
Malayalam
text used in this article is transliterated into the Latin
Latin
script according to the ISO 15919 standard.MALAYALAM (/mæləˈjɑːləm/ ; മലയാളം, _Malayāḷam_ ? ) is a Dravidian language spoken in India
India
, predominantly in the state of Kerala
Kerala
. It is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India
India
and was designated as a Classical Language in India
India
in 2013. It was developed to the current form mainly by the influence of the poet Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan in the 16th century
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Aesthetics
AESTHETICS (/ɛsˈθɛtɪks/ or /iːsˈθɛtɪks/ ; also spelled æSTHETICS and ESTHETICS) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art , beauty , and taste , with the creation and appreciation of beauty. In its more technically epistemological perspective, it is defined as the study of subjective and sensori-emotional values , sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste. More broadly, scholars in the field define aesthetics as "critical reflection on art, culture and nature ". In modern English , the term aesthetic can also refer to a set of principles underlying the works of a particular art movement or theory: one speaks, for example, of the Cubist aesthetic
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Malayalam Poetry
There are two types of meters used in MALAYALA POETRY, the classical Sanskrit
Sanskrit
based and Tamil based ones. SANSKRIT METERS Sanskrit
Sanskrit
meters are primarily based on trisyllabic feet. The short sound is called a LAGHU, a long sound is called a GURU. A guru is twice as long as a laghu. A guru is usually represented by a '-–' and a laghu by a '⌣'. For easy specification of meters, the laghu's and guru's are grouped into feet (called GANAM) as follows: FOOT NAME IDENTIFYING LETTER ⌣ - - yaganam ya (യ) - ⌣ - raganam ra (ര) - - ⌣ thaganam tha (ത) - ⌣ ⌣ bhaganam bha (ഭ) ⌣ - ⌣ jaganam ja (ജ) ⌣ ⌣ - saganam sa (സ) - - - maganam ma (മ) ⌣ ⌣ ⌣ naganam na (ന)Additionally, individual gurus are also identified by 'ga' or 'gam' and laghus by 'la' or 'lam'. For example, the definition for the meter 'Kalyani' is 'three thaganam + two gurus' indicating "- - ⌣ - - ⌣ - - ⌣ - -"
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Guru Granth Sahib
_GURU GRANTH SAHIB_ (Punjabi (Gurmukhi) : (_Gurū Gra°th Sāhib Jī_), Punjabi pronunciation: , /ˈɡʊəruː ɡrʌnt səˈhɪb/ ) is the central religious scripture of Sikhism , regarded by Sikhs as the final, sovereign and eternal living Guru following the lineage of the ten human Gurus of the religion, of whom six contributed the bulk. The _Adi Granth,_ the first rendition, was compiled by the fifth Sikh Guru , Guru Arjan (1563–1606). Guru Gobind Singh , the tenth Sikh Guru, did not add any of his own hymns; however, he added all 115 hymns of Guru Tegh Bahadur , the ninth Sikh Guru, to the _Adi Granth_ and affirmed the text as his successor. This second rendition became known as _Guru Granth Sahib_. After Guru Gobind Singh died, Baba Deep Singh and Bhai Mani Singh prepared many copies of the work for distribution. The text consists of 1430 _angs_ (pages) and 6,000 _śabads _ (line compositions), which are poetically rendered and set to a rhythmic ancient north Indian classical form of music. The bulk of the scripture is divided into thirty-one _rāgas _, with each Granth rāga subdivided according to length and author. The hymns in the scripture are arranged primarily by the _rāgas_ in which they are read
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Indian Literature
INDIAN LITERATURE refers to the literature produced on the Indian subcontinent until 1947 and in the Republic of India thereafter. The Republic of India has 22 officially recognized languages . The earliest works of Indian literature
Indian literature
were orally transmitted. Sanskrit
Sanskrit
literature begins with the oral literature of the Rig Veda a collection of sacred hymns dating to the period 1500–1200 BCE. The Sanskrit
Sanskrit
epics Ramayana
Ramayana
and Mahabharata
Mahabharata
appeared towards the end of the first millennium BCE. Classical Sanskrit
Sanskrit
literature developed rapidly during the first few centuries of the first millennium BCE, as did the Tamil Sangam literature , and the Pāli Canon . In the medieval period, literature in Kannada
Kannada
and Telugu appeared in the 9th and 11th centuries respectively. Later, literature in Marathi , Odia , Bengali , various dialects of Hindi
Hindi
, Persian and Urdu
Urdu
began to appear as well. Early in the 20th century, Bengali poet Rabindranath Tagore became India\'s first Nobel laureate . In contemporary Indian literature, there are two major literary awards; these are the Sahitya Akademi Fellowship and the Jnanpith Award
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Sahitya Akademi
The SAHITYA AKADEMI, India 's National Academy of Letters, is an organisation dedicated to the promotion of literature in the languages of India . Founded on 12 March 1954, it is supported by, though independent of, the Indian government and situated at Rabindra Bhavan near Mandi House in Delhi . The Sahitya Akademi organises national and regional workshops and seminars; provides research and travel grants to authors; publishes books and journals, including the Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature; and presents the annual Sahitya Akademi Award of Rs. 100,000 (approx. USD 1,500 (as in year 2013)) in each of the 24 languages it supports, as well as the Sahitya Akademi Fellowship for lifetime achievement. The Sahitya Akademi Library is one of the largest multi-lingual libraries in India, with a rich collection of books on literature and allied subjects. Also it publishes two bimonthly literary journals - _Indian Literature _ in English and _Samkaleen Bharatiya Sahitya_ in Hindi
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IGNCA
INDIRA GANDHI NATIONAL CENTRE FOR THE ARTS, New Delhi (IGNCA ) ( Devanagari : इन्दिरा गांधी राष्ट्रीय कला केन्द्र) is a premier government-funded arts organization in India. It is an autonomous institution under the Union Ministry of Culture . It was established in the memory of Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi , with Kapila Vatsyayan as its founding director. The IGNCA was launched on 19 November 1985 by Prime Minister Shri Rajiv Gandhi at a function where the symbolism of the components was clearly articulated at different levels. The elements - fire, water, earth, sky and vegetation - were brought together. Five rocks from five major rivers - Sindhu (Indus ), Ganga , Kaveri , Mahanadi and the Narmada (where the most ancient ammonite fossils are found) were composed into sculptural forms. These remain at the site as reminders of the antiquity of Indian culture and the sacredness of her rivers and rocks. The Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts Trust was constituted and registered at New Delhi on 24 March 1987. CONTENTS * 1 About * 2 Location * 3 Goals * 4 Units * 5 Regional centres * 6 References * 7 External links ABOUTThe Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts, established in memory of Smt
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