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Jyutping
JYUTPING (Chinese : 粵拼; Jyutping: _Jyut6ping3_; Cantonese pronunciation: ) is a romanisation system for Cantonese
Cantonese
developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK), an academic group, in 1993. Its formal name is _THE LINGUISTIC SOCIETY OF HONG KONG CANTONESE ROMANISATION SCHEME_. The LSHK promotes the use of this romanisation system. The name _Jyutping_ (itself the Jyutping
Jyutping
romanisation of its Chinese name, 粵拼) is a contraction consisting of the first Chinese characters of the terms _Jyut6jyu5_ (粵語, meaning "Cantonese speech") and _ping3jam1_ (拼音 "phonetic alphabet")
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Traditional Chinese Characters
TRADITIONAL CHINESE CHARACTERS (traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字; simplified Chinese : 正体字/繁体字; Pinyin : Zhèngtǐzì/Fántĭzì) are Chinese characters
Chinese characters
in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan
Taiwan
, of Hong Kong and Macau
Macau
or in the Kangxi Dictionary
Kangxi Dictionary
. The modern shapes of traditional Chinese characters
Chinese characters
first appeared with the emergence of the clerical script during the Han Dynasty
Han Dynasty
, and have been more or less stable since the 5th century (during the Southern and Northern Dynasties .) The retronym "traditional Chinese" is used to contrast traditional characters with Simplified Chinese characters
Chinese characters
, a standardized character set introduced by the government of the People\'s Republic of China
China
on Mainland China
Mainland China
in the 1950s
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Simplified Chinese Characters
SIMPLIFIED CHINESE CHARACTERS (简化字; _jiǎnhuàzì_) are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the _Table of General Standard Chinese Characters _ for use in mainland China . Along with traditional Chinese characters , it is one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language . The government of the People\'s Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s in an attempt to increase literacy. They are officially used in the People's Republic of China and Singapore . Traditional Chinese characters are currently used in Hong Kong , Macau , and the Republic of China ( Taiwan ). While traditional characters can still be read and understood by many mainland Chinese and the Chinese community in Malaysia and Singapore, these groups generally retain their use of Simplified characters. Overseas Chinese communities generally tend to use traditional characters. Simplified Chinese characters may be referred to by their official name above or colloquially (简体字; _ jiǎntǐzì _). The latter refers to simplifications of character "structure" or "body", character forms that have existed for thousands of years alongside regular, more complicated forms
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Cantonese
CANTONESE, or STANDARD CANTONESE, is a variety of the Chinese language spoken within the city of Canton (Guangzhou) and its vicinity in southeastern China. It is the traditional prestige variety of Yue , one of the major subdivisions of Chinese. In mainland China , it is the main _lingua franca _ of the province of Guangdong and some neighbouring areas such as Guangxi , being the majority language of the Pearl River Delta . It is the dominant and official language of Hong Kong and Macau . Cantonese is also widely spoken amongst overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia (most notably in Vietnam and Malaysia , as well as in Singapore and Cambodia to a lesser extent) and throughout the Western world . While the term _Cantonese_ refers narrowly to the prestige variety , it is often used in a broader sense for the entire Yue subdivision of Chinese, including related but largely mutually unintelligible languages such as Taishanese . When Cantonese and the closely-related Yuehai dialects are classified together, there are about 80 million total speakers. Cantonese is viewed as vital part of the cultural identity for its native speakers across large swathes of southeastern China , Hong Kong and Macau
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Yale Romanization Of Cantonese
The YALE ROMANIZATION OF CANTONESE was developed by Gerard P. Kok for his and Parker Po-fei Huang's textbook _Speak Cantonese_ (1958). Unlike the Yale romanization of Mandarin , it is still widely used in books and dictionaries, especially for foreign learners of Cantonese
Cantonese
. It shares some similarities with Hanyu Pinyin in that unvoiced, unaspirated consonants are represented by letters traditionally used in English and most other European languages to represent voiced sounds. For example, is represented as _b_ in Yale, whereas its aspirated counterpart, is represented as _p_. Because of this, the Yale romanization is easy for English speakers to pronounce without much training. Students studying Cantonese
Cantonese
at the University of Hong Kong learn the Jyutping
Jyutping
system of romanization, while those who attend The Chinese University of Hong Kong 's New-Asia Yale-in-China Chinese Language Center are taught to use the Yale romanization
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Standard Chinese
STANDARD CHINESE, also known as MODERN STANDARD MANDARIN, STANDARD MANDARIN, or simply MANDARIN, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China
China
and Taiwan
Taiwan
, and also one of the four official languages of Singapore
Singapore
. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing dialect , its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects , and its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese . Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order. It has more initial consonants but fewer vowels, final consonants and tones than southern varieties. Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
is an analytic language , though with many compound words . There exist two standardised forms of the language, namely PUTONGHUA in Mainland China
China
and GUOYU in Taiwan. Aside from a number of differences in pronunciation and vocabulary, Putonghua is written using simplified Chinese characters
Chinese characters
(plus Hanyu Pinyin romanization for teaching), while Guoyu is written using traditional Chinese characters (plus Bopomofo for teaching). There are many characters that are identical between the two systems
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Hanyu Pinyin
PINYIN, or HàNYǔ PīNYīN, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China , Malaysia , Singapore , and Taiwan . It is often used to teach Standard Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters . The system includes four diacritics denoting tones . Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet , and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang , based on earlier forms of romanization of Chinese . It was published by the Chinese government in 1958 and revised several times. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982, followed by the United Nations in 1986. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for romanization alone (in part to make areas more English-friendly) rather than for educational and computer-input purposes. The word _Hànyǔ_ (simplified Chinese : 汉语; traditional Chinese : 漢語) means the spoken language of the Han people . _Pīnyīn_ (拼音) literally means "spelled sounds"
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Bopomofo
_ Egyptian hieroglyphs _ 32 c. BCE * _ Hieratic _ 32 c. BCE * _Demotic _ 7 c. BCE * _Meroitic _ 3 c. BCE* _Proto-Sinaitic _ 19 c. BCE * _Ugaritic _ 15 c. BCE* _Epigraphic South Arabian _ 9 c. BCE * Ge’ez 5–6 c. BCE* _Phoenician _ 12 c. BCE * _Paleo-Hebrew _ 10 c. BCE * Samaritan 6 c. BCE* _ Libyco-Berber 3 c. BCE_ * Tifinagh * _Paleohispanic _ (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE* Aramaic 8 c. BCE * _ Kharoṣṭhī _ 4 c. BCE* _Brāhmī _ 4 c. BCE * Brahmic family _(see)_ * E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE * Hangul (core letters only) 1443* Devanagari 13 c. CE * Canadian syllabics 1840 * Hebrew 3 c. BCE* _Pahlavi _ 3 c. BCE * _Avestan _ 4 c. CE * _Palmyrene _ 2 c. BCE* Syriac 2 c. BCE * _Nabataean _ 2 c. BCE * Arabic 4 c. CE * N\'Ko 1949 CE* _Sogdian _ 2 c. BCE * _Orkhon (old Turkic)_ 6 c. CE * _Old Hungarian _ c. 650 CE* _Old Uyghur _ * Mongolian 1204 CE * Mandaic 2 c. CE* Greek 8 c. BCE * _Etruscan _ 8 c. BCE * Latin 7 c. BCE * Cherokee (syllabary; letter forms only) c. 1820 CE * _Runic _ 2 c. CE * _ Ogham _ (origin uncertain) 4 c. CE * _Coptic _ 3 c. CE * _Gothic _ 3 c. CE * Armenian 405 CE * Georgian (origin uncertain) c. 430 CE * _Glagolitic _ 862 CE* Cyrillic c. 940 CE * _Old Permic _ 1372 CE Thaana 18 c
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Spelling In Gwoyeu Romatzyh
The SPELLING OF GWOYEU ROMATZYH (GR) can be divided into its treatment of initials , finals and tones . GR uses contrasting unvoiced/voiced pairs of consonants to represent aspirated and unaspirated initials in Chinese: for example _b_ and _p_ represent IPA and . The letters _j, ch_ and _sh_ represent two different series of initials: the alveolo-palatal and the retroflex sounds. Although these spellings create no ambiguity in practice, readers more familiar with Pinyin should pay particular attention to them: GR _ju_, for example, corresponds to Pinyin _zhu_, not _ju_ (which is spelled _jiu_ in GR). Many of the finals in GR are similar to those used in other romanizations . Distinctive features of GR include the use of _iu_ for the close front rounded vowel spelled _ü_ or simply _u_ in Pinyin. Final _-y_ represents certain allophones of _i_: GR _shy_ and _sy_ correspond to Pinyin _shi_ and _si_ respectively. The most striking feature of GR is its treatment of tones. The first tone is represented by the basic form of each syllable, the spelling being modified according to precise but complex rules for the other three tones. For example the syllable spelled _ai_ (first tone) becomes _aiR, aE_ and _aY_ in the other tones. A neutral (unstressed) tone can optionally be indicated by preceding it with a dot or full stop: for example _perng.yeou_ "friend"
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Wade–giles
WADE–GILES (/ˌweɪd ˈdʒaɪlz/ ), sometimes abbreviated WADE, is a Romanization system for Mandarin Chinese . It developed from a system produced by Thomas Wade , during the mid-19th century, and was given completed form with Herbert A. Giles 's _Chinese–English Dictionary _ of 1892. Wade–Giles was the system of transcription in the English-speaking world for most of the 20th century, used in standard reference books and in English language books published before 1979. It replaced the Nanking dialect -based romanization systems that had been common until the late 19th century, such as the Postal Romanization
Postal Romanization
(still used in some place-names). In mainland China it has been entirely replaced by the Hanyu Pinyin system approved in 1958. Outside mainland China, it has mostly been replaced by Pīnyīn, even though Taiwan
Taiwan
implements a multitude of Romanization systems in daily life. Additionally, its usage can be seen in the common English names of certain individuals and locations such as Chiang Ching-kuo
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Guangdong Romanization
GUANGDONG ROMANIZATION refers to the four romanization schemes published by the Guangdong Provincial Education Department in 1960 for transliterating Cantonese , Teochew , Hakka , and Hainanese . The schemes utilized similar elements with some differences in order to adapt to their respective spoken varieties. In certain respects, Guangdong romanization resembles pinyin in its distinction of the alveolar initials _z_, _c_, _s_ from the alveolo-palatal initials _j_, _q_, _x_, and in its use of _b_, _d_, _g_ to represent the unaspirated stop consonants /p t k/. In addition, it makes use of the medial _u_ before the rime rather than representing it as _w_ in the initial when it follows _g_ or _k_. Guangdong romanization makes use of diacritics to represent certain vowels. This includes the use of the circumflex , acute accent , and diaeresis in the letters _ê_, _é_, and _ü_, respectively. In addition, it uses _-b_, _-d_, _-g_ to represent the coda consonants /p t k/ rather than _-p_, _-t_, _-k_ like other romanization schemes in order to be consistent with their use as unaspirated plosives in the initial. Tones are marked by superscript numbers rather than by diacritics
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Chinese Language
LEGEND: Countries identified Chinese as a primary, administrative, or native language Countries with more than 5,000,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 1,000,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 500,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 100,000 Chinese speakers Major Chinese-speaking settlements THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters
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Replacement Character
SPECIALS is a short Unicode
Unicode
block allocated at the very end of the Basic Multilingual Plane
Basic Multilingual Plane
, at U+FFF0–FFFF. Of these 16 code points, five are assigned as of Unicode
Unicode
10.0: * U+FFF9 INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION ANCHOR, marks start of annotated text * U+FFFA INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION SEPARATOR, marks start of annotating character(s) * U+FFFB INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION TERMINATOR, marks end of annotation block * U+FFFC  OBJECT REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, placeholder in the text for another unspecified object, for example in a compound document . * U+FFFD � REPLACEMENT CHARACTER used to replace an unknown, unrecognized or unrepresentable character * U+FFFE not a character. * U+FFFF not a character.FFFE and FFFF are not unassigned in the usual sense, but guaranteed not to be a Unicode
Unicode
character at all . They can be used to guess a text's encoding scheme, since any text containing these is by definition not a correctly encoded Unicode
Unicode
text. Unicode's U+FEFF Byte order mark character can be inserted at the beginning of a Unicode text to signal its endianness : a program reading such a text and encountering 0xFFFE would then know that it should switch the byte order for all the following characters
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Chinese Character
CHINESE CHARACTERS are logograms used in the writing of Chinese , Japanese , Korean and some other Asian languages. In Standard Chinese , they are called HàNZì (simplified Chinese : 汉字; traditional Chinese : 漢字). They have been adapted to write a number of other languages, including Japanese , where they are known as _kanji _ (漢字); Korean , where they are known as _hanja _ (漢字); and Vietnamese , in a system known as _chữ Nôm _. Collectively, they are known as CJK CHARACTERS . In English, they are sometimes called HAN CHARACTERS. Chinese characters constitute the oldest continuously used system of writing in the world. By virtue of their widespread current use in East Asia , and historic use throughout the Sinosphere , Chinese characters are among the most widely adopted writing systems in the world by number of users. Chinese characters number in the tens of thousands, though most of them are minor graphic variants encountered only in historical texts. Studies in China have shown that functional literacy in written Chinese requires a knowledge of between three and four thousand characters. In Japan , 2,136 are taught through secondary school (the _ Jōyō kanji _); hundreds more are in everyday use
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International Phonetic Alphabet
The INTERNATIONAL PHONETIC ALPHABET (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet . It was devised by the International Phonetic Association in the late 19th century as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language . The IPA is used by lexicographers , foreign language students and teachers, linguists , speech-language pathologists , singers , actors , constructed language creators and translators . The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of oral language: phones , phonemes , intonation and the separation of words and syllables . To represent additional qualities of speech, such as tooth gnashing, lisping , and sounds made with a cleft lip and cleft palate , an extended set of symbols, the extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet , may be used. IPA symbols are composed of one or more elements of two basic types, letters and diacritics . For example, the sound of the English letter ⟨t⟩ may be transcribed in IPA with a single letter, , or with a letter plus diacritics, , depending on how precise one wishes to be. Often, slashes are used to signal broad or phonemic transcription ; thus, /t/ is less specific than, and could refer to, either or , depending on the context and language
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Unicode
UNICODE is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding , representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems . Developed in conjunction with the Universal Coded Character Set (UCS) standard and published as _The Unicode Standard_, the latest version of Unicode
Unicode
contains a repertoire of 136,755 characters covering 139 modern and historic scripts , as well as multiple symbol sets. The standard consists of a set of code charts for visual reference, an encoding method and set of standard character encodings , a set of reference data files , and a number of related items, such as character properties, rules for normalization , decomposition, collation , rendering, and bidirectional display order (for the correct display of text containing both right-to-left scripts, such as Arabic and Hebrew , and left-to-right scripts). As of June 2017 , the most recent version is _ Unicode
Unicode
10.0_. The standard is maintained by the Unicode Consortium . Unicode's success at unifying character sets has led to its widespread and predominant use in the internationalization and localization of computer software . The standard has been implemented in many recent technologies, including modern operating systems , XML , Java (and other programming languages), and the .NET Framework . Unicode
Unicode
can be implemented by different character encodings
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