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Justinian I
JUSTINIAN I (/dʒʌˈstɪniən/ ; Latin : Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Greek : Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ἰουστινιανός Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós) (c. 482 – 14 November 565), traditionally known as JUSTINIAN THE GREAT and also SAINT JUSTINIAN THE GREAT in the Eastern Orthodox Church , was the Byzantine (East Roman) emperor from 527 to 565. During his reign, Justinian sought to revive the empire's greatness and reconquer the lost western half of the historical Roman Empire. Justinian's rule constitutes a distinct epoch in the history of the Later Roman empire
Later Roman empire
, and his reign is marked by the ambitious but only partly realized renovatio imperii, or "restoration of the Empire". Because of his restoration activities, Justinian has sometimes been called the "last Roman " in modern historiography
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Rome
ROME (/ˈroʊm/ ROHM ; Italian : Roma ( listen ), Latin
Latin
: Rōma) is the capital of Italy
Italy
and a special comune (named Comune
Comune
di Roma Capitale). Rome
Rome
also serves as the capital of the Lazio region . With 2,877,215 residents in 1,285 km2 (496.1 sq mi), it is also the country's most populated comune. It is the fourth-most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the center of the Metropolitan City of Rome , which has a population of 4.3 million residents. Rome
Rome
is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
, within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of the Tiber
Tiber

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Iberian Peninsula
The IBERIAN PENINSULA /aɪˈbɪəriən pəˈnɪnsjᵿlə/ , also known as IBERIA /aɪˈbɪəriə/ , is located in the southwest corner of Europe. The peninsula is principally divided between Portugal
Portugal
and Spain
Spain
, comprising most of their territory. It also includes Andorra and a small part of France
France
along the peninsula's northeastern edge, as well as Gibraltar
Gibraltar
on its south coast, a small peninsula that forms an overseas territory of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. With an area of approximately 582,000 km2 (225,000 sq mi), it is the second largest European peninsula, after the Scandinavian
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Republic Of Macedonia
MACEDONIA (/ˌmæsᵻˈdoʊniə/ ( listen ) mas-i-DOH-nee-ə ; Macedonian : Македонија, tr. Makedonija, IPA: ), officially the REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA (Macedonian: Република Македонија (help ·info ), tr. Republika Makedonija), is a country in the Balkan
Balkan
peninsula in Southeast Europe
Europe
. It is one of the successor states of the former Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
, from which it declared independence in 1991
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Italian Peninsula
42°N 14°E / 42°N 14°E / 42; 14 37°N 15°E / 37°N 15°E / 37; 15 AREA 131,337 km2 (50,709 sq mi) HIGHEST POINT Corno Grande ADMINISTRATION ITALY LARGEST SETTLEMENT Rome
Rome
SAN MARINO LARGEST SETTLEMENT Dogana
Dogana
VATICAN CITY LARGEST SETTLEMENT Itself ( City-state ) DEMOGRAPHICS DEMONYM Apenninen POP. DENSITY 199.27 /km2 (516.11 /sq mi) ETHNIC GROUPS Italian The ITALIAN PENINSULA or APENNINE PENINSULA (Italian : Penisola italiana, Penisola appenninica) is the central and the smallest of the three large peninsulas of Southern Europe
Southern Europe
(between the Iberian Peninsula
Peninsula
and the Balkan Peninsula
Peninsula
). It extends 1,000 km (620 mi) from the Po Valley in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south
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Latin Language
LATIN (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages . The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium
Latium
, in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
. Through the power of the Roman Republic , it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages
Romance languages
, such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian . Latin
Latin
, Italian and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Historiography
HISTORIOGRAPHY is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject. The historiography of a specific topic covers how historians have studied that topic using particular sources, techniques, and theoretical approaches. Scholars discuss historiography by topic – such as the "historiography of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
", the "historiography of Canada ", "historiography of the British Empire
Empire
", the "historiography of early Islam ", the "historiography of China " – and different approaches and genres, such as political history and social history . Beginning in the nineteenth century, with the ascent of academic history , there developed a body of historiographic literature. The extent to which historians are influenced by their own groups and loyalties – such as to their nation state – is a debated question
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Greek Language
GREEK ( Modern Greek : ελληνικά , elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα ( listen ), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B
Linear B
and the Cypriot syllabary , were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
Latin
, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems
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Solidus (coin)
The SOLIDUS ( Latin
Latin
for "solid"; pl. SOLIDI), NOMISMA (Greek : νόμισμα, nómisma, lit. "coin"), or BEZANT was originally a relatively pure gold coin issued in the Late Roman Empire . Under Constantine , who introduced it on a wide scale, it had a weight of about 4.5 grams. It was largely replaced in Western Europe by Pepin the Short 's currency reform , which introduced the silver -based pound /shilling /penny system, under which the shilling ( Latin
Latin
: solidus) functioned as a unit of account equivalent to 12 pence , eventually developing into the French sou. In Eastern Europe, the nomisma was gradually debased by the Byzantine emperors until it was abolished by Alexius I
Alexius I
in 1092, who replaced it with the hyperpyron , which also came to be known as a "bezant". The Byzantine solidus also inspired the originally slightly less pure Arabian dinar
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Dynasty
A DYNASTY (UK : /ˈdɪnəsti/ , US : /ˈdaɪnəsti/ ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system but sometimes also appearing in elective republics . The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "house "; which may be styled "royal ", "princely ", "comital ", etc., depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states , such as Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
, the Carolingian Empire and Imperial China
Imperial China
, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends, and artifacts of that period ("a Ming-dynasty vase"). The word "dynasty" itself is often dropped from such adjectival references ("a Ming vase
Ming vase
")
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Black Sea
The BLACK SEA is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean
Ocean
between Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
and Western Asia
Western Asia
, bounded by Bulgaria
Bulgaria
, Georgia , Romania
Romania
, Russia
Russia
, Turkey
Turkey
, and Ukraine
Ukraine
. It is supplied by a number of major rivers, such as the Danube
Danube
, Dnieper , Rioni , Southern Bug
Southern Bug
, and Dniester
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Zan People
The ZANS (Georgian : ზანები, zanebi) or CHANS (Georgian : ჭანები, chanebi) are a subethnic group of Georgians
Georgians
from Kartvelian family , speaking the Zan languages . * KARTVELIAN PEOPLES * Georgians
Georgians
* ZANS ( Mingrelians
Mingrelians
and Lazs ) * Svans SEE ALSO * Kartvelian languages
Kartvelian languages
* Zan languages This article about an ethnic group in the Caucasus
Caucasus
is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Coronation
A CORONATION is the act of placement or bestowal of a crown upon a monarch's head. The term generally also refers not only to the physical crowning but to the whole ceremony wherein the act of crowning occurs, along with the presentation of other items of regalia , marking the formal investiture of a monarch with regal power. Aside from the crowning, a coronation ceremony may comprise of many other rituals such as the taking of special vows by the monarch, the investing and presentation of regalia to the monarch, and acts of homage by the new ruler's subjects and the performance of other ritual deeds of special significance to the particular nation. Western-style coronations have often included anointing the monarch with holy oil , or chrism as it is often called; the anointing ritual's religious significance follows examples found in the Bible
Bible
. The monarch's consort may also be crowned, either simultaneously with the monarch or as a separate event
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Civil Law (legal System)
CIVIL LAW, CIVILIAN LAW, or ROMAN LAW is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of late Roman law , and whose most prevalent feature is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law. This can be contrasted with common law systems whose intellectual framework comes from judge-made decisional law which gives precedential authority to prior court decisions on the principle that it is unfair to treat similar facts differently on different occasions (doctrine of judicial precedent , or stare decisis ). Historically, a civil law is the group of legal ideas and systems ultimately derived from the Corpus Juris Civilis
Corpus Juris Civilis
, but heavily overlaid by Napoleonic , Germanic , canonical , feudal, and local practices, as well as doctrinal strains such as natural law , codification, and legal positivism
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Eastern Orthodox Church
The EASTERN ORTHODOX CHURCH, also known as the ORTHODOX CHURCH, or officially as the ORTHODOX CATHOLIC CHURCH, is the second-largest Christian church and one of the oldest extant religious institutions in the world. The Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Church teaches that it is the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church established by Jesus
Jesus
Christ in his Great Commission to the apostles. It practices what it understands to be the original Christian faith and maintains the sacred tradition passed down from the apostles . The Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Church is a communion of autocephalous churches , each typically governed by a Holy Synod
Holy Synod
. It teaches that all bishops are equal by virtue of their ordination , and has no central governing structure analogous to the Papacy in the Roman Catholic Church
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Leonid Dynasty
The HOUSE OF LEO ruled the Eastern Roman Empire
Eastern Roman Empire
from 457 to 518 (and varying parts of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
from 474 to 480). The emperors of the House of Leo were: * Leo I the Thracian
Leo I the Thracian
(Valerius Leo) (401–474, ruled 457–474) – soldier * Leo II (467–474, ruled 474) – grandson of Leo I, son of Zeno * Zeno (425–491, ruled 474–475) – son-in-law of Leo I; orig. Tarasicodissa, an Isaurian * Basiliscus ( ? – c
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