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Justinian I
JUSTINIAN I (/dʒʌˈstɪniən/ ; Latin
Latin
: _Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus_; Greek : Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ἰουστινιανός _Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós_) (c. 482 – 14 November 565), traditionally known as JUSTINIAN THE GREAT and also SAINT JUSTINIAN THE GREAT in the Eastern Orthodox Church , was the Byzantine (East Roman) emperor from 527 to 565. During his reign, Justinian sought to revive the empire's greatness and reconquer the lost western half of the historical Roman Empire. Justinian's rule constitutes a distinct epoch in the history of the Later Roman empire
Later Roman empire
, and his reign is marked by the ambitious but only partly realized _renovatio imperii_, or "restoration of the Empire". Because of his restoration activities, Justinian has sometimes been called the "last Roman " in modern historiography . This ambition was expressed by the partial recovery of the territories of the defunct western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. His general, Belisarius , swiftly conquered the Vandal kingdom in North Africa
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Justinian (other)
JUSTINIAN the Great (483–565) was Byzantine Emperor from 527 to 565 noted for his codification of Law. JUSTINIAN may also refer to: CONTENTS * 1 People * 2 Other uses * 3 People with the surname * 4 People with the given name * 5 See also PEOPLE * Iustinianus , Roman general in Britain * Justinian II Rhinotmetus (669–711), Byzantine Emperor from 685 to 695 and again from 705 to 711 * Justinian (general) (c. 525–582), Byzantine general, nephew of Justinian I * Justinian of Ramsey Island (Jestin, Iestin), 6th-century Welsh hermitOTHER USES * Justinian (novel) , a novel by Harry Turtledove * Justiniana Prima , a Byzantine city that existed from 535 to 615 * Justinian , a storeship sent to the convict settlement at New South Wales in 1790 * SS Justinian , a Norwegian cargo ship in service from 1946 to 1954PEOPLE WITH THE SURNAME * St
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Byzantine Emperor
This is a LIST OF THE BYZANTINE EMPERORS from the foundation of Constantinople in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Eastern Roman (or Byzantine ) Empire, to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD. Only the emperors who were recognized as legitimate rulers and exercised sovereign authority are included, to the exclusion of junior co-emperors (_symbasileis_) who never attained the status of sole or senior ruler, as well as of the various usurpers or rebels who claimed the imperial title. Traditionally, the line of Byzantine emperors is held to begin with the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great , the first Christian emperor, who rebuilt the city of Byzantium as an imperial capital, Constantinople, and who was regarded by the later Byzantine emperors as the model ruler. It was under Constantine that the major characteristics of what is considered the Byzantine state emerged: a Roman polity centered at Constantinople and culturally dominated by the Greek East , with Christianity as the state religion . Emperors listed below up to Theodosius I in 395 were sole or joint rulers of the entire Roman Empire. The Byzantine Empire was the direct legal continuation of the eastern half of the Roman Empire following the division of the Roman Empire in 395
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Byzantine Empire
The BYZANTINE EMPIRE, also referred to as the EASTERN ROMAN EMPIRE, was the continuation of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, when its capital city was Constantinople
Constantinople
(modern-day Istanbul
Istanbul
, which had been founded as Byzantium
Byzantium
). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe
Europe
. Both "Byzantine Empire" and "Eastern Roman Empire" are historiographical terms created after the end of the realm; its citizens continued to refer to their empire as the _Roman Empire_ (Greek : Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr. _Basileia tôn Rhōmaiōn_; Latin : _Imperium Romanum_), or _Romania_ (Ῥωμανία), and to themselves as "Romans". Several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empire's Greek East and Latin West divided. Constantine I
Constantine I
(r
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Basilica Of San Vitale
The "BASILICA OF SAN VITALE" is a church in Ravenna
Ravenna
, Italy
Italy
, and one of the most important examples of early Christian Byzantine art and architecture in Europe
Europe
. The Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Church has designated the building a "basilica", the honorific title bestowed on church buildings of exceptional historic and ecclesial importance, although of course it is not of architectural basilica form. It is one of eight Ravenna
Ravenna
structures inscribed on the UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage List
World Heritage List
. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Architecture * 3 Mosaic art * 3.1 Justinian and Theodora panels * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links HISTORYThe church was begun by Bishop Ecclesius in 526, when Ravenna
Ravenna
was under the rule of the Ostrogoths and completed by the 27th Bishop of Ravenna, Maximian , in 547 preceding the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna
Ravenna
. The construction of the church was sponsored by Julius Argentarius, a Roman banker and architect, of whom very little is known, except that he also sponsored the construction of the Basilica
Basilica
of Sant\'Apollinare in Classe at around the same time
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Ravenna
RAVENNA (Italian pronunciation: , also locally (_ listen ); Romagnol : Ravêna_) is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna , in the Emilia-Romagna
Emilia-Romagna
region of Northern Italy
Italy
. It was the capital city of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
from 402 until that empire collapsed in 476. It then served as the capital of the Kingdom of the Ostrogoths until it was re-conquered in 540 by the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire . Afterwards, the city formed the centre of the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna until the invasion of the Lombards
Lombards
in 751, after which it became the seat of the Kingdom of the Lombards
Lombards
. Although an inland city, Ravenna
Ravenna
is connected to the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
by the Candiano Canal . It is known for its well-preserved late Roman and Byzantine architecture, and has eight UNESCO World Heritage Sites
UNESCO World Heritage Sites

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List Of Roman Emperors
ROMAN EMPERORS were rulers of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, wielding power over its citizens and military. The empire was developed as the Roman Republic invaded and occupied most of Europe and portions of northern Africa and western Asia. Under the republic, regions of the empire were ruled by provincial governors answerable to and authorised by the "Senate and People of Rome
Rome
". Rome
Rome
and its senate were ruled by a variety of magistrates – of whom the consuls were the most powerful. The republic ended, and the emperors were created, when these magistrates became legally and practically subservient to one citizen with power over all other magistrates. Augustus
Augustus
, the first emperor, was careful to maintain the facade of republican rule, taking no specific title for his position and calling the concentration of magisterial power Princeps Senatus (the first man of the senate). This style of government lasted for 300 years, and is thus called the Principate era. The modern word 'emperor' derives from the title imperator , which was granted by an army to a successful general; during the initial phase of the empire, it still had to be earned by the 'Princeps'
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Coronation
A CORONATION is the act of placement or bestowal of a crown upon a monarch's head. The term generally also refers not only to the physical crowning but to the whole ceremony wherein the act of crowning occurs, along with the presentation of other items of regalia , marking the formal investiture of a monarch with regal power. Aside from the crowning, a coronation ceremony may comprise of many other rituals such as the taking of special vows by the monarch, the investing and presentation of regalia to the monarch, and acts of homage by the new ruler's subjects and the performance of other ritual deeds of special significance to the particular nation. Western-style coronations have often included anointing the monarch with holy oil , or chrism as it is often called; the anointing ritual's religious significance follows examples found in the Bible . The monarch's consort may also be crowned, either simultaneously with the monarch or as a separate event. Once a vital ritual among the world's monarchies, coronations have changed over time for a variety of socio-political and religious factors; most modern monarchies have dispensed with them altogether, preferring simpler ceremonies to mark a monarch's accession to the throne. In the past, concepts of royalty, coronation and deity were often inexorably linked
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Justin I
JUSTIN I (Latin : Flavius Iustinus Augustus, Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Ἰουστίνος; 2 February 450 – 1 August 527) was Eastern Roman Emperor from 518 to 527. He rose through the ranks of the army and ultimately became Emperor, in spite of the fact he was illiterate and almost 70 years old at the time of accession. His reign is significant for the founding of the Justinian
Justinian
Dynasty
Dynasty
that included his eminent nephew Justinian I
Justinian I
and for the enactment of laws that de-emphasized the influence of the old Roman nobility. His consort was Empress Euphemia . CONTENTS * 1 Early career * 2 Emperor * 3 Later years * 4 Legacy * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Sources * 8 External links EARLY CAREERJustin was a peasant and a swineherd by occupation from the region of Dardania , which is part of the Prefecture of Illyricum . He was born in a hamlet Bederiana near Scupi (modern Skopje
Skopje
, Macedonia ). He was of Thraco-Roman
Thraco-Roman
or Illyro-Roman stock, spoke rudimentary Greek, and bore, like his companions and members of his family (Zimarchus, Dityvistus, Boraides, Bigleniza, Sabbatius, etc.), a Thracian name, Istok. His sister Vigilantia (b. ca 455) married Sabbatius and had two children: Petrus Sabbatius Justinianus (b
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Justin II
JUSTIN II (Latin : Flavius Iustinus Iunior Augustus; Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Φλάβιος Ἰουστίνος ὁ νεώτερος; c. 520 – 5 October 578) was Eastern Roman Emperor from 565 to 574. He was the husband of Sophia , nephew of Justinian I
Justinian I
and the Empress Theodora , and was therefore a member of the Justinian Dynasty
Dynasty
. His reign is marked by war with the Sassanid Empire and the loss of the greater part of Italy
Italy
. He presented the Cross of Justin II to Saint Peter\'s, Rome . CONTENTS * 1 Family * 2 Reign * 2.1 Accession * 2.2 Foreign policy * 3 Personal traits * 4 Succession and Abdication * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Sources * 7.1 Primary sources * 7.2 Secondary sources * 8 External links FAMILYHe was a son of Vigilantia and Dulcidio (or Dulcissimus), respectively the sister and brother-in-law of Justinian. His siblings included Marcellus and Praejecta . REIGNACCESSION Justinian I
Justinian I
died on the night of 14 to 15 November 565. Callinicus (pl), the praepositus sacri cubiculi , seems to have been the only witness to his dying moments, and later claimed that Justinian had designated "Justin, Vigilantia's son" as his heir in a deathbed decision
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Tauresium
TAURESIUM (Macedonian : Тауресиум, Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
Tavresion, Ταυρήσιον) or known as GRADIšTE (Градиште) is an archaeological site in Macedonia , located approximately 20 kilometres (12 mi) southeast of the capital Skopje
Skopje
. Tauresium
Tauresium
is the birthplace of Byzantine Emperor Justinian I
Justinian I
(483) and King Theodahad of the Ostrogoths (480). LOCATION AND GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (February 2017) Remains of the ancient town of Tauresium
Tauresium
Tauresium
Tauresium
is located in Zelenikovo Municipality , near the village Taor , some 20 kilometres (12 mi) southeast of Skopje. The site was discovered by British archaeologist Arthur Evans in the late 19th century. According to Justinian's biographer Procopius
Procopius
, the Emperor was born in Tauresius in 483, more precisely in the castle of Baderiana , which is the modern village Bader
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Dardania (Europe)
DARDANIA (/dɑːrˈdeɪniə/ ; Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Δαρδανία; Latin : Dardania) was a Roman province in the Central Balkans
Balkans
, initially an unofficial region in Moesia (87–284), then a province administratively part of the Diocese of Moesia (293–337). It was named after the ancient tribe of Dardani which inhabited the region prior to the Roman conquests in the 2nd and 1st centuries BC. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Administration * 3 Religion * 4 Economy * 5 Cities and towns * 6 Aftermath * 7 References * 8 Sources * 9 External links BACKGROUNDIt is debated in scholarship whether the Dardani (or Dardanians), after whom the region was named, were an Illyrian or Thracian people. It has been suggested that the region was originally populated by Thracians who then came into contact with Illyrians over a long time period. Celts were present in Dardania in 279 BC. In 179 BC, the Bastarnae conquered the Dardani, who later in 174 pushed them out, in a war which proved catastrophic, with a few years later, in 170 BC, the Macedonians defeating the Dardani. Macedonia and Illyria became Roman protectorates in 168 BC. The Scordisci , a tribe of Celtic origin, most likely subdued the Dardani in the mid-2nd century BC, after which there is for a long time no mention of the Dardani
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Diocese Of Dacia
The DIOCESE OF DACIA (Latin : Dioecesis Daciae) was a diocese of the later Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, in the area of modern western Bulgaria
Bulgaria
, central Serbia
Serbia
, Montenegro
Montenegro
, northern Albania
Albania
and northern Republic of Macedonia . It was subordinate to the Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum . Its capital was at Serdica
Serdica
(modern Sofia ). CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Origin of the name * 1.2 Creation * 1.3 Destruction * 2 See also * 3 Sources * 4 External links HISTORY Roman Empire
Roman Empire
with dioceses in 300 AD Roman Empire
Roman Empire
with dioceses in 400 AD Map of the northern Balkans
Balkans
in the 6th century, including the Diocese of Dacia
Diocese of Dacia
and its provinces. ORIGIN OF THE NAMEEmperor Aurelian (270-275), confronted with the secession of Gallia and Hispania from the empire since 260, with the advance of the Sassanids in Asia, and the devastations that the Carpians and the Goths had created in Moesia and Illyria
Illyria
, abandoned the province of Dacia created by Trajan
Trajan
and withdrew his troops altogether, fixing the Roman frontier at the Danube
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Republic Of Macedonia
MACEDONIA (/ˌmæsᵻˈdoʊniə/ (_ listen ) mas-i-DOH-nee-ə_ ; Macedonian : Македонија, tr. _Makedonija_, IPA: ), officially the REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA (Macedonian: _ Република Македонија (help ·info ), tr. Republika Makedonija_), is a country in the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe . It is one of the successor states of the former Yugoslavia , from which it declared independence in 1991. It became a member of the United Nations in 1993, but, as a result of an ongoing dispute with Greece over the use of the name "Macedonia", was admitted under the provisional description THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA (sometimes abbreviated as FYROM and FYR MACEDONIA), a term that is also used by international organizations such as the European Union , the Council of Europe and NATO . A landlocked country , the Republic of Macedonia has borders with Kosovo to the northwest, Serbia to the north, Bulgaria to the east, Greece to the south, and Albania to the west. It constitutes approximately the northwestern third of the larger geographical region of Macedonia , which also comprises the neighbouring parts of northern Greece and smaller portions of southwestern Bulgaria and southeastern Albania
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