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Justin II
Justin II
Justin II
(Latin: Flavius Iustinus Iunior Augustus;[1] Greek: Φλάβιος Ἰουστῖνος ὁ νεώτερος; c. 520 – 5 October 578) was Eastern Roman Emperor from 565 to 574. He was the husband of Sophia, nephew of Justinian I
Justinian I
and the Empress Theodora, and was therefore a member of the Justinian Dynasty. His reign is marked by war with the Sassanid Empire
Sassanid Empire
and the loss of the greater part of Italy. He presented the Cross of Justin II
Cross of Justin II
to Saint Peter's, Rome.Contents1 Family 2 Reign2.1 Accession 2.2 Foreign policy3 Personal traits 4 Succession and Abdication 5 See also 6 References 7 Sources7.1 Primary sources 7.2 Secondary sources8 External linksFamily[edit] He was a son of Vigilantia and Dulcidio (or Dulcissimus), respectively the sister and brother-in-law of Justinian
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Augustus (honorific)
Augustus
Augustus
(plural augusti; /ɔːˈɡʌstəs/;[1]Classical Latin: [awˈɡʊstʊs], Latin
Latin
for "majestic", "the increaser" or "venerable"), was an ancient Roman title given as both name and title to Gaius Octavius (often referred to simply as Augustus), Rome's first Emperor. On his death, it became an official title of his successor, and was so used by Roman emperors thereafter. The feminine form Augusta was used for Roman empresses and other females of the Imperial family. The masculine and feminine forms originated in the time of the Roman Republic, in connection with things considered divine or sacred in traditional Roman religion
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Sirmium
Sirmium
Sirmium
was a city in the Roman province
Roman province
of Pannonia. First mentioned in the 4th century BC and originally inhabited by Illyrians
Illyrians
and Celts,[1] it was conquered by the Romans in the 1st century BC and subsequently became the capital of the Roman province
Roman province
of Pannonia Inferior. In 294 AD, Sirmium
Sirmium
was proclaimed one of four capitals of the Roman Empire. It was also the capital of the Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum and of Pannonia
Pannonia
Secunda. Sirmium
Sirmium
was located on the Sava river, on the site of modern Sremska Mitrovica
Sremska Mitrovica
in northern Serbia
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Solidus (coin)
The solidus ( Latin
Latin
for "solid"; pl. solidi), nomisma (Greek: νόμισμα, nómisma, lit. "coin"), or bezant was originally a relatively pure gold coin issued in the Late Roman Empire. Under Constantine, who introduced it on a wide scale, it had a weight of about 4.5 grams. It was largely replaced in Western Europe by Pepin the Short's currency reform, which introduced the silver-based pound/shilling/penny system, under which the shilling (Latin: solidus) functioned as a unit of account equivalent to 12 pence, eventually developing into the French sou. In Eastern Europe, the nomisma was gradually debased by the Byzantine emperors until it was abolished by Alexius I
Alexius I
in 1092, who replaced it with the hyperpyron, which also came to be known as a "bezant"
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Byzantine Senate
The Byzantine Senate
Byzantine Senate
or Eastern Roman Senate
Roman Senate
(Greek: Σύγκλητος, Synklētos, or Γερουσία, Gerousia) was the continuation of the Roman Senate, established in the 4th century by Constantine I. It survived for centuries, but even with its already limited power that it theoretically possessed, the Senate became increasingly irrelevant until its eventual disappearance circa 14th century. The Senate of the Eastern Roman Empire
Roman Empire
originally consisted of Roman senators who happened to live in the East, or those who wanted to move to Constantinople, and a few other bureaucrats who were appointed to the Senate. Constantine offered free land and grain to any Roman Senators who were willing to move to the East. When Constantine founded the Eastern Senate in Byzantium, it initially resembled the councils of important cities like Antioch rather than the Roman Senate
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List Of Constantinople Patriarchs
This is a list of the Patriarchs of Constantinople.Contents1 Bishops of Byzantium
Byzantium
(until 330) 2 Archbishops of Constantinople
Constantinople
(330–451) 3 Patriarchs of Constantinople
Constantinople
(since 451)3.1 451–998 3.2 999–1453 3.3 1453–1466 3.4 1466–1833 3.5 1834–1923 3.6 1923–present4 See also 5 Notes 6 Citations 7 External linksBishops of Byzantium
Byzantium
(until 330)[edit]1. St. Andrew the Apostle
Andrew the Apostle
(38), founder (St. Andrew as founder is disputed by Roman Catholics[1]) 2. St. Stachys the Apostle
Stachys the Apostle
(38–54) 3. St. Onesimus
Onesimus
(54–68) 4. Polycarpus I (69–89) 5. Plutarch (89–105) 6. Sedecion (105–114) 7. Diogenes (114–129) 8. Eleutherius (129–136) 9. Felix (136–141) 10. Polycarpus II (141–144) 11. Athenodorus (144–148) 12
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Hippodrome Of Constantinople
Coordinates: 41°00′23″N 28°58′33″E / 41.00639°N 28.97583°E / 41.00639; 28.97583The Hippodrome
Hippodrome
in 2005, with the Walled Obelisk
Walled Obelisk
in the foreground and the
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Nummus
Nummus: (Greek: νουμμίον, noummion), plural nummi (νοῦμμοι) is a Latin term meaning "coin", but used technically by modern writers for a range of low-value copper coins issued by the Roman and Byzantine empires during Late Antiquity. It comes from the Greek "nomos",[1] which was used to describe a coin in some parts of southern Italy. The word was also used during the later years of the Roman Republic and the early Empire, either as a general word for a coin, or to describe the sestertius, which was the standard unit for keeping accounts.Contents1 History 2 Use of term 3 References3.1 Citations 3.2 Sources4 Further readingHistory[edit] In circa 294, during the Tetrarchy, a new large bronze coin of circa 10 grams weight and 30 mm diameter appeared. Its official name was apparently nummus, although it has until recently been known among numismatists as the follis.[2] The term nummus is now usually applied solely to the 5th–7th century Byzantine issues
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Pannonian Avars
The Pannonian Avars
Pannonian Avars
(/ˈævɑːrz/; also known as the Obri in chronicles of Rus, the Abaroi or Varchonitai[2] (Varchonites) or Pseudo-Avars[3] in Byzantine sources) were a group of Eurasian nomads of unknown origin[4][5][6][7][8] during the early Middle Ages.[9] The name
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Gepids
The Gepids
Gepids
(Latin: Gepidae, Gipedae) were an East Germanic tribe. They were closely related to, or a subdivision of, the Goths. They are first recorded in 6th-century historiography as having been allied with the Goths
Goths
in the invasion of Dacia
Dacia
in c. 260. In the 4th century, they were incorporated into the Hunnic Empire. Under their leader Ardaric, the Gepids
Gepids
united with other Germanic tribes
Germanic tribes
and defeated the Huns
Huns
at the Battle of Nedao in 454. The Gepids
Gepids
then founded a kingdom centered on Sirmium, known as Gepidia,[2] which was defeated by the Lombards
Lombards
a century later
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Silver
Silver
Silver
is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin
Latin
argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European
Proto-Indo-European
h₂erǵ: "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47. A soft, white, lustrous transition metal, it exhibits the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and reflectivity of any metal. The metal is found in the Earth's crust in the pure, free elemental form ("native silver"), as an alloy with gold and other metals, and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper, gold, lead, and zinc refining. Silver
Silver
has long been valued as a precious metal
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Praepositus Sacri Cubiculi
The praepositus sacri cubiculi ("provost of the sacred bedchamber", in Greek: πραιπόσιτος τοῦ εὐσεβεστάτου κοιτῶνος) was one of the senior palace offices in the late Roman Empire. Its holder was usually a eunuch, and acted as the grand chamberlain of the palace, wielding considerable authority and influence. In the 7th or 8th century, the title was also given to an order of rank for eunuch palace servants. The title and office continued in use in the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
until the late 11th century.Contents1 History and evolution 2 Notable praepositi 3 References 4 SourcesHistory and evolution[edit] The first securely identifiable holder of the office was Eusebius under Emperor Constantius II
Constantius II
(r. 337–361), but the position may have been introduced already under Emperor Constantine I
Constantine I
(r
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Sassanid Dynasty
This is a family tree of the Sasanian emperors, their ancestors, and Sasanian princes/princesses.Contents1 History 2 Sasanian family tree 3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit] The Sasanian dynasty was named after Sasan, the eponymous ancestor of the dynasty
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Syria (Roman Province)
Syria
Syria
was an early Roman province, annexed to the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
in 64 BC by Pompey
Pompey
in the Third Mithridatic War, following the defeat of Armenian King Tigranes the Great.[1] Following the partition of the Herodian Kingdom
Herodian Kingdom
into tetrarchies in 6 AD, it was gradually absorbed into Roman provinces, with Roman Syria
Syria
annexing Iturea and Trachonitis
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Dara (Mesopotamia)
Dara
Dara
or Daras (Greek: Δάρας) was an important East Roman fortress city in northern Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
on the border with the Sassanid Empire. Because of its great strategic importance, it featured prominently in the Roman-Persian conflicts of the 6th century, with the famous Battle of Dara
Dara
taking place before its walls in 530. The former (arch)bishopric remains a multiple Catholic titular see
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Smuggling Of Silkworm Eggs Into The Byzantine Empire
In the mid-6th century AD, two monks, with the support of the Byzantine emperor
Byzantine emperor
Justinian I, successfully smuggled silkworm eggs into the Byzantine Empire, which led to the establishment of an indigenous Byzantine silk
Byzantine silk
industry. This acquisition of silk worms from China allowed the Byzantines to have a monopoly of silk in Europe.[1]Contents1 Background 2 Expedition 3 Impact 4 SourcesBackground[edit] Silk
Silk
wormsSilk, which was first produced sometime during the fourth millennium BC by the Chinese, was a valuable trade commodity along the Silk Road.[2] By the first century AD, there was a steady flow of silk into the Roman Empire.[2] With the rise of the Sassanid Empire
Sassanid Empire
and the subsequent Roman–Persian Wars, importing silk to Europe became increasingly difficult and expensive
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