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Justin II
JUSTIN II (Latin : Flavius Iustinus Iunior Augustus; Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Φλάβιος Ἰουστίνος ὁ νεώτερος; c. 520 – 5 October 578) was Eastern Roman Emperor from 565 to 574. He was the husband of Sophia , nephew of Justinian I
Justinian I
and the Empress Theodora , and was therefore a member of the Justinian Dynasty
Dynasty
. His reign is marked by war with the Sassanid Empire and the loss of the greater part of Italy
Italy
. He presented the Cross of Justin II to Saint Peter\'s, Rome . CONTENTS * 1 Family * 2 Reign * 2.1 Accession * 2.2 Foreign policy * 3 Personal traits * 4 Succession and Abdication * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Sources * 7.1 Primary sources * 7.2 Secondary sources * 8 External links FAMILYHe was a son of Vigilantia and Dulcidio (or Dulcissimus), respectively the sister and brother-in-law of Justinian. His siblings included Marcellus and Praejecta . REIGNACCESSION Justinian I
Justinian I
died on the night of 14 to 15 November 565. Callinicus (pl), the praepositus sacri cubiculi , seems to have been the only witness to his dying moments, and later claimed that Justinian had designated "Justin, Vigilantia's son" as his heir in a deathbed decision
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Solidus (coin)
The SOLIDUS ( Latin for "solid"; pl. SOLIDI), NOMISMA (Greek : νόμισμα, nómisma, lit. "coin"), or BEZANT was originally a relatively pure gold coin issued in the Late Roman Empire
Late Roman Empire
. Under Constantine , who introduced it on a wide scale, it had a weight of about 4.5 grams. It was largely replaced in Western Europe by Pepin the Short 's currency reform , which introduced the silver -based pound /shilling /penny system, under which the shilling ( Latin : solidus) functioned as a unit of account equivalent to 12 pence , eventually developing into the French sou. In Eastern Europe, the nomisma was gradually debased by the Byzantine emperors until it was abolished by Alexius I
Alexius I
in 1092, who replaced it with the hyperpyron , which also came to be known as a "bezant". The Byzantine solidus also inspired the originally slightly less pure Arabian dinar . In late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, the solidus also functioned as a unit of weight equal to 1/72 of a pound
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List Of Byzantine Emperors
This is a LIST OF THE BYZANTINE EMPERORS from the foundation of Constantinople in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Eastern Roman (or Byzantine ) Empire, to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD. Only the emperors who were recognized as legitimate rulers and exercised sovereign authority are included, to the exclusion of junior co-emperors (_symbasileis_) who never attained the status of sole or senior ruler, as well as of the various usurpers or rebels who claimed the imperial title. Traditionally, the line of Byzantine emperors is held to begin with the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great , the first Christian emperor, who rebuilt the city of Byzantium as an imperial capital, Constantinople, and who was regarded by the later Byzantine emperors as the model ruler. It was under Constantine that the major characteristics of what is considered the Byzantine state emerged: a Roman polity centered at Constantinople and culturally dominated by the Greek East , with Christianity as the state religion . Emperors listed below up to Theodosius I in 395 were sole or joint rulers of the entire Roman Empire. The Byzantine Empire was the direct legal continuation of the eastern half of the Roman Empire following the division of the Roman Empire in 395
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Byzantine Empire
The BYZANTINE EMPIRE, also referred to as the EASTERN ROMAN EMPIRE, was the continuation of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, when its capital city was Constantinople
Constantinople
(modern-day Istanbul
Istanbul
, which had been founded as Byzantium
Byzantium
). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe
Europe
. Both "Byzantine Empire" and "Eastern Roman Empire" are historiographical terms created after the end of the realm; its citizens continued to refer to their empire as the _Roman Empire_ (Greek : Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr. _Basileia tôn Rhōmaiōn_; Latin : _Imperium Romanum_), or _Romania_ (Ῥωμανία), and to themselves as "Romans". Several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empire's Greek East and Latin West divided. Constantine I
Constantine I
(r
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Justinian I
JUSTINIAN I (/dʒʌˈstɪniən/ ; Latin
Latin
: _Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus_; Greek : Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ἰουστινιανός _Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós_) (c. 482 – 14 November 565), traditionally known as JUSTINIAN THE GREAT and also SAINT JUSTINIAN THE GREAT in the Eastern Orthodox Church , was the Byzantine (East Roman) emperor from 527 to 565. During his reign, Justinian sought to revive the empire's greatness and reconquer the lost western half of the historical Roman Empire. Justinian's rule constitutes a distinct epoch in the history of the Later Roman empire
Later Roman empire
, and his reign is marked by the ambitious but only partly realized _renovatio imperii_, or "restoration of the Empire". Because of his restoration activities, Justinian has sometimes been called the "last Roman " in modern historiography . This ambition was expressed by the partial recovery of the territories of the defunct western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. His general, Belisarius , swiftly conquered the Vandal kingdom in North Africa
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Tiberius II Constantine
TIBERIUS II CONSTANTINE (Latin : Flavius Tiberius
Tiberius
Constantinus Augustus) (520 – 14 August 582) was Eastern Roman Emperor from 574 to 582. CONTENTS * 1 Early career and the Avar War of 570 * 2 Elevation as Caesar (574–578) * 3 Reign as Augustus
Augustus
(578–582) * 4 Character and legacy * 5 Family * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Sources * 9 External links EARLY CAREER AND THE AVAR WAR OF 570Born in Thrace
Thrace
in the mid-sixth century, Tiberius
Tiberius
was appointed to the post of Notarius where sometime after 552 he was introduced by the Patriarch Eutychius to the future emperor Justin II
Justin II
with whom he became firm friends. Under Justin’s patronage, Tiberius
Tiberius
was promoted to the position of Comes excubitorum , which he held from approximately 565 through to 574. He was present during Justin’s Imperial accession on 14 November 565 and also attended the Emperor’s inauguration as Consul on 1 January 566. Justin ceased making payments to the Avars implemented by his predecessor Justinian . In 569, he appointed Tiberius
Tiberius
to the post of Magister utriusque militiae with instructions to deal with the Avars and their demands
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Sophia, Wife Of Justin II
AELIA SOPHIA (c. 530 – c./aft. 601) was the Empress consort of Justin II of the Byzantine Empire from 565 to 578. She was specifically interested in economic matters and was involved in financial matters during Justin's reign. During his bouts of insanity, she acted as regent. CONTENTS * 1 Family * 2 Empress consort * 3 Regent * 4 Widowed Augusta * 5 Children * 6 References * 7 Sources * 8 External links FAMILYAccording to the Ecclesiastic History of John of Ephesus , Sophia was a niece of Theodora , the Empress consort of Justinian I . John of Ephesus did not specify the identities of her parents. According to the Secret History of Procopius , Theodora had only two siblings: her older sister Comito and younger sister Anastasia; either one could be the mother of Sophia. Procopius identifies Comito as a leading hetaera of her age. John Malalas records that Comito (b. ca 500) married general Sittas in 528. Sittas may thus be the father of Sophia. Whether Anastasia ever married is unknown. During the reign of Justinian I (527–565), Theodora arranged for Sophia to marry his nephew Justin . According to the Chronicon of Victor of Tunnuna , Justin was a son of Dulcidius and Vigilantia . Her father-in-law is also known as Dulcissimus in genealogical resources
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Arabia (daughter Of Justin II)
ARABIA (Greek : Ἀραβία; fl. 565) was the only recorded daughter of Byzantine emperor Justin II
Justin II
(r. 565–578) and his empress Sophia . CONTENTS * 1 Name and meaning * 2 Family * 3 Religious account * 4 Sources * 5 References NAME AND MEANINGWhile mentioned in several primary sources, her name is only recorded in the Patria of Constantinople . The name is generally accepted as genuine, though Cyril Mango has raised some doubts in his works. Shahîd's Byzantium and the Arabs in the sixth century (1995) examines the implications of her name. Arabia appears to be a unique personal name, and she seems to have been named for the Arabian Peninsula . The poem In laudem Justini minoris ("In praise of the younger Justin") by Flavius Cresconius Corippus , a primary source for the coronation of her father, notes its difference from the conventional and respectable name of her mother, indicating that it did sound strange even to a contemporary. The name had negative connotations, as the Arab people were mostly seen as barbarians by the Byzantines. Similarly embarrassing names for the women of an imperial family had resulted in renamings both before and after Arabia's lifetime, for instance the empresses Aelia Eudocia and Aelia Anastasia , whose original names (Athenaïs and Ino) had pagan connotations
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Dynasty
A DYNASTY (UK : /ˈdɪnəsti/ , US : /ˈdaɪnəsti/ ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system but sometimes also appearing in elective republics . The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "house "; which may be styled "royal ", "princely ", "comital ", etc., depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states , such as Ancient Egypt , the Carolingian Empire and Imperial China , using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends, and artifacts of that period ("a Ming-dynasty vase"). The word "dynasty" itself is often dropped from such adjectival references ("a Ming vase "). Until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to increase the territory , wealth, and power of his family members. The longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan , the Yamato dynasty , whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC. Dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally , such as under the Frankish Salic law . Succession through a daughter when permitted was considered to establish a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house
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Justinian Dynasty
The JUSTINIAN DYNASTY is a family who ruled over the Byzantine Empire from 518 to 602. It originated with Justin I and ended with Maurice . Patriarch Germanus I of Constantinople (term c. 715 – 730), whose father was named Justinian, might have been a descendant of the dynasty. The names Justin, Justinian and Germanus were common among dynasty members. * _ Justin I _ - (518–527) * No issue from the marriage with Euphemia * Vigilantia, sister of Justin * From the marriage with Sabbatius * Petrus Sabbatius, later adopted by Justin and raised to the rank of emperor as _ Justinian I _ - (527–565) * No issue from the marriage with Theodora * Vigilantia , sister of Justinian I * From the marriage with Dulcissimus * _ Justin II _ - (565–578) * From his marriage to _Sophia _ * Arabia . Married Baduarius * adoption of _ Tiberius II Constantine _ - (574–582) * From his marriage to Ino Anastasia . * Constantina , a daughter who married _Maurice _ (582–602) * Theodosius . Eldest son and co-emperor of Maurice. Married a daughter of _patrikios _ Germanus . * Tiberius . Second son. Supposed to inherit Italy. * Miriam/Maria . Supposed daughter of Maurice
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Vigilantia
VIGILANTIA (b. a. 490) was a sister of Byzantine emperor Justinian I (r. 527–565), and mother to his successor Justin II
Justin II
(r. 565–578, b. a. 520). CONTENTS * 1 Name * 2 Family * 3 Succession of Justinian * 4 Marriage and children * 5 References * 6 Sources NAMEThe name "Vigilantia" is Latin for "alertness, wakefulness". Itself deriving from "vigilia" (watch, watchfulness) and "vigil" ((1)adjective: awake, watching, alert (2)noun: watchman, sentinel). FAMILY Justinian (b. 482) and Vigilantia Dulcissima were children of a sister Vigilantia Sabbatia (b. a. 455) of Justin I
Justin I
(b. a. 450, r. 518–527), founder of the Justinian Dynasty . The family originated in Bederiana, near Naissus (modern Niš
Niš
in Serbia
Serbia
) in Dacia Mediterranea . Procopius
Procopius
, Theodorus Lector , Zacharias Rhetor , Victor of Tunnuna , Theophanes the Confessor and Georgios Kedrenos consider Justin and his family Illyrians , though Kedrenos is uncertain. Evagrius Scholasticus , John Malalas , the Chronicon Paschale , the Suda
Suda
, Joannes Zonaras and the Patria of Constantinople consider them Thraco-Romans
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Latin Language
LATIN (Latin: _lingua latīna_, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages . The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet . Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium , in the Italian Peninsula . Through the power of the Roman Republic , it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages , such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian . Latin
Latin
and French have contributed many words to the English language . Latin
Latin
and Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
roots are used in theology , biology , and medicine . By the late Roman Republic (75 BC), Old Latin had been standardised into Classical Latin . Vulgar Latin was the colloquial form spoken during the same time and attested in inscriptions and the works of comic playwrights like Plautus
Plautus
and Terence
Terence

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Ancient Greek
ANCIENT GREEK includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period (3rd century BC to the 6th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek . The language of the Hellenistic phase is known as Koine (common). Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek . Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects . Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians, playwrights, and philosophers . It has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a standard subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world since the Renaissance . This article primarily contains information about the Epic and Classical phases of the language
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Byzantine Emperor
This is a LIST OF THE BYZANTINE EMPERORS from the foundation of Constantinople in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Eastern Roman (or Byzantine ) Empire, to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD. Only the emperors who were recognized as legitimate rulers and exercised sovereign authority are included, to the exclusion of junior co-emperors (_symbasileis_) who never attained the status of sole or senior ruler, as well as of the various usurpers or rebels who claimed the imperial title. Traditionally, the line of Byzantine emperors is held to begin with the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great , the first Christian emperor, who rebuilt the city of Byzantium as an imperial capital, Constantinople, and who was regarded by the later Byzantine emperors as the model ruler. It was under Constantine that the major characteristics of what is considered the Byzantine state emerged: a Roman polity centered at Constantinople and culturally dominated by the Greek East , with Christianity as the state religion . Emperors listed below up to Theodosius I in 395 were sole or joint rulers of the entire Roman Empire. The Byzantine Empire was the direct legal continuation of the eastern half of the Roman Empire following the division of the Roman Empire in 395
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Sophia (empress)
AELIA SOPHIA (c. 530 – c./aft. 601) was the Empress consort of Justin II
Justin II
of the Byzantine Empire from 565 to 578. She was specifically interested in economic matters and was involved in financial matters during Justin's reign. During his bouts of insanity, she acted as regent. CONTENTS * 1 Family * 2 Empress consort * 3 Regent * 4 Widowed Augusta * 5 Children * 6 References * 7 Sources * 8 External links FAMILYAccording to the Ecclesiastic History of John of Ephesus , Sophia was a niece of Theodora , the Empress consort of Justinian I
Justinian I
. John of Ephesus did not specify the identities of her parents. According to the Secret History of Procopius
Procopius
, Theodora had only two siblings: her older sister Comito and younger sister Anastasia; either one could be the mother of Sophia. Procopius
Procopius
identifies Comito as a leading hetaera of her age. John Malalas records that Comito (b. ca 500) married general Sittas in 528. Sittas may thus be the father of Sophia. Whether Anastasia ever married is unknown. During the reign of Justinian I
Justinian I
(527–565), Theodora arranged for Sophia to marry his nephew Justin
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