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Jurassic Park (novel)
Jurassic Park
Jurassic Park
is a 1990 science fiction novel written by Michael Crichton, divided into seven sections (iterations). A cautionary tale about genetic engineering, it presents the collapse of an amusement park showcasing genetically recreated dinosaurs to illustrate the mathematical concept of chaos theory and its real world implications. A sequel titled The Lost World, also written by Crichton, was published in 1995. In 1997, both novels were re-published as a single book titled Michael Crichton's Jurassic World, unrelated to the film of the same name.[2][3][4] In 1993, Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
adapted the book into the blockbuster film Jurassic Park. The book's sequel, The Lost World, was also adapted by Spielberg into a film in 1997
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Camarasaurus
Camarasaurus
Camarasaurus
(/ˌkæmərəˈsɔːrəs/ KAM-ə-rə-SAWR-əs) was a genus of quadrupedal, herbivorous dinosaurs. It was the most common of the giant sauropods to be found in North America. Its fossil remains have been found in the Morrison Formation
Morrison Formation
of Colorado
Colorado
and Utah, dating to the Late Jurassic epoch ( Kimmeridgian
Kimmeridgian
to Tithonian
Tithonian
stages), between 155 and 145 million years ago. Camarasaurus
Camarasaurus
presented a distinctive cranial profile of a blunt snout and an arched skull that was remarkably square
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Bird
Birds (Aves) are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton. Birds live worldwide and range in size from the 5 cm (2 in) bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m (9 ft) ostrich. They rank as the world’s most numerically-successful class of tetrapods, with approximately ten thousand living species, more than half of these being passerines, sometimes known as perching birds. Birds have wings which are more or less developed depending on the species; the only known groups without wings are the extinct moa and elephant birds. Wings, which evolved from forelimbs, gave birds the ability to fly, although further evolution has led to the loss of flight in flightless birds, including ratites, penguins, and diverse endemic island species of birds
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Wildlife Refuge
A wildlife sanctuary, is a naturally occurring sanctuary, such as an island, that provides protection for species from hunting, predation, competition or poaching; it is a protected area, a geographic territory within which wildlife is protected. Refuges can preserve animals that are endangered. Such wildlife refuges are generally officially designated territories. They are created by government legislation, publicly or privately owned (The area near the Chernobyl nuclear accident site accidentally became a wildlife refuge when it became uninhabitable to humans). In the United States, the U.S
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Costa Rica
Coordinates: 10°N 84°W / 10°N 84°W / 10; -84Republic of Costa Rica República de Costa Rica  (Spanish)FlagCoat of armsAnthem: "Noble patria, tu hermosa bandera" (Spanish) "Noble motherland, your beautiful flag"Capital and largest city San José 9°56′N 84°5′W / 9.933°N 84.083°W / 9.933; -84.083Official languages SpanishRecognized regional languagesMekatelyu Bribri PatoisEthnic groups (2011[2])83.6% White/Castizo or Mestizo 6.7% Mulatto 2.4% Amerindian 1.1% Black (of African descent) 6.2% Others[1]Religion Roman CatholicismDemonymCosta Rican Tico(a)Government Unitary presidential constitutional republic• PresidentLuis Guillermo Solís• 1st Vice-PresidentHelio Fallas Venegas• 2nd Vice-PresidentAna Helena Chacón EcheverríaLegislature Legislative Assembly<
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Paleontology
Paleontology
Paleontology
or palaeontology (/ˌpeɪliɒnˈtɒlədʒi, ˌpæli-, -ən-/) is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene
Holocene
Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present). It includes the study of fossils to determine organisms' evolution and interactions with each other and their environments (their paleoecology). Paleontological observations have been documented as far back as the 5th century BC. The science became established in the 18th century as a result of Georges Cuvier's work on comparative anatomy, and developed rapidly in the 19th century. The term itself originates from Greek παλαιός, palaios, "old, ancient", ὄν, on (gen
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Paleobotany
Paleobotany, also spelled as palaeobotany (from the Greek words paleon = old and "botany", study of plants), is the branch of paleontology or paleobiology dealing with the recovery and identification of plant remains from geological contexts, and their use for the biological reconstruction of past environments (paleogeography), and both the evolutionary history of plants, with a bearing upon the evolution of life in general. A synonym is paleophytology. Paleobotany
Paleobotany
includes the study of terrestrial plant fossils, as well as the study of prehistoric marine photoautotrophs, such as photosynthetic algae, seaweeds or kelp
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Ancient DNA
Ancient DNA
DNA
(aDNA) is DNA
DNA
isolated from ancient specimens.[1][2] There is no definitive age to define historic or ancient DNA, but includes genetic material recovered from archaeological and historical skeletal material, mummified tissues, archival collections of non-frozen medical specimens, preserved plant remains, ice and permafrost cores as well as marine and lake sediments. Due to degradation processes (including cross-linking, deamination and fragmentation) ancient DNA
DNA
is of lower quality in comparison with modern genetic material [3]. The damage characteristics and ability of a DNA
DNA
to survive through time restricts possible analyses and places an upper limit on the age of successful samples Allentoft et al. (2012). There is a theoretical relationship between time and DNA degradation[4], although differences in environmental conditions complicates things
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Amber
Amber
Amber
is fossilized tree resin, which has been appreciated for its color and natural beauty since Neolithic
Neolithic
times.[2] Much valued from antiquity to the present as a gemstone, amber is made into a variety of decorative objects.[3] Amber
Amber
is used in jewelry. It has also been used as a healing agent in folk medicine. There are five classes of amber, defined on the basis of their chemical constituents
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Reptile
See text for extinct groups.Global reptile distribution (excluding birds)Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives. The study of these traditional reptile orders, historically combined with that of modern amphibians, is called herpetology. Because some reptiles are more closely related to birds than they are to other reptiles (e.g., crocodiles are more closely related to birds than they are to lizards), the traditional groups of "reptiles" listed above do not together constitute a monophyletic grouping or clade (consisting of all descendants of a common ancestor)
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Amphibian
Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia. Modern amphibians are all Lissamphibia. They inhabit a wide variety of habitats, with most species living within terrestrial, fossorial, arboreal or freshwater aquatic ecosystems. Thus amphibians typically start out as larvae living in water, but some species have developed behavioural adaptations to bypass this. The young generally undergo metamorphosis from larva with gills to an adult air-breathing form with lungs. Amphibians use their skin as a secondary respiratory surface and some small terrestrial salamanders and frogs lack lungs and rely entirely on their skin. They are superficially similar to lizards but, along with mammals and birds, reptiles are amniotes and do not require water bodies in which to breed
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Joe Johnston
Joseph Eggleston Johnston II[1] (born May 13, 1950)[1] is an American film director and former effects artist best known for such effects-driven movies as Honey, I Shrunk the Kids
Honey, I Shrunk the Kids
(1989), Jumanji (1995) and Jurassic Park III
Jurassic Park III
(2001). These movies include a number of period films such as The Rocketeer (1991), The Wolfman (2010), and Captain America: The First Avenger (2011)
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DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid (/diˈɒksiˌraɪboʊnjʊˈkliːɪk, -ˈkleɪ.ɪk/ ( listen);[1] DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses. DNA
DNA
and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids; alongside proteins, lipids and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides), they are one of the four major types of macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life. Most DNA
DNA
molecules consist of two biopolymer strands coiled around each other to form a double helix. The two DNA
DNA
strands are called polynucleotides since they are composed of simpler monomer units called nucleotides.[2][3] Each nucleotide is composed of one of four nitrogen-containing nucleobases (cytosine [C], guanine [G], adenine [A] or thymine [T]), a sugar called deoxyribose, and a phosphate group
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Complex System
Collective intelligence Collective action Self-organized criticality Herd mentality Phase transition Agent-based modelling Synchronization Ant
Ant
colony optimization Particle swarm optimization Swarm behaviourNetworks Scale-free networks Social network analysis Small-world networks Community
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Industrial Espionage
Industrial espionage, economic espionage, corporate spying or corporate espionage is a form of espionage conducted for commercial purposes instead of purely national security.[1] Economic espionage
Economic espionage
is conducted or orchestrated by governments and is international in scope, while industrial or corporate espionage is more often national and occurs between companies or corporations.[2]Contents1 Competitive intelligence
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Backdoor (computing)
A backdoor is a method, often secret, of bypassing normal authentication or encryption in a computer system, a product, or an embedded device (e.g. a home router), or its embodiment, e.g. as part of a cryptosystem, an algorithm, a chipset, or a "homunculus computer"[1] (such as that as found in Intel's AMT technology). Backdoors are often used for securing remote access to a computer, or obtaining access to plaintext in cryptographic systems. A backdoor may take the form of a hidden part of a program one uses,[2] a separate program (e.g. Back Orifice may subvert the system through a rootkit), or code in the firmware of ones hardware[3] or parts of ones operating system such as Microsoft Windows.[4][5][6] Although normally surreptitiously installed, in some cases backdoors are deliberate and widely known
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