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Jurassic
The JURASSIC ( /dʒuːˈræsɪk/ ; from Jura Mountains
Jura Mountains
) was a geologic period and system that spanned for 56 million years from the end of the Triassic Period 201.3 million years ago (Mya ) to the beginning of the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Period 145 Mya. The Jurassic
Jurassic
constituted the middle period of the Mesozoic Era , also known as the Age of Reptiles. The start of the period was marked by the major Triassic–Jurassic extinction event . Two other extinction events occurred during the period: the Pliensbachian/ Toarcian event in the Early Jurassic, and the Tithonian
Tithonian
event at the end; however, neither event ranks among the "Big Five" mass extinctions
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Parts Per Million
In science and engineering , the PARTS-PER NOTATION is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities , e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction . Since these fractions are quantity-per-quantity measures, they are pure numbers with no associated units of measurement . Commonly used are PPM (parts-per-million, 10−6), PPB (parts-per-billion, 10−9), PPT (parts-per-trillion, 10−12) and PPQ (parts-per-quadrillion, 10−15). CONTENTS* 1 Overview * 1.1 In nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy * 2 Parts-per expressions * 3 Criticism * 3.1 Long and short scales
Long and short scales
* 3.2 Thousand vs. trillion * 3.3 Mass fraction vs. mole fraction vs
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Oxygen
OXYGEN is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table and is a highly reactive nonmetal and oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most elements as well as other compounds . By mass, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium . At standard temperature and pressure , two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen , a colorless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula O 2. This is an important part of the atmosphere and diatomic oxygen gas constitutes 20.8% of the Earth\'s atmosphere . Additionally, as oxides the element makes up almost half of the Earth\'s crust
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Annum
A YEAR is the orbital period of the Earth
Earth
moving in its orbit around the Sun
Sun
. Due to the Earth's axial tilt , the course of a year sees the passing of the seasons , marked by changes in weather , the hours of daylight , and, consequently, vegetation and soil fertility . In temperate and subpolar regions around the globe, four seasons are generally recognized: spring , summer , autumn and winter . In tropical and subtropical regions several geographical sectors do not present defined seasons; but in the seasonal tropics , the annual wet and dry seasons are recognized and tracked. A calendar year is an approximation of the number of days of the Earth's orbital period as counted in a given calendar . The Gregorian, or modern, calendar , presents its calendar year to be either a common year of 365 days or a leap year of 366 days, as do the Julian calendars ; see below
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Arid
A region is ARID when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life. Environments subject to arid climates tend to lack vegetation and are called xeric or desertic . Most "arid" climates surround the equator; these places include most of Africa
Africa
and parts of South America , Central America
Central America
and Australia
Australia
. CHANGE OVER TIME THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (January 2008)The distribution of aridity observed at any one point in time is largely the result of the general circulation of the atmosphere
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Laurasia
LAURASIA ( /lɔːˈreɪʒə/ or /lɔːˈreɪʃiə/ ) was the more northern of two supercontinents (the other being Gondwana
Gondwana
) that formed part of the Pangaea
Pangaea
supercontinent around 335 to 175 million years ago (Mya ). It separated from Gondwana
Gondwana
215 to 175 Mya (beginning in the late Triassic
Triassic
period ) during the breakup of Pangaea, drifting farther north after the split. The name combines the names of Laurentia
Laurentia
, the name given to the North American craton , and Eurasia
Eurasia

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Rift
In geology , a RIFT is a linear zone where the lithosphere is being pulled apart and is an example of extensional tectonics . Typical rift features are a central linear downfaulted depression, called a graben , or more commonly a half-graben with normal faulting and rift-flank uplifts mainly on one side. Where rifts remain above sea level they form a rift valley , which may be filled by water forming a rift lake . The axis of the rift area may contain volcanic rocks , and active volcanism is a part of many, but not all active rift systems. Major rifts occur along the central axis of most mid-ocean ridges , where new oceanic crust and lithosphere is created along a divergent boundary between two tectonic plates . Failed rifts are the result of continental rifting that failed to continue to the point of break-up. Typically the transition from rifting to spreading develops at a triple junction where three converging rifts meet over a hotspot
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Dinosauromorpha
Lagerpetidae Dinosauriformes
Dinosauriformes
DINOSAUROMORPHA is a clade of archosaurs that includes the clade Dinosauria
Dinosauria
(dinosaurs), and other closely related animals. Birds are the only surviving dinosauromorphs. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Origins * 3 Phylogeny * 4 References * 5 External links ETYMOLOGYThe name was coined by Michael J. Benton in 1984. The first clade definitions were by Paul Sereno
Paul Sereno
in 1991 who defined the concept as a node clade: the last common ancestor of Lagerpeton chanarensis, Marasuchus
Marasuchus
lilloensis, Pseudolagosuchus major and the Dinosauria (including Aves) and all its descendants. ORIGINSDinosauromorphs appeared by the Anisian
Anisian
stage of the Middle Triassic around 242 to 244 million years ago, splitting from other ornithodires
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Limestone
LIMESTONE is a sedimentary rock , composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral , forams and molluscs . Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite , which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). About 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. Limestone
Limestone
has numerous uses: as a building material , an essential component of concrete ( Portland cement ), as aggregate for the base of roads, as white pigment or filler in products such as toothpaste or paints , as a chemical feedstock for the production of lime , as a soil conditioner , or as a popular decorative addition to rock gardens
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Carbon Dioxide
CARBON DIOXIDE (chemical formula CO2) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of air (1.225 g/L) that is odorless at normally encountered concentrations. Carbon
Carbon
dioxide consists of a carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It occurs naturally in Earth\'s atmosphere as a trace gas at a concentration of about 0.04 percent (400 ppm ) by volume. Natural sources include volcanoes , hot springs and geysers , and it is freed from carbonate rocks by dissolution in water and acids. Because carbon dioxide is soluble in water, it occurs naturally in groundwater , rivers and lakes , ice caps , glaciers and seawater . It is present in deposits of petroleum and natural gas
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European Alps
The ALPS (/ælps/ ; French : Alpes ; German : Alpen ; Italian : Alpi ; Romansh : Alps; Slovene : Alpe ) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe
Europe
, stretching approximately 1,200 kilometres (750 mi) across eight Alpine countries : Austria
Austria
, France
France
, Germany
Germany
, Italy
Italy
, Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
, Monaco
Monaco
, Slovenia
Slovenia
, and Switzerland
Switzerland
. The mountains were formed over tens of millions of years as the African and Eurasian tectonic plates collided. Extreme shortening caused by the event resulted in marine sedimentary rocks rising by thrusting and folding into high mountain peaks such as Mont Blanc
Mont Blanc
and the Matterhorn
Matterhorn

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Period (geology)
A GEOLOGIC PERIOD is one of several subdivisions of geologic time enabling cross-referencing of rocks and geologic events from place to place. These periods form elements of a hierarchy of divisions into which geologists have split the Earth\'s history . Eons and eras are larger subdivisions than periods while periods themselves may be divided into epochs and ages . The rocks formed during a period belong to a stratigraphic unit called a system . CONTENTS * 1 Structure * 2 Correlation issues * 3 See also * 4 References STRUCTUREThe twelve currently recognised periods of the present eon – the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
– are defined by the International Commission on Stratigraphy
Stratigraphy
(ICS) by reference to the stratigraphy at particular locations around the world
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Gondwana
In paleogeography , GONDWANA ( /ɡɒndˈwɑːnə/ ), also GONDWANALAND, is the name given to an ancient supercontinent . It is believed to have sutured about 600 to 530 million years ago , joining East Gondwana
Gondwana
to West Gondwana. Gondwana
Gondwana
formed prior to Pangaea , and later became part of it. Around 335 to 250 million years ago , Gondwana
Gondwana
and Laurasia
Laurasia
joined together to form the supercontinent Pangaea, which existed until approximately 215 to 175 million years ago . Gondwana
Gondwana
then separated from Laurasia
Laurasia
(the mid- Mesozoic
Mesozoic
era ) in the breakup of Pangaea, drifting farther south after the split. Gondwana
Gondwana
itself then also broke apart
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Archosaur
Arctopoda Haeckel , 1895 Avesuchia Benton, 1999 ARCHOSAURS are a group of diapsid amniotes whose living representatives consist of birds and crocodilians . This group also includes all extinct non-avian dinosaurs , extinct crocodilian relatives, and pterosaurs . ARCHOSAURIA, the archosaur clade , is a crown group that includes the most recent common ancestor of living birds and crocodilians. It includes two main clades: Pseudosuchia
Pseudosuchia
, which includes crocodilians and their extinct relatives, and Ornithosuchia , which includes birds and their extinct relatives (such as non-avian dinosaurs and pterosaurs )
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Precambrian
The PRECAMBRIAN (or PRE-CAMBRIAN, sometimes abbreviated PЄ, or CRYPTOZOIC) is the earliest period of Earth\'s history , set before the current Phanerozoic Eon. The Precambrian
Precambrian
is so named because it preceded the Cambrian, the first period of the Phanerozoic eon, which is named after Cambria , the Latinised name for Wales
Wales
, where rocks from this age were first studied. The Precambrian
Precambrian
accounts for 88% of the Earth's geologic time. The Precambrian
Precambrian
(colored green in the timeline figure) is a supereon that is subdivided into three eons (Hadean, Archean, Proterozoic) of the geologic time scale . It spans from the formation of Earth about 4.6 billion years ago (Ga ) to the beginning of the Cambrian
Cambrian
Period, about 541 million years ago (Ma ), when hard-shelled creatures first appeared in abundance
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Pangaea
PANGAEA or PANGEA ( /pænˈdʒiːə/ ) was a supercontinent that existed during the late Paleozoic
Paleozoic
and early Mesozoic
Mesozoic
eras. It assembled from earlier continental units approximately 335 million years ago, and it began to break apart about 175 million years ago. In contrast to the present Earth
Earth
and its distribution of continental mass, much of Pangaea
Pangaea
was in the southern hemisphere and surrounded by a superocean, Panthalassa . Pangaea
Pangaea
was the most recent supercontinent to have existed and the first to be reconstructed by geologists
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