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Jund Filastin
Jund
Jund
Filasṭīn (Arabic: جُـنْـد فِـلَـسْـطِـيْـن‎, "military district of Palestine") was one of the military districts of the Ummayad
Ummayad
and Abbasid
Abbasid
Caliphate province of Bilad al-Sham
Bilad al-Sham
(Syria), organized soon after the Muslim conquest of the Levant
Levant
in the 630s
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Umayyad
The Umayyad Caliphate
Caliphate
(Arabic: ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة‎, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt Omayyad,[2] was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. The caliphate was ruled by the Umayyad dynasty
Umayyad dynasty
(Arabic: ٱلأُمَوِيُّون‎, al-ʾUmawiyyūn, or بَنُو أُمَيَّة, Banū ʾUmayya, "Sons of Umayya"), hailing from Mecca. An Umayyad clan member had previously come to power as the third Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliph, Uthman ibn Affan
Uthman ibn Affan
(r. 644–656), but official Umayyad rule was established by Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan, long-time governor of Syria, after the end of the First Muslim Civil War in AD 661
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Kindah
Kindah
Kindah
(Arabic: كندة‎) was a tribal kingdom in Najd
Najd
established by the Kindah
Kindah
tribe.[1] The tribe's existence dates back to the 2nd century BCE.[2][need quotation to verify] The Kindites
Kindites
established a kingdom in central Arabia
Arabia
which was unlike those of Yemen; its kings exercised an influence over a number of associated tribes more by personal prestige than by coercive settled authority. Their first capital was Qaryat Dhāt Kāhil, today known as Qaryat al-Fāw.[1] The Kindites
Kindites
were polytheistic until the 6th century CE, with evidence of rituals dedicated to the idols Athtar and Kāhil found in their ancient capital in south-central Arabia
Arabia
(present day Saudi Arabia)
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Rashidun Caliphate
The Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliphate
Caliphate
(Arabic: اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ‎ al-Khilāfa-al-Rāshidah) (632–661) was the first of the four major caliphates established after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad. It was ruled by the first four successive caliphs (successors) of Muhammad
Muhammad
after his death in 632 CE (AH 11). These caliphs are collectively known in Sunni Islam
Islam
as the Rashidun, or "Rightly Guided" caliphs (اَلْخُلَفَاءُ ٱلرَّاشِدُونَ al-Khulafā’ur-Rāshidūn)
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Abbasid
The Abbasid Caliphate
Caliphate
(/əˈbæsɪd/ or /ˈæbəsɪd/ Arabic: ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة‎ al-Khilāfatu al-‘Abbāsīyah) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The Abbasid dynasty
Abbasid dynasty
descended from Muhammad's uncle, Al-Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib
Al-Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib
(566–653 CE), from whom the dynasty takes its name.[2] They ruled as caliphs for most of their period from their capital in Baghdad
Baghdad
in modern-day Iraq, after assuming authority over the Muslim empire from the Umayyads in 750 CE (132 AH). The Abbasid caliphate first centred its government in Kufa, but in 762 the caliph Al-Mansur
Al-Mansur
founded the city of Baghdad, near the Sasanian capital city of Ctesiphon
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Nablus
Nablus
Nablus
(Arabic: نابلس‎ Nāblus [næːblʊs] ( listen), Hebrew: שכם‬ Šəḵem, Biblical Shechem
Shechem

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Jaffa
Jaffa, in Hebrew Yafo (Hebrew: יפו‎,  Yāfō (help·info); Arabic: يَافَا‎, also called Japho or Joppa), the southern and oldest part of Tel Aviv-Yafo, is an ancient port city in Israel
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Caliph
A caliphate (Arabic: خِلافة‎ khilāfah) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (/ˈkælɪf, ˈkeɪ-/, Arabic: خَليفة‎ khalīfah,  pronunciation (help·info)), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
and a leader of the entire Muslim
Muslim
community.[1] Historically, the caliphates were polities based in Islam
Islam
which developed into multi-ethnic trans-national empires.[2] During the medieval period, three major caliphates succeeded each other: the Rashidun Caliphate
Rashidun Caliphate
(632–661), the Umayyad Caliphate
Umayyad Caliphate
(661–750) and the Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258)
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Mosque
A mosque (/mɒsk/; from Arabic: مَـسْـجِـد‎, translit. masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims. There are strict and detailed requirements in Sunni jurisprudence (Arabic: فِـقْـه‎, fiqh) for a place of worship to be considered a mosque, with places that do not meet these requirements regarded as musallas.[1] There are stringent restrictions on the uses of the area formally demarcated as the mosque (which is often a small portion of the larger complex), and in the Islamic Sharī‘ah (Arabic: شَـرِيْـعَـة‎, Law), after an area is formally designated as a mosque, it remains so until the Last Day.[1] Many mosques have elaborate domes, minarets, and prayer halls, in varying styles of architecture. Mosques originated on the Arabian Peninsula, but are now found in all inhabited continents
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Arab People
Historically: Arabian mythology (Hubal · al-Lāt · Al-‘Uzzá · Manāt · Other Goddesses) Predominantly: Islam (Sunni · Shia · Sufi · Ibadi · Alawite · Ismaili) Sizable minority: Christianity (Eastern Orthodox · Maronite · Coptic Orthodox · Greek Orthodox · Greek Catholic · Chaldean Christian) Smaller minority: Other monotheistic religions (Druze · Bahá'í Faith · Sabianism · Bábism · Mandaeism)Related ethnic groupsOther Afroasiatic-speaking peoplesa Arab
Arab
ethnicity should not be confused with non- Arab
Arab
ethnicities that are also native to the Arab
Arab
world.[30] b Not all Arabs
Arabs
are Muslims
Muslims
and not all Muslims
Muslims
are Arabs
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Lakhm
The Lakhmids
Lakhmids
(Arabic: اللخميون‎) or Banu Lakhm (بنو لخم) were an Arab kingdom of southern Iraq
Iraq
with al-Hirah as their capital, from about 300 to 602 AD. They were generally but intermittently the allies and clients of the Sassanian Empire, and participant in the Roman–Persian Wars.[2]Contents1 History 2 Lakhmid Kingdom facts 3 Lakhmid dynasty and its descendants3.1 Lakhmid rulers 3.2 Al Mandhari / Al Na'amani families 3.3 Al Abbadi dynasty4 In literature 5 See also 6 References 7 Sources 8 External linksHistory[edit]Near East in 565, showing the Lakhmids
Lakhmids
and their neighborsA Persian manuscript from the 15th century describing the constructing of al-Khornaq Castle in al-Hirah.The Lakhmid Kingdom was founded by the Lakhum tribe that emigrated from Yemen
Yemen
in the second century and ruled by the Banu Lakhm, hence the name given it
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Qais
Qays ʿAylān (Arabic: قيس عيلان‎), often referred to simply as Qays (also spelled Qais, Kais or Kays) were an Arab
Arab
tribal grouping branched from the Mudhar
Mudhar
section of the Adnanites. The tribe does not appear to have functioned as a unit in the pre-Islamic era. However, by the early Umayyad, its constituent tribes consolidated into one of the main tribo-political factions of the caliphate. The major constituent tribes or tribal groupings of the Qays were the Hawazin, Banu 'Amir, Banu Thaqif, Banu Sulaym, Banu Ghani, Bahila
Bahila
and Banu Muharib. Many of these tribes or their clans migrated from the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
and established themselves in northern Syria and Upper Mesopotamia, which long became their abode. From there they governed on behalf of the caliphs or rebelled against them
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Palaestina Tertia
Palaestina Salutaris or Palaestina Tertia was a Byzantine (Eastern Roman) province, which covered the area of the Negev (or Edom), Sinai (except the north western coast) and south-west of Transjordan, south of the Dead Sea. The province, a part of the Diocese of the East, was split from Arabia Petraea in the 6th century and existed until the Muslim Arab conquests of the 7th century.Contents1 Background 2 History 3 See also 4 ReferencesBackground[edit] In 105, the territories east of Damascus and south to the Red Sea were annexed from the Nabataean kingdom and reformed into the province of Arabia with a capital Petra and Bostra (north and south)
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Amilah
The Banu Amela (Arabic: بنو عاملة‎, translit. Banū 'Āmela) are a South Arabian tribe that migrated from the towns of Bardoun, Yarim, Mayrayama and Jibla in the central highlands and the Raimah region in Yemen (Jabalan Al Ardaba, Jabalan Al Raymah). They trace their genealogy back to Amela bin Saba'a bin Yashjeb bin Ya'arib bin Qahtan who left Yemen after the fourth destruction of the Marib Dam around 200 B.C. They dwelled in Jordan and Syria settling the southern highlands and eastern valley of modern Lebanon
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Banu Judham
The Banu Judham (Arabic: بنو جذام‎, Banu Jutham or Bani Jutham) is a Yemeni tribe that emigrated to Syria
Syria
and Egypt
Egypt
and dwelled with the Azd and Hamdan Kahlani tribes. Most Arab genealogists are not sure whether they are a Kahlani or a Himyarite
Himyarite
tribe.Contents1 Settling in Syria
Syria
and Egypt 2 Islamic era 3 Alliance with Kalbids 4 ReferencesSettling in Syria
Syria
and Egypt[edit] The Judham (Jurham) tribe itself claimed Yemeni origin
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Banu Kinanah
Banu Kinanah
Banu Kinanah
(also Bani Kinanah) (Arabic: بنو كنانة‎ or بني كنانة) are the largest Mudhari Adnanite
Adnanite
tribe of western Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
in Hejaz
Hejaz
and Tihama. They are descended from Kinanah, who was a great-grandson of Ilyas. Kinanah (or Kinana) was an ancestor of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Abu Muhammad
Muhammad
'Abd al-Malik bin Hisham wrote: Muhammad
Muhammad
was the son of 'Abdullah, b. 'Abdu'I-Muttalib (whose name was Shayba), b. Hashim (whose name was 'Amr), b. 'Abd Manaf (whose name was al-Mughira), b. Qusayy (whose name was Zayd), b. Kilab, b. Murra, b. Ka'b, b. Lu'ay, b. Ghalib, b. Fihr, b. Malik, b. aI-Nadr, b. Kinanah, b. Khuzayma, b. Mudrika (whose name was 'Amir), b. Ilyas, b. Mudar, b. Nizar, b. Ma'add, b. Adnan, b. Udd (or Udad),....b. Ya'rub, b. Yashjub, b. Nabit, b. Ishmael, b
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