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Jukka-Pekka Saraste
JUKKA-PEKKA SARASTE (born April 22, 1956, Lahti
Lahti
) is a Finnish conductor and violinist. Saraste was trained as a violinist. He later studied conducting at the Sibelius Academy with Jorma Panula in the same class as Esa-Pekka Salonen and Osmo Vänskä . Before becoming a conductor, Saraste was co-principal second violinist and later an associate to Leif Segerstam , with the Finnish Radio Symphony Orchestra (RSO). In 1983, Esa-Pekka Salonen and Saraste co-founded the Avanti! Chamber Orchestra, which specialises in performances of contemporary music. In 2000, Saraste also founded the Ekenäs Summer Concerts-Festival with the Finnish Chamber Orchestra, and he is currently the artistic advisor to both Festival and Orchestra. Saraste has directed the Finnish Chamber orchestra on several tours, including tours in the United States and China
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Lahti
LAHTI (Finnish pronunciation: , Swedish : Lahtis) is a city and municipality in Finland
Finland
. Lahti
Lahti
is the capital of the Päijänne Tavastia region . It is situated on a bay at the southern end of lake Vesijärvi about 100 kilometres (60 mi) north-east of the capital Helsinki
Helsinki
. In English, the Finnish word Lahti
Lahti
literally means bay. The Lahti
Lahti
region is growing and is one of the main economic hubs of Finland. The coat of arms of the city depicts a train wheel surrounded by flames
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Finland
FINLAND (/ˈfɪnlənd/ (_ listen ); Finnish : Suomi_ (_ listen ); Swedish : Finland_ ), officially the REPUBLIC OF FINLAND, is a sovereign state in Northern Europe . A peninsula with the Gulf of Finland to the south and the Gulf of Bothnia to the west, the country has land borders with Sweden to the northwest, Norway to the north, and Russia to the east. Estonia is south of the country across the Gulf of Finland. Finland is a Nordic country situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia , which also includes Scandinavia . Finland's population is 5.5 million (2014), and the majority of the population is concentrated in the southern region. 88.7% of the population is Finnish people who speak Finnish , a Uralic language unrelated to the Scandinavian languages; the second major group are the Finland-Swedes (5.3%)
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Conducting
CONDUCTING is the art of directing a musical performance, such as an orchestral or choral concert . The primary duties of the CONDUCTOR are to interpret the score created by a composer in a manner which is reflective of those specific indications within that score, set the tempo , ensure correct entries by various members of the ensemble, and to "shape" the phrasing where appropriate. To convey their ideas and interpretation, a conductor communicates with their musicians primarily through hand gestures, typically though not invariably with the aid of a baton , and may use other gestures or signals, such as eye contact with relevant performers. A conductor's directions will almost invariably be supplemented or reinforced by verbal instructions or suggestions to their musicians in rehearsal prior to a performance. The conductor typically stands on a raised podium with a large music stand for the full score , which contains the musical notation for all the instruments or voices
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Esa-Pekka Salonen
ESA-PEKKA SALONEN ( pronunciation (help ·info ): ; born June 30, 1958) is a Finnish orchestral conductor and composer . He is currently Principal Conductor and Artistic Advisor of the Philharmonia Orchestra in London
London
, Conductor Laureate of the Los Angeles Philharmonic
Los Angeles Philharmonic
, Composer-In-Residence at the New York Philharmonic , Artistic Director and cofounder of the Baltic Sea Festival, and Artist in Association at the Finnish National Opera
Finnish National Opera
and Ballet
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Osmo Vänskä
OSMO ANTERO VäNSKä (born 28 February 1953) is a Finnish conductor , clarinetist and composer . He started his musical career as an orchestral clarinetist with the Turku Philharmonic (1971–76). He then became the principal clarinet of the Helsinki Philharmonic from 1977 to 1982. During this time, he started to study conducting with Jorma Panula
Jorma Panula
at the Sibelius Academy , where his classmates included Esa-Pekka Salonen and Jukka-Pekka Saraste . In 1982, he won the International Besançon Competition for Young Conductors . Vänskä became principal guest conductor of the Lahti Symphony Orchestra in 1985, and chief conductor in 1988. He concluded his tenure with the Lahti Symphony Orchestra in 2008 and is now the orchestra's Conductor Laureate. His complete set of Sibelius symphonies with the Lahti Symphony Orchestra , also on the BIS label, has garnered widespread acclaim
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Leif Segerstam
LEIF SELIM SEGERSTAM (/ˈleɪf/ LAYF , Swedish pronunciation: ; born 2 March 1944) is a Finnish conductor , composer , violinist , violist and pianist , especially known for his 309 symphonies , along with other works in his extensive œuvre. Segerstam has conducted in a variety of orchestras since 1963, mostly American , Australian and European orchestras. He is widely known through his recorded discography, which includes the complete symphonies of Blomdahl , Brahms , Mahler , Nielsen , and Sibelius , as well as many works by contemporary composers, such as the American composers John Corigliano and Christopher Rouse , the Finnish composer Einojuhani Rautavaara , Swedish composer Allan Pettersson and the Russian composers Alfred Schnittke
Alfred Schnittke
and Alexander Scriabin
Alexander Scriabin

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Finnish Radio Symphony Orchestra
The FINNISH RADIO SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA (Finnish: Radion sinfoniaorkesteri, Swedish: Radions Symfoniorkester) is a Finnish orchestra based in Helsinki
Helsinki
, and the orchestra of the Finnish Broadcasting Company (Yle). The orchestra primarily gives concerts at the Helsinki
Helsinki
Music Centre . Primary funding comes from television licence fees from the Finnish population. The ensemble was founded in 1927 as the Radio Orchestra with ten musicians, with Erkki Linko as its first conductor. Though never holding the title of chief conductor, Linko remained affiliated with the orchestra until 1952. Toivo Haapanen became the orchestra's first chief conductor in 1929 and held the post until his death in 1950. The orchestra performed mainly studio concerts for the first portion of its history. Until World War II
World War II
, the orchestra gave only 20 public concerts, with freelance musicians to bolster the ranks
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Jean Sibelius
JEAN SIBELIUS (/sɪˈbeɪliəs, -jəs/ ; Swedish pronunciation (help ·info )), born JOHAN JULIUS CHRISTIAN SIBELIUS (8 December 1865 – 20 September 1957), was a Finnish composer and violinist of the late Romantic and early-modern periods. He is widely recognized as his country's greatest composer and, through his music, is often credited with having helped Finland to develop a national identity during its struggle for independence from Russia. The core of his oeuvre is his set of seven symphonies which, like his other major works, continue to be performed and recorded in his home country and internationally. His other best-known compositions are Finlandia
Finlandia
, the Karelia Suite , Valse triste , the Violin Concerto , the choral symphony Kullervo , and The Swan of Tuonela
The Swan of Tuonela
(from the Lemminkäinen Suite
Lemminkäinen Suite
)
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Toronto Symphony Orchestra
The TORONTO SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA (TSO) is a Canadian orchestra based in Toronto
Toronto
, Ontario. Founded in 1922, the TSO gave regular concerts at Massey Hall until 1982, and since then has performed at Roy Thomson Hall. The TSO also manages the Toronto
Toronto
Symphony Youth Orchestra (TSYO). Peter Oundjian
Peter Oundjian
became the TSO's music director in 2003. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Music directors * 3 References * 4 External links HISTORYThe TSO was founded in 1922 as the New Symphony Orchestra, and gave its first concert at Massey Hall in April 1923 with 58 musicians. The first conductor was Luigi von Kunits, and that season there were twenty concerts, as well as a performance at a spring festival. In the summer of 1924, the symphony performed at the Canadian National Exhibition. Shortly thereafter, the TSO began holding children's concerts
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Roy Thomson Hall
ROY THOMSON HALL is a concert hall in Toronto
Toronto
, Ontario
Ontario
, Canada
Canada
. Located downtown in the city\'s entertainment district , it is home to the Toronto
Toronto
Symphony Orchestra and Toronto
Toronto
Mendelssohn Choir . Opened in 1982, its circular architectural design exhibits a sloping and curvilinear glass exterior. It was designed by Canadian architects Arthur Erickson
Arthur Erickson
and Mathers and Haldenby. The hall seats 2,630 guests and features a pipe organ built by Canadian organ builders Gabriel Kney of London, Ontario
Ontario
. The hall was formerly known as The New Massey Hall during its construction and pre-construction phase
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BBC Symphony Orchestra
The BBC SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA ( BBC SO) is a British orchestra based in London. Founded in 1930, it was the first permanent salaried orchestra in London, and is the only one of the city's five major symphony orchestras not to be self-governing. The BBC SO is the principal orchestra of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). The BBC SO is a resident orchestra at the Barbican Centre , and gives studio concerts from its base at BBC Maida Vale studios . The BBC SO is also the principal orchestra at The Proms , performing the most concerts of any single orchestra in a given Proms season
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Oslo Philharmonic
The OSLO PHILHARMONIC (OSLO-FILHARMONIEN) is a Norwegian symphony orchestra based in Oslo
Oslo
, Norway
Norway
. The orchestra was founded in 1919, and has since 1977 had its home in the Oslo Concert Hall
Oslo Concert Hall
. The orchestra consists of 69 musicians in the string section, 16 in the woodwinds , 15 in brass , 5 in percussionists , 1 harpist , and 1 pianist . The orchestra gives an average of sixty to seventy symphonic concerts annually, the majority of which are broadcast nationally on the radio. The orchestra also performs chamber concerts frequently throughout the year
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Lahti Symphony Orchestra
The LAHTI SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA (Sinfonia Lahti) is a Finnish orchestra, based in the city of Lahti
Lahti
. It was founded in 1910 and placed under the control of the Lahti
Lahti
municipality in 1949. In Finland
Finland
the orchestra performs in the Sibelius Hall
Sibelius Hall
, while it also performs abroad in concert halls and festivals. Kalevi Aho
Kalevi Aho
was appointed composer-in-residence for the orchestra in 1992, and they have recorded many of his recent works. Past chief conductors of the orchestra have included Ulf Söderblom (1985-1988). Osmo Vänskä became principal guest conductor of the orchestra in 1985, and chief conductor in 1988. During his tenure, he and the orchestra have achieved wide acclaim, particularly with performances and recordings of Sibelius
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WDR Symphony Orchestra Cologne
The WDR SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA COLOGNE (WDR SINFONIEORCHESTER KöLN) is a German orchestra based in Cologne
Cologne
. The orchestra was founded in 1947 by Allied occupation authorities after World War II, as the orchestra of Nordwestdeutscher Rundfunk (NWDR; Northwest German Radio). The orchestra was named Kölner Rundfunk-Sinfonie-Orchester ( Cologne
Cologne
Radio Symphony Orchestra) and from the 1990s WDR Symphony Orchestra. The orchestra is particularly known for its performances of 20th-century and contemporary music. It has commissioned and premiered works from such composers as Luciano Berio
Luciano Berio
, Hans Werner Henze
Hans Werner Henze
, Mauricio Kagel
Mauricio Kagel
, Krzysztof Penderecki
Krzysztof Penderecki
, Karlheinz Stockhausen
Karlheinz Stockhausen
and Bernd Alois Zimmermann
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International Standard Book Number (identifier)
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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