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Judaism
Judaism
Judaism
(originally from Hebrew יהודה‬, Yehudah, "Judah";[1][2] via Latin
Latin
and Greek) is an ancient, monotheistic, Abrahamic religion with the Torah
Torah
as its foundational text.[3] It encompasses the religion, philosophy and culture of the Jewish people.[4] Judaism
Judaism
is considered by religious Jews
Jews
to be the expression of the covenant that God
God
established with the Children of Israel.[5] Judaism
Judaism
includes a wide corpus of texts, practices, theological positions, and forms of organization. The Torah
Torah
is part of the larger text known as the Tanakh or the Hebrew Bible, and supplemental oral tradition represented by later texts such as the Midrash
Midrash
and the Talmud
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Outline Of Judaism
Outline may refer to: Outline (list), a document summary, in hierarchical list format Outline (software), a note-taking application Outline drawing, a sketch depicting the outer edges of a person or object, without interior details or shading Outline typeface, in typography The
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Aruch HaShulchan
Aruch HaShulchan
Aruch HaShulchan
(Hebrew: עָרוּךְ הַשֻּׁלְחָן [or, arguably, עָרֹךְ הַשֻּׁלְחָן; see Title below]) is a chapter-to-chapter restatement of the Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
(the latter being the most influential codification of halakhah in the post-Talmudic era)
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Piyyut
A piyyut or piyut (plural piyyutim or piyutim, Hebrew: פִּיּוּטִים / פיוטים, פִּיּוּט / פיוט‬ pronounced [piˈjut, pijuˈtim]; from Greek ποιητής poiētḗs "poet") is a Jewish liturgical poem, usually designated to be sung, chanted, or recited during religious services. Piyyutim have been written since Temple times. Most piyyutim are in Hebrew or Aramaic, and most follow some poetic scheme, such as an acrostic following the order of the Hebrew alphabet
Hebrew alphabet
or spelling out the name of the author. Many piyyutim are familiar to regular attendees of synagogue services. For example, the best-known piyyut may be Adon Olam
Adon Olam
("Master of the World"), sometimes (but almost certainly wrongly) attributed to Solomon ibn Gabirol
Solomon ibn Gabirol
in 11th century Spain
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Judaica
Jewish ceremonial art, also known as Judaica (/dʒuːˈdeɪ.ɪkə/), refers to an array of objects used by Jews
Jews
for ritual purposes. Because enhancing a mitzvah by performing it with an especially beautiful object is considered a praiseworthy way of honoring God's commandments, Judaism has a long tradition of commissioning ritual objects from craftsmen and artists.[1]Contents1 Textual Origin 2 Items used on Shabbat2.1 Hanukkah
Hanukkah
items3 Sukkot
Sukkot
items 4 Books4.1 Passover haggadah5 Notable Judaica collections 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksTextual Origin[edit] Judaism has a set of classical early rabbinic commentaries on the Hebrew Bible; these commentary collections are known as the midrash literature (Heb: midrashim)
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Mishnah Berurah
The Mishnah Berurah
Mishnah Berurah
(Hebrew: משנה ברורה‎ "Clarified Teaching") is a work of halakha (Jewish law) by Rabbi
Rabbi
Yisrael Meir Kagan (Poland, 1838–1933), also colloquially known by the name of another of his books, Chofetz Chaim "Desirer of Life"
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Tosefta
—— Tannaitic ——Mishnah Tosefta—— Amoraic (Gemara) ——Jerusalem Talmud Babylonian Talmud—— Later ——Minor TractatesHalakhic Midrash—— Exodus ——Mekhilta of Rabbi Ishmael Mekhilta of Rabbi Shimon
Mekhilta of Rabbi Shimon
bar Yohai—— Leviticus —— Sifra
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Etrog
Etrog
Etrog
(Hebrew: אֶתְרוֹג‬, plural: etrogim) is the yellow citron or Citrus
Citrus
medica used by Jewish people during the week-long holiday of Sukkot, as one of the four species
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Shofar
A shofar (pron. /ʃoʊˈfɑːr/, from Hebrew:  שׁוֹפָר‬ (help·info), pronounced [ʃoˈfaʁ]) is an ancient musical horn typically made of a ram's horn, used for Jewish religious purposes. Like the modern bugle, the shofar lacks pitch-altering devices. All pitch control is done by varying the player's embouchure
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Mishneh Torah
The Mishneh Torah
Torah
(Hebrew: מִשְׁנֵה תּוֹרָה‎, "Repetition of the Torah"), subtitled Sefer Yad ha-Hazaka (ספר יד החזקה " Book
Book
of the Strong Hand"), is a code of Jewish religious law (Halakha) authored by Maimonides
Maimonides
( Rabbi
Rabbi
Moshe ben Maimon, also known as RaMBaM or "Rambam"). The Mishneh Torah
Torah
was compiled between 1170 and 1180 (4930–4940), while Maimonides
Maimonides
was living in Egypt, and is regarded as Maimonides' magnum opus. Accordingly, later sources simply refer to the work as "Maimon", "Maimonides" or "RaMBaM", although Maimonides
Maimonides
composed other works. Mishneh Torah
Torah
consists of fourteen books, subdivided into sections, chapters, and paragraphs
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Mishnah
—— Tannaitic ——Mishnah Tosefta—— Amoraic (Gemara) ——Jerusalem Talmud Babylonian Talmud—— Later ——Minor TractatesHalakhic Midrash—— Exodus ——Mekhilta of Rabbi
Rabbi
Ishmael Mekhilta of Rabbi Shimon
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Arba'ah Turim
Arba'ah Turim
Arba'ah Turim
(Hebrew: אַרְבַּעָה טוּרִים‬), often called simply the Tur, is an important Halakhic code composed by Jacob ben Asher (Cologne, 1270 – Toledo, Spain
Toledo, Spain
c. 1340, also referred to as Ba'al Ha-Turim). The four-part structure of the Tur and its division into chapters (simanim) were adopted by the later code Shulchan Aruch.Contents1 Meaning of the name 2 Arrangement and contents 3 Later developments 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksMeaning of the name[edit] The title of the work in Hebrew means "four rows", in allusion to the jewels on the High Priest's breastplate
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Yad
A yad (Hebrew: יד‎, literally "hand"; Yiddish: האַנט‎) is a Jewish
Jewish
ritual pointer, popularly known as a Torah
Torah
pointer, used by the reader to follow the text during the Torah
Torah
reading from the parchment Torah
Torah
scrolls.Contents1 Rationale1.1 Manufacture2 Other uses 3 ReferencesRationale[edit]Pointing with a yad on an open Torah
Torah
scroll.A yad resting on an open Torah
Torah
scroll.Beyond its practical usage in pointing out letters, the yad ensures that the parchment is not touched during the reading. There are several reasons for this: handling the parchment renders one ritually impure and the often-fragile parchment is easily damaged
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Sefer Torah
A Sefer Torah
Torah
(Hebrew: ספר תורה‬; " Book
Book
of Torah" or "Torah scroll"; plural: ספרי תורה‬ Sifrei Torah) is a handwritten copy of the Torah, the holiest book in Judaism. It must meet extremely strict standards of production. The Torah
Torah
scroll is mainly used in the ritual of Torah
Torah
reading during Jewish prayers. At other times, it is stored in the holiest spot within a synagogue, the Torah
Torah
ark, which is usually an ornate curtained-off cabinet or section of the synagogue built along the wall that most closely faces Jerusalem, the direction Jews
Jews
face when praying. The text of the Torah
Torah
is also commonly printed and bound in book form for non-ritual functions
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Shulchan Aruch
The Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
(Hebrew: שֻׁלְחָן עָרוּך‬ [ʃulˈħan ʕaˈʁuχ], literally: "Set Table"),[1] also known by various Jewish communities but not all as "the Code of Jewish Law," is the most widely consulted of the various legal codes in Judaism
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