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Judaism
JUDAISM (originally from Hebrew יהודה‬, Yehudah, "Judah "; via Latin
Latin
and Greek ) is an ancient, monotheistic , Abrahamic religion with the Torah
Torah
as its foundational text. It encompasses the religion , philosophy and culture of the Jewish people . Judaism
Judaism
is considered by religious Jews
Jews
to be the expression of the covenant that God established with the Children of Israel
Israel
. Judaism
Judaism
includes a wide corpus of texts, practices, theological positions, and forms of organization. The Torah
Torah
is part of the larger text known as the Tanakh or the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
, and supplemental oral tradition represented by later texts such as the Midrash
Midrash
and the Talmud
Talmud

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Aruch HaShulchan
ARUCH HASHULCHAN ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: ערוך השולחן) is a chapter-by-chapter restatement of the Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
(the latter being the most influential codification of halakhah in the post-Talmudic era). Compiled and written by Rabbi Yechiel Michel Epstein (1829–1908), the work attempts to be a clear, organized summary of the sources for each chapter of the Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
and its commentaries, with special emphasis on the positions of the Jerusalem Talmud
Talmud
and Maimonides
Maimonides

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Mishnah Berurah
The MISHNAH BERURAH (Hebrew : משנה ברורה‎‎ "Clarified Teaching") is a work of halakha (Jewish law) by Rabbi
Rabbi
Yisrael Meir Kagan ( Poland
Poland
, 1838–1933), also colloquially known by the name of another of his books, Chofetz Chaim "Desirer of Life". It was first published in 1904. His Mishnah Berurah
Mishnah Berurah
is a commentary on Orach Chayim , the first section of the Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
which deals with laws of prayer, synagogue , Shabbat
Shabbat
and holidays , summarizing the opinions of the Acharonim (post-Medieval rabbinic authorities) on that work. The title Mishnah Berurah
Mishnah Berurah
is a reference to the portion in Deuteronomy where Israel is commanded to inscribe God's commandments in large clear writing on a mountainside
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Piyyut
A PIYYUT or PIYUT (plural PIYYUTIM or PIYUTIM, Hebrew פּיּוּטִים / פיוטים, פּיּוּטִ / פיוט pronounced ; from Greek ποιητής poiētḗs "poet") is a Jewish liturgical poem, usually designated to be sung, chanted, or recited during religious services . Piyyutim have been written since Temple times. Most piyyutim are in Hebrew or Aramaic , and most follow some poetic scheme, such as an acrostic following the order of the Hebrew alphabet or spelling out the name of the author. Many piyyutim are familiar to regular attendees of synagogue services. For example, the best-known piyyut may be Adon Olam ("Master of the World"), sometimes (but almost certainly wrongly) attributed to Solomon ibn Gabirol in 11th century Spain
Spain

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Judaica
JEWISH CEREMONIAL ART, also known as JUDAICA (/dʒuːˈdeɪɪkə/ ), refers to an array of objects used by Jews
Jews
for ritual purposes. Because enhancing a mitzvah by performing it with an especially beautiful object is considered a praiseworthy way of honoring God's commandments, Judaism has a long tradition of commissioning ritual objects from craftsmen and artists. CONTENTS * 1 Textual Origin * 2 Items used on Shabbat
Shabbat
* 2.1 Hanukkah
Hanukkah
items * 3 Sukkot
Sukkot
items * 4 Books * 4.1 Passover haggadah * 5 Notable Judaica collections * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links TEXTUAL ORIGINJudaism has a set of classical early rabbinic commentaries on the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
; these commentary collections are known as the midrash literature (Heb: midrashim)
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Tosefta
—— Tannaitic —— * Mishnah
Mishnah
* Tosefta—— Amoraic ( Gemara
Gemara
) —— *
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Etrog
ETROG (plural: etrogim, Hebrew : אֶתְרוֹג‎) is the yellow citron or Citrus
Citrus
medica used by Jewish people during the week-long holiday of Sukkot
Sukkot
, as one of the four species . Together with a lulav , hadass and aravah , the etrog is to be taken in each Jewish hand
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Mishnah
—— Tannaitic —— * Mishnah * Tosefta
Tosefta
—— Amoraic ( Gemara
Gemara
) —— *
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Shofar
A SHOFAR (pron. /ʃoʊˈfɑːr/ , from Hebrew : שׁוֹפָר‎ (help ·info ), pronounced ) is an ancient musical horn made of ram 's horn , used for Jewish religious purposes. Like the modern bugle , the shofar lacks pitch-altering devices. All pitch control is done by varying the player's embouchure . The shofar is blown in synagogue services on Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
and at the very end of Yom Kippur
Yom Kippur
, and is also blown every weekday morning in the month of Elul
Elul
running up to Rosh Hashanah. Shofars come in a variety of sizes and shapes, depending on the choice of animal and level of finish
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Shulchan Aruch
The SHULCHAN ARUCH (Hebrew : שֻׁלְחָן עָרוּך‎ , literally: "Set Table"), also known by various Jewish communities but not all as "the CODE OF JEWISH LAW," is the most widely consulted of the various legal codes in Judaism. It was authored in Safed (today in Israel
Israel
) by Yosef Karo in 1563 and published in Venice
Venice
two years later. Together with its commentaries, it is the most widely accepted compilation of Jewish law ever written. The halachic rulings in the Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
generally follow Sephardic law and customs , whereas Ashkenazi Jews
Ashkenazi Jews
will generally follow the halachic rulings of Moses Isserles , whose glosses to the Shulchan Aruch note where the Sephardic and Ashkenazi customs differ
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Arba'ah Turim
ARBA\'AH TURIM (Hebrew : אַרְבַּעָה טוּרִים‎‎‎), often called simply the TUR, is an important Halakhic code composed by Jacob ben Asher ( Cologne
Cologne
, 1270 – Toledo, Spain c. 1340, also referred to as Ba'al Ha-Turim). The four-part structure of the TUR and its division into chapters (simanim) were adopted by the later code Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
. CONTENTS * 1 Meaning of the name * 2 Arrangement and contents * 3 Later developments * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links MEANING OF THE NAMEThe title of the work in Hebrew means "four rows", in allusion to the jewels on the High Priest\'s breastplate
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Yad
A YAD (Hebrew : יד‎‎, literally "hand"; Yiddish : האַנט‎) is a Jewish
Jewish
ritual pointer, popularly known as a TORAH POINTER, used by the reader to follow the text during the Torah reading from the parchment Torah
Torah
scrolls. CONTENTS* 1 Rationale * 1.1 Manufacture * 2 Other uses * 3 References RATIONALE Pointing with a yad on an open Torah
Torah
scroll. A yad resting on an open Torah
Torah
scroll. Beyond its practical usage in pointing out letters, the yad ensures that the parchment is not touched during the reading. There are several reasons for this: handling the parchment renders one ritually impure and the often-fragile parchment is easily damaged. Moreover, the vellum parchment does not absorb ink so touching the scroll with fingers will damage the lettering
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Shabbat
SHABBAT (/ʃəˈbɑːt/ ; Hebrew : שַׁבָּת‎ , "rest" or "cessation") or SHABBOS ( , Yiddish : שבת‎) or the SABBATH is Judaism
Judaism
's day of rest and seventh day of the week , on which religious Jews, Samaritans and certain Christians (such as Seventh-day Adventists and Seventh Day Baptists) remember the Biblical creation of the heavens and the earth in six days and the Exodus of the Hebrews, and look forward to a future Messianic Age . Shabbat
Shabbat
observance entails refraining from work activities , often with great rigor , and engaging in restful activities to honor the day. Judaism's traditional position is that unbroken seventh-day Shabbat
Shabbat
originated among the Jewish people, as their first and most sacred institution, though some suggest other origins
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Midrash
In Judaism
Judaism
, the MIDRASH (/ˈmɪdrɑːʃ/ ; Hebrew : מִדְרָשׁ‎; pl. מִדְרָשִׁים midrashim) is the genre of rabbinic literature which contains early interpretations and commentaries on the Written Torah and Oral Torah (spoken law and sermons), as well as non-legalistic rabbinic literature (aggadah ) and occasionally the Jewish religious laws (halakha ), which usually form a running commentary on specific passages in the Hebrew Scripture ( Tanakh ). The Midrash, capitalized, refers to a specific compilation of these writings, primarily from the first ten centuries CE . The purpose of midrash was to resolve problems in the interpretation of difficult passages of the text of the Hebrew Bible, using Rabbinic principles of hermeneutics and philology to align them with the religious and ethical values of religious teachers
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Tzedakah
TZEDAKAH or Ṣ\'DAQAH in Classical Hebrew (Hebrew : צדקה‎; Arabic : صدقة‎‎), is a Hebrew word literally meaning justice or righteousness but commonly used to signify charity , though it is a different concept from charity because tzedakah is an obligation and charity is typically understood as a spontaneous act of goodwill and a marker of generosity. It is based on the Hebrew word (צדק, Tzedek ) meaning righteousness , fairness or justice , and it is related to the Hebrew word Tzadik meaning righteous as an adjective (or righteous individual as a noun in the form of a substantive ). In Judaism
Judaism
, tzedakah refers to the religious obligation to do what is right and just, which Judaism
Judaism
emphasises are important parts of living a spiritual life
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Mishneh Torah
The MISHNEH TORAH (Hebrew : מִשְׁנֵה תּוֹרָה‎‎, "Repetition of the Torah"), subtitled SEFER YAD HA-HAZAKA (ספר יד החזקה "Book of the Strong Hand"), is a code of Jewish religious law ( Halakha ) authored by Maimonides
Maimonides
( Rabbi
Rabbi
Moshe ben Maimon, also known as RaMBaM or "Rambam"), one of history's foremost rabbis. The Mishneh Torah
Torah
was compiled between 1170 and 1180 (4930–4940), while Maimonides
Maimonides
was living in Egypt
Egypt
, and is regarded as Maimonides' magnum opus . Accordingly, later sources simply refer to the work as "Maimon", "Maimonides" or "RaMBaM", although Maimonides
Maimonides
composed other works. Mishneh Torah
Torah
consists of fourteen books, subdivided into sections, chapters, and paragraphs
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