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Judaism
JUDAISM (from Latin : _Iudaismus_, derived from Greek Ἰουδαϊσμός, originally from Hebrew יהודה‎, _Yehudah_, "Judah "; in Hebrew: יהדות‎, _Yahadut_, the distinctive characteristics of the Judean ethnos ) is an ancient monotheistic Abrahamic religion , with the Torah as its foundational text (part of the larger text known as the Tanakh or the Hebrew Bible ), and supplemental oral tradition represented by later texts such as the Midrash and the Talmud . It encompasses the religion , philosophy , culture and way of life of the Jewish people . Judaism is considered by religious Jews to be the expression of the covenantal relationship that God established with the Children of Israel . With between 14.5 and 17.4 million adherents worldwide, Judaism is the tenth-largest religion in the world
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Jews
The JEWS (/dʒuːz/ ; Hebrew : יְהוּדִים‎ ISO 259-3 _Yhudim_, Israeli pronunciation ), also known as the JEWISH PEOPLE, are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites , or Hebrews , of the Ancient Near East . Jewish ethnicity , nationhood and religion are strongly interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish nation, while its observance varies from strict observance to complete nonobservance. Jews originated as a national and religious group in the Middle East during the second millennium BCE, in the part of the Levant known as the Land of Israel . The Merneptah Stele appears to confirm the existence of a people of Israel somewhere in Canaan as far back as the 13th century BCE (Late Bronze Age)
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Judaica
JEWISH CEREMONIAL ART, also known as JUDAICA (/dʒuːˈdeɪɪkə/ ), refers to an array of objects used by Jews
Jews
for ritual purposes. Because enhancing a mitzvah by performing it with an especially beautiful object is considered a praiseworthy way of honoring God's commandments, Judaism has a long tradition of commissioning ritual objects from craftsmen and artists. CONTENTS * 1 Textual Origin * 2 Items used on Shabbat
Shabbat
* 2.1 Hanukkah
Hanukkah
items * 3 Sukkot
Sukkot
items * 4 Books * 4.1 Passover haggadah * 5 Notable Judaica collections * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links TEXTUAL ORIGINJudaism has a set of classical early rabbinic commentaries on the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
; these commentary collections are known as the midrash literature (Heb: midrashim)
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Shabbat
SHABBAT (/ʃəˈbɑːt/ ; Hebrew : שַׁבָּת‎‎ , "rest" or "cessation") or SHABBOS ( , Yiddish : שבת‎) or THE SABBATH is Judaism
Judaism
's day of rest and seventh day of the week , on which religious Jews
Jews
and certain Christians (such as Seventh Day Adventists and Seventh Day Baptists) remember the Biblical creation of the heavens and the earth in six days and the Exodus of the Hebrews, and look forward to a future Messianic Age
Messianic Age
. Shabbat
Shabbat
observance entails refraining from work activities , often with great rigor , and engaging in restful activities to honor the day. Judaism's traditional position is that unbroken seventh-day Shabbat
Shabbat
originated among the Jewish people, as their first and most sacred institution, though some suggest other origins
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Ritual Washing In Judaism
In JUDAISM, RITUAL WASHING, or ablution, takes two main forms. A TEVILAH (טְבִילָה) is a full body immersion in a mikveh , and a NETILAT YADAYIM which is the washing of the hands with a cup (see Handwashing in Judaism ). References to ritual washing are found in the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
, and are elaborated in the Mishnah
Mishnah
and Talmud
Talmud
. They have been codified in various codes of Jewish
Jewish
law and tradition, such as Maimonides
Maimonides
' Mishneh Torah (12th century) and Joseph Karo
Joseph Karo
's Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
(16th century.) These customs are most commonly observed within Orthodox Judaism
Judaism
. In Conservative Judaism , the practices are normative with certain leniencies and exceptions
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Chumash (Judaism)
The Hebrew term CHUMASH (also ḤUMASH; Hebrew : חומש‎, pronounced or pronounced or Yiddish
Yiddish
: pronounced ) is a Torah in printed form (i.e. codex ) as opposed to a sefer Torah , which is a scroll . The word comes from the Hebrew word for five, ḥamesh (חמש‎). A more formal term is Ḥamishah Ḥumshei Torah, "five fifths of Torah". It is also known by the Latinised Greek term Pentateuch in common printed editions. CONTENTS * 1 Origin of the term * 2 Usage * 3 Various publications * 4 References * 5 External links ORIGIN OF THE TERM The Artscroll Chumash The word "ḥumash" may be a vowel alteration of ḥomesh, meaning "one-fifth", alluding to any one of the five books: as the Hebrew חומש‎ has no vowel signs, it could be read either way. It could also be regarded as a back-formed singular of ḥumashim/ḥumshei (which is in fact the plural of ḥomesh)
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Tanakh
Outline of Bible-related topics Bible book Bible portal * v * t * e The TANAKH (/tɑːˈnɑːx/ ; Hebrew : תַּנַ"ךְ‎, pronounced or ; also _Tenakh_, _Tenak_, _Tanach_), also called the _ Mikra _ or Hebrew Bible , is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament . These texts are composed mainly in Biblical Hebrew , with some passages in Biblical Aramaic (in the books of Daniel , Ezra and a few others). The traditional Hebrew text is known as the Masoretic Text . The Tanakh consists of twenty-four books. _Tanakh_ is an acronym of the first Hebrew letter of each of the Masoretic Text's three traditional subdivisions: Torah ("Teaching", also known as the Five Books of Moses), Nevi\'im ("Prophets") and Ketuvim ("Writings")—hence TaNaKh
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Sefer Torah
A SEFER TORAH (Hebrew : ספר תורה‎; plural: ספרי תורה‎ _Sifrei Torah_ ; "Book(s) of Torah " or " Torah scroll (s)") is a handwritten copy of the Torah, the holiest book in Judaism . It must meet extremely strict standards of production. The Torah scroll is mainly used in the ritual of Torah reading during Jewish prayers . At other times, it is stored in the holiest spot within a synagogue , the Torah ark , which is usually an ornate curtained-off cabinet or section of the synagogue built along the wall that most closely faces Jerusalem , the direction Jews face when praying . The text of the Torah is also commonly printed and bound in book form for non-ritual functions. It is then known as a _Chumash _ ("five-part", for the five books of Moses), and is often accompanied by commentaries or translations
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Yad
A YAD (Hebrew : יד‎‎, literally "hand"; Yiddish : האַנט‎) is a Jewish
Jewish
ritual pointer, popularly known as a TORAH POINTER, used by the reader to follow the text during the Torah reading from the parchment Torah
Torah
scrolls. CONTENTS* 1 Rationale * 1.1 Manufacture * 2 Other uses * 3 References RATIONALE Pointing with a yad on an open Torah
Torah
scroll. A yad resting on an open Torah
Torah
scroll. Beyond its practical usage in pointing out letters, the yad ensures that the parchment is not touched during the reading. There are several reasons for this: handling the parchment renders one ritually impure and the often-fragile parchment is easily damaged. Moreover, the vellum parchment does not absorb ink so touching the scroll with fingers will damage the lettering
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Shofar
A SHOFAR (pron. /ʃoʊˈfɑːr/ , from Hebrew : שׁוֹפָר‎ (help ·info ), pronounced ) is an ancient musical horn made of ram 's horn , used for Jewish religious purposes. Like the modern bugle , the shofar lacks pitch-altering devices. All pitch control is done by varying the player's embouchure . The shofar is blown in synagogue services on Rosh Hashanah and at the very end of Yom Kippur , and is also blown every weekday morning in the month of Elul running up to Rosh Hashanah. Shofars come in a variety of sizes and shapes, depending on the choice of animal and level of finish
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Etrog
ETROG (Hebrew : אֶתְרוֹג‎, plural: etrogim) is the yellow citron or Citrus medica used by Jewish people during the week-long holiday of Sukkot , as one of the four species . Together with a lulav , hadass and aravah , the etrog is to be taken in each Jewish hand
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Outline Of Judaism
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Judaism : CONTENTS* 1 History of Judaism * 1.1 Pre-monarchic period * 1.2 Monarchic period * 1.2.1 United monarchy * 1.2.2 Divided monarchy * 1.2.2.1 Kingdom of Judah * 1.2.2.1.1 Kings of Judah * 1.2.2.1.2 Major events * 1.2.2.2 Kingdom of
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Jewish Religious Movements
JEWISH RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS, sometimes called "denominations" or "branches", include different groups which have developed among Jews from ancient times. Today, the main division is between the Orthodox , Reform , and Conservative lines, with several smaller movements alongside them. This threefold denominational structure is mainly present in the United States, while in Israel the fault lines are between the religious Orthodox and the non-religious . The movements differ in their views on various issues. These issues include the level of observance, the methodology for interpreting and understanding Jewish law , biblical authorship , textual criticism , and the nature or role of the messiah (or messianic age ). Across these movements there are marked differences in liturgy , especially in the language in which services are conducted, with the more traditional movements emphasizing Hebrew
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Orthodox Judaism
ORTHODOX JUDAISM is the approach to religious Judaism
Judaism
which subscribes to a tradition of mass revelation and adheres to the interpretation and application of the laws and ethics of the Torah
Torah
as legislated in the Talmudic texts by the Tannaimand Amoraim
Amoraim
. Orthodox Judaism
Judaism
includes movements such as Modern OrthodoxJudaism (אורתודוקסיה מודרנית) and Ultra-Orthodox or Haredi Judaism
Judaism
(יהדות חרדית). As of 2001, Orthodox Jews
Jews
and Jews
Jews
affiliated with an Orthodox synagogue accounted for approximately 50% of British Jews
Jews
(150,000), 26.5% of Israeli Jews
Jews
(1,500,000), and 13% of American Jews (529,000). Among those affiliated to a synagogue body, Orthodox Jews represent 70% of British Jewry, and 27% of American Jewry
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Haredi Judaism
HAREDI JUDAISM (Hebrew : חֲרֵדִי‎ _Ḥaredi_, IPA: ; also spelled _Charedi_, plural _Charedim_) is a broad spectrum of groups within Orthodox Judaism , all characterized by a rejection of modern secular culture. Its members are often referred to as STRICTLY ORTHODOX or ULTRA-ORTHODOX in English. The term "ultra-Orthodox", however, is considered pejorative by many of its adherents. Haredim regard themselves as the most religiously authentic group of Jews, although this claim is contested by other streams. Haredi Judaism coalesced in response to the sweeping changes brought upon the Jews in the modern era: emancipation, enlightenment, the _ Haskalah _ movement derived from enlightenment, acculturation, secularization, religious reform in all its forms from mild to extreme, the rise of the Jewish national movements , etc
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Hasidic Judaism
HASIDISM, sometimes HASIDIC JUDAISM ( Hebrew : חסידות‎, _hasidut_, Ashkenazi pronunciation : ; originally, "piety"), is a Jewish religious sect. It arose as a spiritual revival movement in contemporary Western Ukraine during the