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Josephine Brunsvik
Josephine Brunsvik
Josephine Brunsvik
or Countess Jozefina Brunszvik de Korompa (Hungarian: Brunszvik Jozefina; 28 March 1779 – 31 March 1821) was probably the most important woman in the life of Ludwig van Beethoven, as documented by at least 15 love letters he wrote her where he called her his "only beloved", being "eternally devoted" to her and "forever faithful”. Several musicologists consider her to be the most likely recipient of the mysterious "Letter to the Immortal Beloved".[1]Contents1 Early life and first marriage 2 Widowhood 3 Second marriage 4 1812 5 Separation 6 Death 7 References 8 Sources 9 External linksEarly life and first marriage[edit] Josephine Countess von Brunsvik was born on 28 March 1779 in Preßburg (now Bratislava
Bratislava
in Slovakia), then part of the Kingdom of Hungary
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Hungarian Language
Hungarian ( magyar nyelv (help·info)) is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary
Hungary
and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary
Hungary
and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary
Hungary
it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians
Hungarians
in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania
Romania
(Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia
Serbia
(Vojvodina), southern Poland[citation needed], northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia
Slovenia
due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians
Hungarians
being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire
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Piano Sonata No. 32 (Beethoven)
The Piano Sonata
Sonata
No. 32 in C minor, Op. 111, is the last of Ludwig van Beethoven's piano sonatas. Along with Beethoven's 33 Variations on a waltz by Anton Diabelli, Op. 120 (1823) and his two collections of bagatelles—Opus 119 (1822) and Opus 126 (1823)—this was one of Beethoven's last compositions for piano. The work was written between 1821 and 1822. Like other "late period" sonatas, it contains fugal elements
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Bohemia
Coordinates: 50°N 15°E / 50°N 15°E / 50; 15This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Slander
Defamation, calumny, vilification, or traducement is the communication of a false statement that harms the reputation of an individual person, business, product, group, government, religion, or nation.[1] Under common law, to constitute defamation, a claim must generally be false and must have been made to someone other than the person defamed.[2] Some common law jurisdictions also distinguish between spoken defamation, called slander, and defamation in other media such as printed words or images, called libel.[3] False light laws protect against statements which are not technically false, but which are misleading.[4] In some civil law jurisdictions, defamation is treated as a crime rather than a civil wrong.[5] The
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Measles
Measles
Measles
is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the measles virus.[3][9] Symptoms usually develop 10–12 days after exposure to an infected person and last 7–10 days.[6][7] Initial symptoms typically include fever, often greater than 40 °C (104.0 °F), cough, runny nose, and inflamed eyes.[3][4] Small white spots known as Koplik's spots
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Trutnov
Trutnov
Trutnov
(Czech pronunciation: [ˈtrutnof]; German: Trautenau) is a city in the Hradec Králové Region
Hradec Králové Region
of the Czech Republic. It has a population of 31,239 and lies in the Krkonoše
Krkonoše
in the valley of the Úpa
Úpa
River. Trutnov
Trutnov
is located on a 12th-century Slavic settlement named after the Úpa
Úpa
River; the first written mention of this settlement is from 1260. In order to develop the countryside, King Wenceslaus I of Bohemia granted German settlers the right to establish a town at the pre-existing settlement. The first mention of the German name Trautenau, from which the modern name Trutnov
Trutnov
is derived, is from a document of King Wenceslaus II in 1301. Since the end of the 14th century, Trutnov
Trutnov
was a dowry town for the Bohemian queen
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Baden-Baden
Baden-Baden
Baden-Baden
is a spa town, located in the state of Baden-Württemberg in southwestern Germany
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Bad Pyrmont
Bad Pyrmont
Bad Pyrmont
(German pronunciation: [bat pyrˈmɔnt, ˈpyrmɔnt]) is a town in the district of Hamelin-Pyrmont, in Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), Germany, with a population close to 19,000. It is located on the River Emmer, about 10 km west of the Weser. Bad Pyrmont is a popular spa resort that gained its reputation as a fashionable place for princely vacations in the 17th and 18th centuries. The town is also the center of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) in Germany.Contents1 History 2 Economy 3 Attractions 4 Sons and daughters of the town 5 Notable people 6 Gallery 7 See also 8 References 9 External links9.1 MultimediaHistory[edit] Formerly called Pyrmont, it was the seat of a small county during much of the Middle Ages. The county gained its independence from the County of Schwalenberg in 1194
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Piano Sonata No. 31 (Beethoven)
The Piano Sonata No. 31 in A♭ major, Op. 110, by Ludwig van Beethoven was composed in 1821. It is the central piano sonata in the group of three, Opp. 109–111, which he wrote between 1820 and 1822, and the thirty-first of his published piano sonatas. The work is in three movements. The moderato first movement in sonata form, marked con amabilità, is followed by a fast scherzo. The finale comprises a slow recitative and arioso dolente, a fugue, a return of the arioso lament, and a second fugue that builds to an affirmative conclusion.Contents1 Composition 2 Form2.1 Moderato cantabile molto espressivo 2.2 Allegro molto 2.3 Adagio ma non troppo - Allegro ma non troppo3 References 4 External linksComposition[edit] In the summer of 1819 Moritz Schlesinger, from the Schlesinger firm of music publishers based in Berlin, met Beethoven and asked to purchase some compositions
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Brigitte Massin
Brigitte Massin (21 July 1927[1] – 5 December 2002[1]) was a French musicologist and journalist. With her husband Jean Massin, she published numerous works on music. Brigitte Massin is the mother of Béatrice Massin, a specialist of Baroque dance.Contents1 Biography 2 Publications2.1 In collaboration with Jean Massin 2.2 Other works3 References 4 External linksBiography[edit] Massin has written extensive biographical works on classical and romantic composers. She specialized in Franz Schubert, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Beethoven.[2] Publications[edit] In collaboration with Jean Massin[edit]1995: Ludwig van Beethoven. Bibliothèque des grands musiciens. Paris: Fayard. p. 845. ISBN 978-2213003481.  1959: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Les indispensables de la musique. Paris: Fayard. p. 1293. ISBN 978-2213003092.  1970: Recherche de Beethoven. Paris: Fayard
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Modus Vivendi
Modus vivendi is a Latin
Latin
phrase that means "mode of living" or “way of life”. It often is used to mean an arrangement or agreement that allows conflicting parties to coexist in peace. In science or biology it is used to describe lifestyles.[1]Contents1 Term 2 Examples 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksTerm[edit] Modus means mode, way, method, or manner. Vivendi means of living. The phrase is often used to describe informal and temporary arrangements in political affairs
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Carl Dahlhaus
Carl Dahlhaus
Carl Dahlhaus
(June 10, 1928 – March 13, 1989), a musicologist from (West) Berlin, was one of the major contributors to the development of musicology as a scholarly discipline during the post-war era. Dahlhaus was born in Hanover. His education was interrupted by the Second World War where he served on the front and as an anti-aircraft auxiliary. He completed school exams through a special program designed for those engaged in combat. He showed an interest in banned literature and was exceptionally well read. After the war, he first studied law, later musicology at the University of Göttingen and Freiburg im Breisgau. His thesis at Göttingen in 1953 concerned the masses of Josquin. In the 1950s he was a co-founder of the Darmstadt new music festival
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Jean Massin
Jean Massin (1917[1] – 1986) was a French historian and musicologist. With his wife Brigitte Massin, he is the author of numerous books of history and musicology.Contents1 Biography 2 Works 3 Filmography 4 References 5 External linksBiography[edit] After studying at the seminary in Rome, Massin remained a Catholic priest until 1952, despite questions about tradition. He was close to Paul Claudel, the theologians Yves Congar
Yves Congar
and Pierre-André Liégé (fr), vicar of the Parish of Saint Séverin. Then he became a critic and musicographer.[2] In collaboration with his wife Brigitte Massin née Toulemonde (1927-2002), he published in the 1950s two reference works of musicology, Ludwig van Beethoven and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.[3] He thus contributed considerably to the renewal of the historiographical approach of composers in France
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Fayard
Fayard (complete name: Librairie Arthème Fayard) is a French Paris-based publishing house established in 1857. Fayard is controlled by Hachette Livre. In 1999, Éditions Pauvert became part of Fayard. Claude Durand was director of Fayard from 1980 until his retirement in 2009.[1] He was replaced by Olivier Nora, previously head of Éditions Grasset & Fasquelle[2] another division of the Hachette group. On 6 November 2013, Nora was replaced by Sophie de Closets, who officially took over at the beginning of 2014.[3] In December 2009, Hachette Littérature (publisher of the Pluriel pocket collection) was absorbed by Fayard
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Maynard Solomon
Maynard Solomon (born January 5, 1930) was a co-founder of Vanguard Records as well as a music producer.[1] More recently, he has become known for his work on Viennese Classical music, specifically Beethoven (writing an influential biography and an award-winning collection of essays), Mozart
Mozart
(biography), and Schubert
Schubert
(Solomon was the first to openly propose Schubert's homosexuality in a scholarly setting).[2]Contents1 Career in the recording industry 2 As musicologist 3 Selected discography of records produced by Maynard Solomon 4 Bibliography 5 References 6 External linksCareer in the recording industry[edit] Maynard Solomon founded Vanguard Records jointly with his brother Seymour Solomon in 1950. The label was one of the prime movers in the folk and blues boom for the next fifteen years
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