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Joseph-Antoine Le Febvre De La Barre
JOSEPH-ANTOINE LE FèBVRE DE LA BARRE (1622–1688) was the Governor of New France
France
from 1682 to 1685. He had previously been Governor of Auvergne and of the French Antilles
French Antilles
(1666 and 1667, then temporarily until 1669). He was originally an administrator, who then became an officer in the French Navy. Having replaced the frustrated Comte de Frontenac , La Barre set out to permanently establish the fur trade in the west (in and around what is now Kingston , Ontario
Ontario
). In 1683 he, along with a few hundred soldiers ( Troupes de la marine ), made camp at the future site of Oswego, New York to wait for the Iroquois
Iroquois
attack. After a while, over a hundred of La Barre's men fell ill and supplies ran out. La Barre and his men elected to return to Montreal
Montreal
and abandon the west
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François-Jean De La Barre
FRANçOIS-JEAN LEFEBVRE DE LA BARRE (12 September 1745 – 1 July 1766) was a young French nobleman. He was tortured and beheaded before his body was burnt on a pyre along with Voltaire 's Philosophical Dictionary nailed to his torso. La Barre is often said to have been executed for not saluting a Roman Catholic religious procession, though other charges of a similar nature were laid against him. In France, Lefebvre de la Barre is widely regarded a symbol of the victims of Christian religious intolerance , along with Jean Calas and Pierre-Paul Sirven , all championed by Voltaire. A second replacement statue to de la Barre stands near the Basilica of the Sacred Heart of Jesus of Paris at the summit of the butte Montmartre (itself named from the Temple of Mars), the highest point in Paris and an 18th arrondissement street nearby the Sacré-Cœur is also named after Lefebvre de la Barre
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Cayenne
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting : residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. CAYENNE (/keɪˈɛn/ ; French pronunciation: ​ ) is the capital city of French Guiana
French Guiana
, an overseas region and department of France located in South America
South America
. The city stands on a former island at the mouth of the Cayenne River on the Atlantic coast. The city's motto is "fert aurum industria", which means "work brings wealth". At the 2012 census, there were 121,308 inhabitants in the metropolitan area of Cayenne
Cayenne
(as defined by INSEE ), 55,198 of whom lived in the city (commune ) of Cayenne
Cayenne
proper
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Cavalry
CAVALRY (from French cavalerie, cf. cheval 'horse') or HORSEMEN were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback . Cavalry
Cavalry
were historically the most mobile of the combat arms . An individual soldier in the cavalry is known by a number of designations such as CAVALRYMAN, HORSEMAN, DRAGOON or TROOPER . The designation of cavalry was not usually given to any military forces that used other animals , such as camels , mules or elephants . Infantry
Infantry
who moved on horseback, but dismounted to fight on foot, were known in the 17th and early 18th centuries as dragoons , a class of mounted infantry which later evolved into cavalry proper while retaining their historic title. Cavalry
Cavalry
had the advantage of improved mobility, and a man fighting from horseback also had the advantages of greater height, speed, and inertial mass over an opponent on foot
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Marquis De Denonville
JACQUES-RENé DE BRISAY DE DENONVILLE, MARQUIS DE DENONVILLE (10 December 1637 – 22 September 1710) was Governor General of New France from 1685 to 1689 and was a key figure in the Beaver Wars . Replacing Joseph Antoine de LaBarre in 1685, he arrived in New France on 1 August 1685. Denonville set out to make King Louis XIV proud. The Iroquois Confederacy had been a nuisance for half a century, hampering New France's efforts to establish itself as a profitable colony . Although France and England were at peace, in June 1686, Denonville sent Sieur de Troyes north from Montreal with a hundred men (most likely the French Marines in Canada , to capture the English fur trading posts on Hudson Bay . The victory was swift and profitable; word of the French attack would not reach the English for months. Denonville then set out with a well-organized force to Fort Frontenac , where they met with the 50 hereditary sachems of the Iroquois Confederacy from their Onondaga council fire
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Catholic Encyclopedia
THE CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: AN INTERNATIONAL WORK OF REFERENCE ON THE CONSTITUTION, DOCTRINE, DISCIPLINE, AND HISTORY OF THE CATHOLIC CHURCH, also referred to as the OLD CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA and the ORIGINAL CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA, is an English-language encyclopedia published in the United States. The first volume appeared in March 1907 and the last three volumes appeared in 1912, followed by a master index volume in 1914 and later supplementary volumes. It was designed "to give its readers full and authoritative information on the entire cycle of Catholic
Catholic
interests, action and doctrine". The Catholic
Catholic
Encyclopedia was published by the Robert Appleton Company , a publishing company incorporated at New York in February 1905 for the express purpose of publishing the encyclopedia. The five members of the encyclopedia's Editorial Board also served as the directors of the company
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Jacques-René De Brisay De Denonville, Marquis De Denonville
JACQUES-RENé DE BRISAY DE DENONVILLE, MARQUIS DE DENONVILLE (10 December 1637 – 22 September 1710) was Governor General of New France from 1685 to 1689 and was a key figure in the Beaver Wars . Replacing Joseph Antoine de LaBarre in 1685, he arrived in New France on 1 August 1685. Denonville set out to make King Louis XIV proud. The Iroquois Confederacy had been a nuisance for half a century, hampering New France's efforts to establish itself as a profitable colony . Although France and England were at peace, in June 1686, Denonville sent Sieur de Troyes north from Montreal with a hundred men (most likely the troupes de la marine ), to capture the English fur trading posts on Hudson Bay . The victory was swift and profitable; word of the French attack would not reach the English for months. Denonville then set out with a well-organized force to Fort Frontenac , where they met with the 50 hereditary sachems of the Iroquois Confederacy from their Onondaga council fire
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Bibliothèque Nationale De France
The BIBLIOTHèQUE NATIONALE DE FRANCE (BNF; French: ) is the National Library of France
France
, located in Paris
Paris
. It is the national repository of all that is published in France. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 New buildings * 3 Mission * 4 Manuscript
Manuscript
collection * 5 Digital library * 6 Popular culture * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links HISTORYThe National Library of France
France
traces its origin to the royal library founded at the Louvre Palace by Charles V in 1368. Charles had received a collection of manuscripts from his predecessor, John II , and transferred them to the Louvre
Louvre
from the Palais de la Cité
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International Standard Name Identifier
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD NAME IDENTIFIER (ISNI) is an identifier for uniquely identifying the public identities of contributors to media content such as books, television programmes, and newspaper articles. Such an identifier consists of 16 digits. It can optionally be displayed as divided into four blocks. It was developed under the auspices of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) as Draft International Standard 27729; the valid standard was published on 15 March 2012. The ISO technical committee 46, subcommittee 9 ( TC 46/SC 9 ) is responsible for the development of the standard. ISNI can be used to disambiguate names that might otherwise be confused, and links the data about names that are collected and used in all sectors of the media industries
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Library Of Congress Control Number
The LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CONTROL NUMBER (LCCN) is a serially based system of numbering cataloging records in the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
in the United States. It has nothing to do with the contents of any book, and should not be confused with Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Classification . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Format * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYThe LCCN numbering system has been in use since 1898, at which time the acronym LCCN originally stood for Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Card Number. It has also been called the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Catalog Card Number, among other names. The Library of Congress
Library of Congress
prepared cards of bibliographic information for their library catalog and would sell duplicate sets of the cards to other libraries for use in their catalogs
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France
FRANCE (French: ), officially the FRENCH REPUBLIC (French: République française, pronounced ), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France
France
in western Europe
Europe
, as well as several overseas regions and territories . The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the English Channel
English Channel
and the North Sea
North Sea
, and from the Rhine
Rhine
to the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America
South America
and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans
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Fort Frontenac
FORT FRONTENAC was a French trading post and military fort built in 1673 at the mouth of the Cataraqui River where the St. Lawrence River leaves Lake Ontario (at what is now the western end of the La Salle Causeway ), in a location traditionally known as Cataraqui. It is the present-day location of Kingston, Ontario , Canada . The original fort, a crude, wooden palisade structure, was called Fort Cataraqui but was later named for Louis de Buade de Frontenac , Governor of New France who was responsible for building the fort. The British destroyed the fort in 1758 during the Seven Years\' War and its ruins remained abandoned until the British took possession and reconstructed it in 1783. The fort was turned over to the Canadian military in 1870–71 and it is still being used by the military
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Montreal
MONTREAL (/ˌmʌntriˈɒl/ ( listen ); French: ( listen ); officially MONTRéAL) is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec
Quebec
and the second-most populous municipality in Canada
Canada
as a whole. Originally called Ville-Marie , or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal , the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. The city is centred on the Island of Montreal , which took its name from the same source as the city, and a few much smaller peripheral islands, the largest of which is Île Bizard . It has a distinct four-season continental climate with warm to hot summers and cold, snowy winters. In 2016 the city had a population of 1,704,694. Montreal's metropolitan area had a population of 4,098,927 and a population of 1,942,044 in the urban agglomeration , with all of the municipalities on the Island of Montreal included
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Fur Trade
The FUR TRADE is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur . Since the establishment of a world fur market in the early modern period , furs of boreal , polar and cold temperate mammalian animals have been the most valued. Historically the trade stimulated the exploration and colonization of Siberia
Siberia
, northern North America
North America
, and the South Shetland and South Sandwich Islands
South Sandwich Islands
. Today the importance of the fur trade has diminished; it is based on pelts produced at fur farms and regulated fur-bearer trapping, but has become controversial. Animal rights
Animal rights
organizations oppose the fur trade, citing that animals are brutally killed and sometimes skinned alive. Fur has been replaced in some clothing by synthetic imitations, for example, as in ruffs on hoods of parkas
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French Antilles
The term FRENCH WEST INDIES or FRENCH ANTILLES (French : Antilles françaises) refers to the seven territories currently under French sovereignty in the Antilles
Antilles
islands of the Caribbean
Caribbean
: * The two overseas departments of: * Guadeloupe
Guadeloupe
(Basse-Terre and Grande-Terre ) * Martinique
Martinique
* The two overseas collectivities of: * Saint Martin * Saint Barthélemy
Saint Barthélemy
* The islands forming dependencies of Guadeloupe, namely * Les Saintes * Marie-Galante
Marie-Galante
* La Désirade Due to its proximity, French Guiana
French Guiana
is often associated with the French West Indies
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