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Joseon
The Joseon
Joseon
dynasty (also transcribed as Chosŏn or Chosun, Korean: 조선; also known as Joseon
Joseon
of the House of Yi, Korean: 리조조선; officially the Kingdom of Great Joseon, Korean: 대조선국) was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for approximately five centuries. It was founded by Yi Seong-gye
Yi Seong-gye
in July 1392 and was replaced by the Korean Empire
Korean Empire
in October 1897.[5] It was founded following the aftermath of the overthrow of Goryeo
Goryeo
in what is today the city of Kaesong. Early on, Korea
Korea
was retitled and the capital was relocated to modern-day Seoul. The kingdom's northernmost borders were expanded to the natural boundaries at the rivers of Amnok and Tuman through the subjugation of the Jurchens
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Korean Dialects
A number of Korean dialects
Korean dialects
are spoken in the Korean Peninsula. The peninsula is extremely mountainous and each dialect's "territory" corresponds closely to the natural boundaries between different geographical regions of Korea. Most of the dialects are named for one of the traditional Eight Provinces of Korea. One is sufficiently distinct from the others to be considered a separate language, the Jeju language.Contents1 The standard language 2 Regional dialects 3 Outside of the Korean peninsula 4 Classification 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksThe standard language[edit]In South Korea, Standard Korean (표준어/標準語/pyojun-eo) is defined by the National Institute of the Korean Language as "the modern speech of Seoul
Seoul
widely used by the well-cultivated" (교양있는 사람들이 두루 쓰는 현대 서울말)
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Chinese Culture
Chinese culture
Chinese culture
(simplified Chinese: 中华文化; traditional Chinese: 中華文化; pinyin: Zhōnghuá wénhuà) is one of the world's oldest cultures, originating thousands of years ago.[1][2] The area in which the culture is dominant covers a large geographical region in eastern Asia
Asia
with customs and traditions varying greatly between provinces, cities, and even towns as well. With China
China
being one of the earliest ancient civilizations, Chinese culture
Chinese culture
is extremely diverse and varying, and it has a profound effect in the philosophy, virtue, etiquette and traditions of Asia
Asia
to date.[3] Chinese culture
Chinese culture
is considered the dominant culture in East Asia historically
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List Of Countries By Population
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population. It includes sovereign states, inhabited dependent territories and, in some cases, constituent countries of sovereign states, with inclusion within the list being primarily based on the ISO standard ISO 3166-1. For instance, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is considered as a single entity while the constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Kingdom of the Netherlands
are considered separately. In addition, this list includes certain states with limited recognition not found in ISO 3166-1. The population figures do not reflect the practice of countries that report significantly different populations of citizens domestically and overall
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Kim Dynasty (North Korea)
The Kim dynasty, referred to in North Korea as the Mount Paektu Bloodline, is a three-generation lineage of North Korean leadership descended from the country's first leader, Kim Il-sung, in 1948. Kim came to rule the North after the end of Japanese control in 1945 split the region. He began the Korean War in 1950 in an attempt to reunify the entire peninsula
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State Religion
A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state. A state with an official religion, while not secular, is not necessarily a theocracy, a country whose rulers have both secular and spiritual authority. State religions are official or government-sanctioned establishments of a religion, but the state does not need be under the control of the religion (as in a theocracy) nor is the state-sanctioned religion necessarily under the control of the state. Official religions have been known throughout human history in almost all types of cultures, reaching into the Ancient Near East
Ancient Near East
and prehistory. The relation of religious cult and the state was discussed by Varro, under the term of theologia civilis ("civic theology")
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Tumen River
The Tumen River, also known as the Tuman or Duman River (Korean pronunciation: [tumanɡaŋ]),[a] is a 521-kilometre (324 mi) long river that serves as part of the boundary between China, North Korea and Russia, rising on the slopes of Mount Paektu and flowing into the Sea of Japan. The river has a drainage basin of 33,800 km2 (13,050 sq mi).[2] The river flows in northeast Asia, on the border between China and North Korea in its upper reaches, and between North Korea and Russia in its last 17 kilometers (11 mi) before entering the Sea of Japan. The river forms much of the southern border of Jilin Province in Northeast China and the northern borders of North Korea's North Hamgyong and Ryanggang provinces
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Confucian
Hermeneutic schools:Old TextsNew Text Confucianism Confucianism
Confucianism
by country Confucianism
Confucianism
in IndonesiaKorean ConfucianismJapanese Confucianism
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Western World
The Western world, or simply the West (from Proto-Germanic
Proto-Germanic
root wes-; Ancient Greek: Ἓσπερος /ˈhɛspərʊs/, Hesperos,[1] "towards evening") refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe. There are many accepted definitions, all closely interrelated.[2] The Western world
Western world
is also known as the Occident (from Latin
Latin
word occidens, "sunset, West"). The East and the Orient
Orient
are terms used as contraries. Ancient Greece[a][b] and ancient Rome[c] are generally considered to be the birthplaces of Western civilization, the former due to its impact on Western philosophy, democracy, science, art, and the ancient Roman culture, the latter due to its influence in governance, republicanism, law, architecture and warfare
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Amnok River
The Yalu River, also called the Amrok River or Amnok River, is a river on the border between North Korea and China. Together with the Tumen River to its east, and a small portion of Paektu Mountain, the Yalu forms the border between North Korea and China and is notable as a site involved in military conflicts such as the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War, World War II, and the Korean War.Contents1 Name 2 Geography 3 History 4 Economy 5 Crossings 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksName[edit] There are two theories regarding the origin of the river's name. One theory is that the name derived from "Yalv ula" in the Manchu language. The Manchu word "Yalu" means "the boundary between two countries". In Mandarin Chinese, "Yalu" phonetically approximates the original Manchu word "Yalu", but literally means "Duck Green", which was said to have been once the color of the river
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Hermit Kingdom
The term hermit kingdom can be used to refer to any country, organization or society which willfully walls itself off, either metaphorically or physically, from the rest of the world - The country of North Korea is a prime example of a hermit kingdom. Korea in the age of Joseon dynasty was the subject of the first use of the term, in William Elliot Griffis' 1882 book Corea: The Hermit Nation,[1][2] and Korea was frequently described as a hermit kingdom until 1905 when it became a protectorate of Japan.[3] The term is still commonplace throughout Korea and it is often used by Koreans themselves to describe pre-modern Korea. Today, the term is often applied to North Korea in news and social media, and in 2009 it was used by United States former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton.[4] See also[edit]Foreign relations of North Korea IsolationismReferences[edit]^ Fischer, David H. Historians' Fallacies: Toward a Logic of Historical Thought.  ^ Wilson, Myoung Chung
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Hunminjeongeum
Hunminjeongeum (lit. The Correct/Proper Sounds for the Instruction of the People) is a document describing an entirely new and native script for the Korean language. The script was initially named after the publication, but later came to be known as hangul. It was created so that the common people illiterate in hanja could accurately and easily read and write the Korean language. It was announced in Volume 102 of the Annals of King Sejong, and its formal supposed publication date, October 9, 1446, is now Hangul Day in South Korea. The Annals place its invention to the 25th year of Sejong's reign, corresponding to 1443–1444.[1]Contents1 Content 2 Versions 3 References 4 External linksContent[edit] The publication is written in Classical Chinese and contains a preface, the alphabet letters (jamo), and brief descriptions of their corresponding sounds. It is later supplemented by a longer document called Hunminjeongeum Haerye that is designated as a national treasure No. 70
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Absolute Monarchy
Absolute monarchy, or despotic monarchy,[1][2] is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.[3] These are often, but not always, hereditary monarchies
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Wihwado Retreat
Successful CoupKing U deposed. Crown Prince Chang assumes the throne and later replaced King Gongyang. Gen. Choe Yeong was banished to Goyang and later executed. Subsequent End of the Goryeo period and start of the Joseon period with Gen. Yi Seong-gye crowned as King Taejo.BelligerentsInsurgents led by Gen. Yi Seong-gye and Gen. Jo Min-soo Goryeo led by Gen
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Jurchens
The Jurchen (Manchu: ᠵᡠᡧᡝᠨ jušen; Chinese: 女真, Nǚzhēn, [nỳ.ʈʂə́n]), also known by many variant names, were a Tungusic people who inhabited the region of Manchuria
Manchuria
until around 1630, at which point they were reformed and combined with their neighbors as the Manchu. The Jurchen established the Jin Dynasty, whose empire conquered the Northern Song in 1127, gaining control of most of North China. Jin control over China
China
lasted until their 1234 conquest by the Mongols
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Manchuria
Manchuria
Manchuria
(simplified Chinese: 满洲; traditional Chinese: 滿洲; pinyin: Mǎnzhōu) was a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia. Depending on the context, Manchuria
Manchuria
can either refer to a region that falls entirely within the People's Republic of China[1][2][3] or a larger region divided between China
China
and Russia
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