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Jordan
JORDAN (/ˈdʒɔːrdən/ ; Arabic : الأردن‎‎ _Al-Urdunn_), officially THE HASHEMITE KINGDOM OF JORDAN ( Arabic : المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية‎‎ _Al-Mamlakah Al-Urdunnīyah Al-Ḥāshimīyah_), is an Arab kingdom in Western Asia , on the East Bank of the Jordan River . Jordan is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the east and south; Iraq to the north-east; Syria to the north; Israel , Palestine and the Dead Sea to the west; and the Red Sea in its extreme south-west. Jordan is strategically located at the crossroads of Asia, Africa and Europe. The capital, Amman , is Jordan's most populous city as well as the country's economic, political and cultural centre. What is now Jordan has been inhabited by humans since the Paleolithic period. Three stable kingdoms emerged there at the end of the Bronze Age : Ammon , Moab and Edom . Later rulers include the Nabataean Kingdom , the Roman Empire , and the Ottoman Empire . After the Great Arab Revolt against the Ottomans in 1916 during World War I , the Ottoman Empire was partitioned by Britain and France. The Emirate of Transjordan was established in 1921 by the then Emir Abdullah I and it became a British protectorate
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Arabic
THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS ARABIC TEXT . Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols .ARABIC ( Arabic : العَرَبِيَّة‎‎, _al-ʻarabiyyah_ (_ listen ) or Arabic : عَرَبِيّ‎‎ ʻarabī_ (_ listen ) or ) is a Central Semitic language complex that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca _ of the Arab world . It is named after the Arabs , a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti- Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. The modern written language ( Modern Standard Arabic ) is derived from Classical Arabic . It is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (_fuṣḥā_), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam . Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary . However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties
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Flag Of Jordan
The FLAG OF JORDAN , officially adopted on 18 April 1928, is based on the flag of the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire during World War I . The flag consists of horizontal black, white, and green bands that are connected by a red chevron . The colors stand are the Pan-Arab Colors , representing the Abbasid (black band), Umayyad (white band), and Fatimid (green band) caliphates . The red chevron is for the Hashemite dynasty, and the Arab Revolt . CONTENTS * 1 Features * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links FEATURESIn addition to the bands and chevron, a white star with seven points is featured on the hoist side of the red chevron. The star stands for the unity of the Arab people . It is also said to stand for the seven verses of the first surah in the Qur\'an , or refer to the seven hills on which Amman , the capital, was built. The seven points represent faith in one God, humanity, humility, national spirit, virtue, social justice, and aspiration. Slightly different flag used from 1928 to 1939 SEE ALSO * Flag of the Arab Revolt * Palestinian flag * Kingdom of Hejaz REFERENCES * ^ "Flags of the World: Jordan". Retrieved 10 May 2015. * ^ A B "The World Fact Book: Middle east: Jordan". cia.gov. Central Intelligence Agency . Retrieved 10 May 2015. * ^ A B "National Anthem"
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Coat Of Arms Of Jordan
On August 25, 1934, the Executive Council (The Council of Ministers at the time) issued Directive No. 558 declaring the COAT OF ARMS OF JORDAN (Arabic : شعار المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية‎‎), (which was designed in 1921 upon the request of His Highness Emir Abdullah I ) as the official emblem of the country and outlining its specific design layout. On February 21, 1982, the Council of Ministers issued the official Notification No. 6, which gave written specifications and explanations of the official emblem of the country. The following description is: The Royal Hashemite Crown Symbolizing the monarchy of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, the golden crown is composed of five arches with beaded design, fanning out from beneath its pinnacle and attached to the base with a relief design recalling rubies and emeralds. On top of the base rest five lotus flowers, denoting purity. The Royal Hashemite Crown is adorned at the top by the tip of a spear that represents the Hashemite banner. The Sash The Royal Hashemite Crown rests on the sash that represents the Royal Hashemite Throne. The crimson velvet sash, lined with white silk, signifies sacrifice and purity. The sash is trimmed in a fringe of golden threads and gathered on either side with golden tasselled cords to reveal a white silk lining. The Two Flags Each flag represents the flag of the Great Arab Revolt
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Arabic Language
THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS ARABIC TEXT . Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols .ARABIC ( Arabic
Arabic
: العَرَبِيَّة‎‎, _al-ʻarabiyyah_ (_ listen ) or Arabic
Arabic
: عَرَبِيّ‎‎ ʻarabī_ (_ listen ) or ) is a Central Semitic language complex that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca _ of the Arab world . It is named after the Arabs
Arabs
, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east to the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. The modern written language ( Modern Standard Arabic ) is derived from Classical Arabic . It is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic
Arabic
(_fuṣḥā_), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam
Islam
. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary
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The Royal Anthem Of Jordan
The national anthem of Jordan is known in Arabic as AS-SALāM AL-MALAKī AL-ʾURDUNī (Arabic : السلام الملكي الأردني‎‎) meaning The Royal Anthem of Jordan. It was adopted in 1946. The lyrics were written by Abdul-Monem Rifai and the music was composed by Abdul Qader al-Taneer . The first version of the lyrics was very short as it only contained the first stanza of the current version. Since then, the anthem has been expanded
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Amman
AMMAN (English: /ɑːˈmɑːn/ ; Arabic : عمّان‎‎ _ʻammān_ pronounced ) is the capital and most populous city of Jordan , and the country's economic, political and cultural centre. Situated in north-central Jordan, Amman is the administrative centre of the Amman Governorate . The city has a population of 4,007,526 and a land area of 1,680 square kilometres (648.7 sq mi). Today, Amman is considered to be among the most liberal and westernized Arab cities. It is a major tourist destination in the region, particularly among Arab and European tourists. The earliest evidence of settlement in the area is a Neolithic site known as \ 'Ain Ghazal . Its successor was known as "Rabbath Ammon", which was the capital of the Ammonites , then as "Philadelphia", and finally as Amman. It was initially built on seven hills but now spans over 19 hills combining 27 districts, which are administered by the Greater Amman Municipality headed by its mayor Aqel Biltaji . Areas of Amman have either gained their names from the hills (Jabal) or the valleys (Wadi) they lie on, such as Jabal Lweibdeh and Wadi Abdoun. East Amman is predominantly filled with historic sites that frequently host cultural activities, while West Amman is more modern and serves as the economic center of the city
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Modern Standard Arabic
MODERN STANDARD ARABIC (MSA; Arabic
Arabic
: اللغة العربية الفصحى‎‎ _al-lughat ul-ʻArabīyat ul-fuṣḥá_ 'the most eloquent Arabic
Arabic
language'), STANDARD ARABIC, or LITERARY ARABIC is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic
Arabic
used in writing and in most formal speech throughout the Arab world to facilitate communication. It is considered a pluricentric language . Most Western scholars distinguish two standard _(al-)fuṣḥá_ (الفصحى) varieties of Arabic: the CLASSICAL ARABIC (CA) (اللغة العربية التراثية _al-lughah al-ʻArabīyah al-turāthīyah_) of the Quran
Quran
and early Islamic (7th to 9th centuries) literature , and MODERN STANDARD ARABIC (MSA) (اللغة العربية المعيارية الحديثة _al-lughah al-ʻArabīyah al-miʻyārīyah al-ḥadīthah_), the standard language in use today. MSA is based on classical Arabic, and differences between the two varieties of the language are directly related to modernizing and simplification, both in speaking and writing styles. Most Arabic
Arabic
speakers consider the two varieties to be two registers of one language, although the two registers can be referred to in Arabic
Arabic
as فصح ى العصر _fuṣḥá l-ʻaṣr_ (MSA) and فصح ى التراث _fuṣḥá t-turāth_ (CA)
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Ethnic Groups
An ETHNIC GROUP or ETHNICITY is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestral , language , social , cultural or national experiences . Ethnicity is often an inherited status based on the society in which one lives. In some cases, it can be adopted if a person moves into another society. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage , ancestry , origin myth , history , homeland , language or dialect , symbolic systems such as religion , mythology and ritual , cuisine , dressing style, art , and physical appearance . Ethnic groups, derived from the same historical founder population , often continue to speak related languages and share a similar gene pool . By way of language shift , acculturation , adoption and religious conversion , it is sometimes possible for individuals or groups to leave one ethnic group and become part of another (except for ethnic groups emphasizing racial purity as a key membership criterion). Ethnicity is often used synonymously with ambiguous terms such as nation or people . In English, it can also have the connotation of something exotic (cf. " White ethnic ", "ethnic restaurant", etc.), generally related to cultures of more recent immigrants, who arrived after the founding population of an area was established
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Arab People
ARABS ( Arabic : عَرَب‎‎ ; ( listen )) are a population inhabiting the Arab world . They primarily live in the Arab states in Western Asia , North Africa , the Horn of Africa and western Indian Ocean islands . The Arabs are first mentioned in the mid-ninth century BC as tribal people in eastern and southern Syria, and the northern Arabian Peninsula. The Arabs appear to have been under the vassalage of the Neo-Assyrian Empire (911–612 BC), and the succeeding Neo-Babylonian (626–539 BC), Achaemenid (539–332 BC), Seleucid and Parthian empires. Arab tribes , most notably the Ghassanids and Lakhmids , begin to appear in the southern Syrian Desert from the mid 3rd century CE onward, during the mid to later stages of the Roman and Sasanian empires. Tradition holds that Arabs descend from Ishmael , the son of Abraham . The Arabian Desert is the birthplace of "Arab". There are other Arab groups as well that spread in the land and existed for millennia. Before the expansion of the Rashidun Caliphate (632–661), "Arab" referred to any of the largely nomadic Semitic people from the northern to the central Arabian Peninsula and Syrian Desert
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Circassians
The CIRCASSIANS (Circassian : Адыгэхэр, _Adygekher_) are a Northwest Caucasian ethnic group native to Circassia , many of whom were displaced in the course of the Russian conquest of the Caucasus in the 19th century, especially after the Russian–Circassian War in 1864. In its narrowest sense, the term "Circassian" includes the twelve Adyghe (Circassian : Адыгэ, _Adyge_) tribes (three democratic and nine aristocratic), i.e. Abzakh , Besleney , Bzhedug , Hatuqwai , Kabardian , Mamkhegh , Natukhai , Shapsug , Temirgoy , Ubykh , Yegeruqwai , and Zhaney , each one represented by a star on the green-and-gold Circassian flag. However, due to Soviet administrative divisions, Circassians were also designated as the following: _Adygeans_ (Adyghe in Adygea), _Cherkessians_ (Adyghe in Karachay-Cherkessia), _Kabardians_ (Adyghe in Kabardino-Balkaria), and _Shapsugians_ (Adyghe in Krasnodar Krai), although all the four are essentially the same people residing in different political units. Most Circassians are Sunni Muslim . The Circassians mainly speak the Circassian language , a Northwest Caucasian language with three main dialects and numerous sub-dialects
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Armenians
ARMENIANS (Armenian : հայեր, _hayer _ ) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands . Armenians constitute the main population of Armenia and the _de facto _ independent Nagorno-Karabakh Republic . There is a wide-ranging diaspora of around 5 million people of full or partial Armenian ancestry living outside of modern Armenia. The largest Armenian populations today exist in Russia , the United States , France , Georgia , Iran , Germany , Ukraine , Lebanon , Brazil and Syria . With the exceptions of Iran and the former Soviet states, the present-day Armenian diaspora was formed mainly as a result of the Armenian Genocide . Most Armenians adhere to the Armenian Apostolic Church , a non-Chalcedonian church, which is also the world's oldest national church. Christianity began to spread in Armenia soon after Jesus ' death, due to the efforts of two of his apostles, St. Thaddeus and St. Bartholomew . In the early 4th century, the Kingdom of Armenia became the first state to adopt Christianity as a state religion. Armenian is an Indo-European language
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Demonym
A DEMONYM (/ˈdɛmənɪm/ ; δῆμος _dẽmos_ "people, tribe", ὄνομα _ónoma_ "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, which is derived from the name of that particular place. It is a neologism (i.e., a recently minted term); previously _GENTILIC_ was recorded in English dictionaries, e.g., the _ Oxford English Dictionary _ and _Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary_. Examples of demonyms include a _ Pakistani _ for a person from Pakistan , _Swahili _ for a person of the Swahili coast , the colloquial _Kiwi _ for a person from New Zealand , and a _Cochabambino_ for a person from the city of Cochabamba . Demonyms do not always clearly distinguish place of origin or ethnicity from place of residence or citizenship, and many demonyms overlap with the ethnonym for the ethnically dominant group of a region. Thus a _Thai_ may be any resident or citizen of Thailand of any ethnic group, or more narrowly a member of the Thai people . Conversely, some groups of people may be associated with multiple demonyms. For example, a native of the United Kingdom may be called a _ British person _, a _Briton_ or, informally, a _Brit_. In some languages, when a parallel demonym does not exist, a demonym is borrowed from another language as a nickname or descriptive adjective of a group of people
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Jordanian People
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Jordan , including population density , ethnicity , education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population
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