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Jordan
JORDAN (/ˈdʒɔːrdən/ ; Arabic
Arabic
: الْأُرْدُنّ‎ Al-‘Urdunn ), officially THE HASHEMITE KINGDOM OF JORDAN ( Arabic
Arabic
: المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية‎ Al-Mamlakah Al-Urdunnīyah Al-Hāshimīyah), is a sovereign Arab
Arab
state in western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River
Jordan River
. Jordan
Jordan
is bordered by Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
to the south, Iraq
Iraq
to the north-east, Syria
Syria
to the north, Israel
Israel
and Palestine to the west. The Dead Sea
Dead Sea
lies along its western borders and the country has a small shoreline on the Red Sea
Red Sea
in its extreme south-west, but is otherwise landlocked
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Parliamentary System
A PARLIAMENTARY SYSTEM is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament , and is also held accountable to that parliament. In a parliamentary system, the head of state is usually a different person from the head of government . This is in contrast to a presidential system , where the head of state often is also the head of government and, most importantly, the executive branch does not derive its democratic legitimacy from the legislature
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United Kingdom
The UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND, commonly known as the UNITED KINGDOM (UK) or BRITAIN, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland , the UK includes the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland
Ireland
and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
is the only part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
that shares a land border with another sovereign state‍—‌the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
. Apart from this land border, the UK is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea
North Sea
to its east, the English Channel
English Channel
to its south and the Celtic Sea to its south-south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world
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Christianity
CHRISTIANITY is a universalising Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life , teachings , and miracles of Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth
Nazareth
, known by Christians
Christians
as the Christ , or "Messiah", who is the focal point of the Christian
Christian
faiths . It is the world\'s largest religion , with over 2.4 billion followers, or 33% of the global population, known as Christians
Christians
. Christians
Christians
make up a majority of the population in 158 countries and territories . They believe that Jesus
Jesus
is the Son of God
God
and the savior of humanity whose coming as the Messiah
Messiah
(the Christ ) was prophesied in the Old Testament
Old Testament

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Baha'i
The BAHá\'í FAITH (Persian : بهائی‎‎ Bahā'i) is an Abrahamic religion
Abrahamic religion
teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people. Established by Bahá\'u\'lláh in 1863, it initially grew in the Middle East
Middle East
and now has between 5-7 million adherents, known as BAHá\'íS, spread out into most of the world's countries and territories, with the highest concentrations in India
India
and Iran
Iran
. The religion was born in Iran
Iran
, where it has faced ongoing persecutions since its inception. It grew from the mid-19th century Bábí religion , whose founder reinterpreted Shia Islam
Shia Islam
and said that God
God
would soon send a prophet in the manner of Jesus
Jesus
or Muhammad
Muhammad

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Human Development Index
The HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX (HDI) is a composite statistic of life expectancy , education , and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development . A country scores higher HDI when the lifespan is higher, the education level is higher, and the GDP per capita
GDP per capita
is higher. The HDI was developed by Indian Economist Amartya Sen and Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq , often framed in terms of whether people are able to "be" and "do" desirable things in their life, and was published by the United Nations Development Programme
United Nations Development Programme
. The 2010 Human Development Report introduced an Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index
Human Development Index
(IHDI)
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Gini Coefficient
In economics , the GINI COEFFICIENT (sometimes expressed as a GINI RATIO or a normalized GINI INDEX) (/dʒini/ jee-nee ) is a measure of statistical dispersion intended to represent the income or wealth distribution of a nation's residents, and is the most commonly used measure of inequality. It was developed by the Italian statistician and sociologist Corrado Gini and published in his 1912 paper Variability and Mutability (Italian : Variabilità e mutabilità). The Gini coefficient
Gini coefficient
measures the inequality among values of a frequency distribution (for example, levels of income ). A Gini coefficient of zero expresses perfect equality, where all values are the same (for example, where everyone has the same income)
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Ethnic Groups
An ETHNIC GROUP, or an ETHNICITY, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry , language , society , culture or nation . Ethnicity is usually an inherited status based on the society in which one lives. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage , ancestry , origin myth , history , homeland , language or dialect , symbolic systems such as religion , mythology and ritual , cuisine , dressing style, art , and physical appearance . Ethnic groups, derived from the same historical founder population , often continue to speak related languages and share a similar gene pool . By way of language shift , acculturation , adoption and religious conversion , it is sometimes possible for individuals or groups to leave one ethnic group and become part of another (except for ethnic groups emphasizing racial purity as a key membership criterion)
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Independence
INDEPENDENCE is a condition of a nation , country , or state in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government , and usually sovereignty , over the territory. The opposite of independence is a dependent territory . CONTENTS* 1 Definition of independence * 1.1 Distinction between independence and autonomy * 2 Declarations of independence * 3 Historical overview * 4 Continents * 5 Notes * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Article note DEFINITION OF INDEPENDENCEWhether the attainment of independence is different from revolution has long been contested, and has often been debated over the question of violence as a legitimate means to achieving sovereignty. While some revolutions seek and achieve national independence, others aim only to redistribute power — with or without an element of emancipation, such as in democratization — within a state, which as such may remain unaltered
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Gross Domestic Product
GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time . Nominal GDP estimates are commonly used to determine the economic performance of a whole country or region, and to make international comparisons. Nominal GDP per capita
GDP per capita
does not, however, reflect differences in the cost of living and the inflation rates of the countries; therefore using a basis of GDP per capita
GDP per capita
at purchasing power parity (PPP) is arguably more useful when comparing differences in living standards between different nations
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Purchasing Power Parity
PURCHASING POWER PARITY (PPP) is an economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two currencies is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power . Theories that invoke purchasing power parity assume that in some circumstances (for example, as a long-run tendency) it would cost exactly the same number of, for example, US dollars to buy euros and then to use the difference in value to buy a market basket of goods as it would cost to directly purchase the market basket of goods with dollars. A fall in either currency's purchasing power would lead to a proportional decrease in that currency's valuation on the foreign exchange market . The concept of purchasing power parity allows one to estimate what the exchange rate between two currencies would have to be in order for the exchange to be at par with the purchasing power of the two countries' currencies
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Islam
ISLAM (/ˈɪslɑːm/ ) is a universalizing Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God
God
( Allah
Allah
) and that Muhammad
Muhammad
is a messenger of God. It is the world\'s second-largest religion and the fastest-growing major religion in the world , with over 1.8 billion followers or 24.1% of the global population, known as Muslims . Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries . Islam
Islam
teaches that God
God
is merciful , all-powerful , unique and has guided mankind through prophets , revealed scriptures and natural signs
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Upper House
An UPPER HOUSE, sometimes called a senate , is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature (or one of three chambers of a tricameral legislature ), the other chamber being the lower house . The house formally designated as the upper house is usually smaller and often has more restricted power than the lower house. Examples of upper houses in countries include the United Kingdom's House of Lords
House of Lords
, India's Rajya Sabha , Russia's Federation Council , Ireland's Seanad
Seanad
, Malaysia's Dewan Negara , Germany's Bundesrat and the United States Senate
Senate

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Lower House
A LOWER HOUSE is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature , the other chamber being the upper house . Inside the Australian House of Representatives Despite its official position "below" the upper house, in many legislatures worldwide, the lower house has come to wield more power. A legislature composed of only one house is described as unicameral
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Armenians
ARMENIANS (Armenian : հայեր, hayer ) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands
Armenian Highlands
. Armenians
Armenians
constitute the main population of Armenia
Armenia
and the de facto independent Artsakh . There is a wide-ranging diaspora of around 5 million people of full or partial Armenian ancestry living outside modern Armenia. The largest Armenian populations today exist in Russia , the United States , France , Georgia , Iran
Iran
, Germany, Ukraine , Lebanon
Lebanon
, Brazil and Syria
Syria
. With the exceptions of Iran
Iran
and the former Soviet states, the present-day Armenian diaspora was formed mainly as a result of the Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide

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Demonym
A DEMONYM (/ˈdɛmənɪm/ ; δῆμος dẽmos "people, tribe", ὄόνομα ónoma "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, which is derived from the name of that particular place. It is a neologism (i.e., a recently minted term); previously GENTILIC was recorded in English dictionaries, e.g., the Oxford
Oxford
English Dictionary and Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary. Examples of demonyms include a Swahili for a person of the Swahili coast , the colloquial Kiwi for a person from New Zealand
New Zealand
, and a Cochabambino for a person from the city of Cochabamba
Cochabamba
. Demonyms do not always clearly distinguish place of origin or ethnicity from place of residence or citizenship, and many demonyms overlap with the ethnonym for the ethnically dominant group of a region
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