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Johnjoe McFadden
JOHNJOE MCFADDEN (born 17 May 1956 in Donegal
Donegal
, Ireland ) is an Anglo-Irish scientist, academic and writer. He is Professor of Molecular Genetics at the University of Surrey , United Kingdom. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Writing * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links LIFEMcFadden was born in Donegal, Ireland but raised in the UK . He holds joint British and Irish Nationality . He obtained his BSc in Biochemistry University of London
University of London
in 1977 and his PhD at Imperial College London in 1982. He went on to work on human genetic diseases and then infectious diseases , at St Mary\'s Hospital Medical School , London (1982–84) and St George\'s Hospital Medical School , London (1984–88) and then at the University of Surrey in Guildford
Guildford
, UK. For more than a decade, McFadden has researched the genetics of microbes such as the agents of tuberculosis and meningitis and invented a test for the diagnosis of meningitis. He has published more than 100 articles in scientific journals on subjects as wide-ranging as bacterial genetics, tuberculosis, idiopathic diseases and computer modelling of evolution . He has contributed to more than a dozen books and has edited a book on the genetics of mycobacteria . He produced a widely reported artificial life computer model which modelled evolution in organisms
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Donegal
DONEGAL or DONEGAL TOWN (/ˈdʌniɡɔːl/ or /ˈdʌnɪɡɔːl/ DUN-i-gawl ; Irish : Dún na nGall, meaning "fort of the foreigners") is a town in County Donegal in Ulster
Ulster
, Ireland
Ireland
. The name was historically written in English as 'Dunnagall' or 'Dunagall'. Donegal gave its name to County Donegal, although Lifford is now the county town . From the 1470s until the very early 17th century, Donegal
Donegal
was the 'capital' of Tyrconnell (Irish : Tír Chonaill), a Gaelic kingdom controlled by the O\'Donnell dynasty of the Northern Uí Néill . Donegal
Donegal
sits at the mouth of the River Eske and Donegal Bay , which is overshadowed by the Blue Stack Mountains ('the Croaghs'). The town is bypassed by the N15 and N56 roads . The centre of the town, known as The Diamond , is a hub for music, poetic and cultural gatherings in the area. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Buildings of note * 2.1 St. Patrick\'s Church of the Four Masters * 2.2 Donegal
Donegal
Parish Church * 3 Industry and tourism * 4 Transport * 5 Sport * 6 Media * 7 Notable people * 8 Surnames * 9 Climate * 10 See also * 11 References * 12 Further reading * 13 External links HISTORY Donegal Abbey
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Republic Of Ireland
IRELAND (/ˈaɪərlənd/ (_ listen ); Irish : Éire_ (_ listen )), also described as the REPUBLIC OF IRELAND (Poblacht na hÉireann_), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe
Europe
occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland
Ireland
. The capital and largest city is Dublin
Dublin
, which is located on the eastern part of the island, and whose metropolitan area is home to around a third of the country's 4.75 million inhabitants. The state shares its only land border with Northern Ireland
Ireland
, a part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. It is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
, with the Celtic Sea to the south, Saint George\'s Channel to the south-east, and the Irish Sea to the east. It is a unitary , parliamentary republic . The legislature, the _ Oireachtas _, consists of a lower house , _ Dáil Éireann
Dáil Éireann
_, an upper house , _ Seanad Éireann _, and an elected President (_Uachtarán_) who serves as the largely ceremonial head of state , but with some important powers and duties. The head of government is the _Taoiseach _ (Prime Minister, literally 'Chief', a title not used in English), who is elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President; the Taoiseach in turn appoints other government ministers
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United Kingdom
The UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND, commonly known as the UNITED KINGDOM (UK) or BRITAIN, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland , the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
includes the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland
Ireland
and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
is the only part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
that shares a land border with another sovereign state‍—‌the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
, with the North Sea to its east, the English Channel to its south and the Celtic Sea to its south-south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world . The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi), the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe
Europe
. It is also the 21st-most populous country , with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants
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Imperial College London
IMPERIAL COLLEGE LONDON is a public research university located in London
London
, United Kingdom. Its founder, Prince Albert
Prince Albert
, envisioned an area composed of the Victoria and Albert Museum , Natural History Museum , Royal Albert Hall
Royal Albert Hall
, and the Imperial Institute . His wife, Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
, laid the foundation stone for the Imperial Institute in 1888. Imperial College London
London
was granted Royal Charter in 1907. In the same year, the college joined the University of London
London
, before leaving it a century later. Through merging with several historic medical schools, the curriculum expanded to include medicine. In 2004, Queen Elizabeth II
Queen Elizabeth II
opened the Imperial College Business School
Imperial College Business School
. The main campus is located in South Kensington . Imperial is organised into faculties of science, engineering, medicine, and business. The university's emphasis is on emerging technology and its practical application. Imperial is consistently placed among the top universities in the world
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Meningitis
MENINGITIS is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord , known collectively as the meninges . The most common symptoms are fever , headache , and neck stiffness . Other symptoms include confusion or altered consciousness , vomiting, and an inability to tolerate light or loud noises . Young children often exhibit only nonspecific symptoms , such as irritability, drowsiness, or poor feeding. If a rash is present, it may indicate a particular cause of meningitis; for instance, meningitis caused by meningococcal bacteria may be accompanied by a characteristic rash. The inflammation may be caused by infection with viruses , bacteria , or other microorganisms , and less commonly by certain drugs . Meningitis can be life-threatening because of the inflammation's proximity to the brain and spinal cord; therefore, the condition is classified as a medical emergency . A lumbar puncture can diagnose or exclude meningitis. A needle is inserted into the spinal canal to collect a sample of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), that envelops the brain and spinal cord. The CSF is examined in a medical laboratory. Some forms of meningitis are preventable by immunization with the meningococcal , mumps , pneumococcal , and Hib vaccines . Giving antibiotics to people with significant exposure to certain types of meningitis may also be useful
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Quantum Biology
QUANTUM BIOLOGY refers to applications of quantum mechanics and theoretical chemistry to biological objects and problems. Many biological processes involve the conversion of energy into forms that are usable for chemical transformations and are quantum mechanical in nature. Such processes involve chemical reactions , light absorption , formation of excited electronic states , transfer of excitation energy , and the transfer of electrons and protons (hydrogen ions ) in chemical processes such as photosynthesis and cellular respiration . Quantum biology
Quantum biology
may use computations to model biological interactions in light of quantum mechanical effects. Quantum biology
Quantum biology
is concerned with the influence of non-trivial quantum phenomena, as opposed to the so-called trivial quantum phenomena present in all biology by reduction to fundamental physics . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Applications * 2.1 Photosynthesis * 2.2 Vision * 2.3 Enzymatic activity (quantum biochemistry) * 2.4 Magnetoreception * 2.5 Other biological applications * 3 References * 4 Further reading * 5 External links HISTORYEarly pioneers of quantum physics saw applications of quantum mechanics in biological problems. Erwin Schrödinger 's 1944 book _ What is Life? _ discussed applications of quantum mechanics in biology
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Systems Biology
SYSTEMS BIOLOGY is the computational and mathematical modeling of complex biological systems . It is a biology -based interdisciplinary field of study that focuses on complex interactions within biological systems, using a holistic approach (holism instead of the more traditional reductionism ) to biological research. Particularly from year 2000 onwards, the concept has been used widely in biology in a variety of contexts. The Human Genome Project is an example of applied systems thinking in biology which has led to new, collaborative ways of working on problems in the biological field of genetics. One of the outreaching aims of systems biology is to model and discover emergent properties , properties of cells , tissues and organisms functioning as a system whose theoretical description is only possible using techniques of systems biology. These typically involve metabolic networks or cell signaling networks
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Biologist
A BIOLOGIST, is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of biology , the scientific study of life . Biologists involved in fundamental research attempt to explore and further explain the underlying mechanisms that govern the functioning of living matter. Biologists involved in applied research attempt to develop or improve more specific processes and understanding, in fields such as medicine , industry and agriculture . While "biologist" can apply to any scientist studying biology , most biologists research and specialise in specific fields. In this way, biologists investigate large-scale organism interactions (ecology ), whole multicellular organisms , organs , tissues , cells , and small-scale cellular and molecular processes. Other biologists study less direct aspects of life, such as phylogeny and evolution . Biologists conduct research based on the scientific method , to test the validity of a theory, with hypothesis formation, experimentation and documentation of protocols and datas . There are many types of biologists. Some work on microorganism s, while others study multicellular organisms. There is much overlap between different fields of biology such as botany , zoology , microbiology , genetics and evolutionary biology , and it is often difficult to classify a biologist as only one of them. Many jobs in biology as a field require an academic degree
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University Of Surrey
The UNIVERSITY OF SURREY is a public research university located within the county town of Guildford
Guildford
, Surrey
Surrey
, in the South East of England
England
, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. The university specialises in science, engineering, medicine and business. It received its charter on 9 September 1966, and was previously situated near Battersea Park
Battersea Park
in south-west London. The institution was known as Battersea College of Technology before gaining university status. Its roots, however, go back to the Battersea Polytechnic Institute, founded in 1891 to provide further and higher education for London's poorer inhabitants. More recently, the university launched the Surrey
Surrey
International Institute with Dongbei University
University
of Finance and Economics . The university's main campus is located on Stag Hill close to the centre of Guildford
Guildford
and adjacent to Guildford
Guildford
Cathedral . A second campus, at Manor Park, is located a short distance away and has been developed to expand upon existing accommodation, academic buildings and sporting facilities. The university is a major centre for satellite and mobile communications research
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St Mary's Hospital, London
ST MARY\'S HOSPITAL is an NHS
NHS
hospital in Paddington
Paddington
, in the City of Westminster , London, founded in 1845. Since the UK's first academic health science centre was created in 2008, it has been operated by Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust , which also operates Charing Cross Hospital
Hospital
, Hammersmith Hospital
Hospital
, Queen Charlotte\'s and Chelsea Hospital
Hospital
, and Western Eye Hospital
Hospital
. Until 1988 the hospital ran St Mary\'s Hospital
Hospital
Medical School , part of the federal University
University
of London
London
. In 1988 it merged with Imperial College London
London
, and then with Charing Cross and Westminster Medical School in 1997 to form Imperial College School of Medicine
Imperial College School of Medicine
. In 2007 Imperial College became an independent institution when it withdrew from the University
University
of London
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St George's, University Of London
ST GEORGE\'S, UNIVERSITY OF LONDON (legal name ST GEORGE\'S HOSPITAL MEDICAL SCHOOL, informally ST GEORGE\'S or SGUL), is a medical school located in Tooting
Tooting
in South London and is a constituent college of the University of London
University of London
. St George's has its origins in 1733, and was the second institution in England to provide formal training courses for doctors (after the University of Oxford
University of Oxford
). St George's affiliated with the University of London
University of London
soon after the latter's establishment in 1836. St George's is closely affiliated to St George\'s Hospital and is one of the United Hospitals
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Doctoral Advisor
A DOCTORAL ADVISOR (also DISSERTATION DIRECTOR or DISSERTATION ADVISOR) is a member of a university faculty whose role is to guide graduate students who are candidates for a doctorate , helping them select coursework, as well as shaping, refining and directing the students' choice of sub-discipline in which they will be examined or on which they will write a dissertation . Students generally choose advisors based on their areas of interest within their discipline, their desire to work closely with particular graduate faculty, and the willingness and availability of those faculty to work with them. In some countries, the student's advisor serves as the chair of the doctoral examination or dissertation committees. In some cases, though, the person who serves those roles may be different from the faculty member who has most closely advised the student. For instance, in the Dutch academic system , only full professors (_hoogleraren_) may chair doctoral examinations, so students who have been advised by lower-ranked faculty members will have a full professor as their official advisor (or _promotor_) and their actual advisor as _co-promotor_. In other countries, such as Spain, the doctoral advisor has the role of a mentor, but is not allowed to form part of the examination committee. This is a body of 5 experts independently selected by the rectorate among 10 candidates proposed by the university's department
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Ken Buck
KENNETH ROBERT BUCK (born February 16, 1959) is an American politician who is the U.S. Representative for Colorado\'s 4th congressional district . A Republican , he previously served as District Attorney for Weld County, Colorado
Colorado
. Buck was also the unsuccessful Republican challenger to Michael Bennet in the 2010 Senate race in Colorado
Colorado
. CONTENTS * 1 Early life and education * 2 Career * 2.1 U.S. Attorney\'s Office * 2.2 Weld County District Attorney * 2.2.1 Rape
Rape
case controversy * 3 2010 United States Senate campaign * 3.1 Republican primary * 3.2 Senate general election * 4 U.S. House of Representatives * 4.1 2014 election * 4.2 Committee assignments * 5 Political positions * 6 Personal life * 7 References * 8 External links EARLY LIFE AND EDUCATIONBuck was born in Ossining, New York in 1959. He and his two brothers were encouraged by their parents, both New York lawyers, to attend Ivy League colleges, and Buck earned his undergraduate degree from Princeton University in 1981. Buck later said that the Princeton degree was "more important to than me". Buck played four years of football at Princeton, one year as a defensive back/punter/kicker and three years as a punter, earning All- Ivy League honors as a punter his senior year
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University Of London
The UNIVERSITY OF LONDON is a collegiate research university located in London
London
, England
England
, consisting of 18 constituent colleges, nine research institutes and a number of central bodies. The university is the largest university by number of full-time students in the United Kingdom, with 161,270 campus-based students and over 50,000 distance learning students in the University of London International Programmes . The university was established by royal charter in 1836, as a degree-awarding examination board for students holding certificates from University College London
University College London
(UCL) (previously called