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Traditional Chinese Characters

Traditional Chinese characters (traditional Chinese: /; simplified Chinese: /, Pinyin: Zhèngtǐzì/Fántǐzì)[1] are Chinese characters in any character set which does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946.[dubious ] Traditional Chinese characters are used in Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau, as well as in most overseas Chinese communities outside Southeast Asia
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Simplified Chinese Characters
Simplified Chinese characters (简化字; jiǎnhuàzì)[1] are standardized Chinese characters used in mainland China, as prescribed by Table of General Standard Chinese Characters. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language. The government of the People's Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy.[2] They are officially used in the People's Republic of China and Singapore, while traditional Chinese characters are used in Hong Kong, Macau, the Republic of China (Taiwan) and occasionally in the Chinese community of Malaysia and Singapore. Simplified Chinese characters may be referred to by their official name above or colloquially (简体字; jiǎntǐzì)
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Standard Chinese

Standard Chinese, in linguistics known as Standard Northern Mandarin[8][9][10], Standard Beijing Mandarin[11][12] or simply Mandarin[13], is a dialect of Mandarin that emerged as the lingua franca among the speakers of various Mandarin and other varieties of Chinese (Hokkien, Cantonese and beyond). Standard Mandarin is designated as one of the major languages in the United Nations, mainland China, Singapore and Taiwan. Like other Sinitic languages, Standard Mandarin is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order. It has more initial consonants but fewer vowels, final consonants and tones than southern varieties
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Hanyu Pinyin

Pinyin superseded older romanization systems such as Wade–Giles (1859; modified 1892) and postal romanization, and replaced zhuyin as the method of Chinese phonetic instruction in mainland China. The ISO adopted pinyin as the standard romanization for modern Chinese in 1982 (ISO 7098:1982, superseded by ISO 7098:2015). The United Nations followed suit in 1986.[1][51] It has also been accepted by the government of Singapore, the United States's Library of Congress, the American Library Association, and many other international institutions.[52][failed verification] The spelling of Chinese geographical or personal names in pinyin has become the most common way to transcribe them in English
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Cantonese
Cantonese is a language within the Chinese language family originating from the city of Guangzhou (also known as Canton) and its surrounding area in Southeastern China. It is the traditional prestige variety of the Yue Chinese dialect group, which has over 80 million native speakers.[2] While the term Cantonese specifically refers to the prestige variety, it is often used to refer to the entire Yue subgroup of Chinese, including related but largely mutually unintelligible languages and dialects such as Taishanese. Cantonese is viewed as a vital and inseparable part of the cultural identity for its native speakers across large swaths of Southeastern China, Hong Kong and Macau, as well as in overseas communities. In mainland China, it is the lingua franca of the province of Guangdong (being the majority language of the Pearl River Delta) and neighbouring areas such as Guangxi
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Jyutping
Jyutping is a romanisation system for Cantonese developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK), an academic group, in 1993. Its formal name is the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong Cantonese Romanization Scheme. The LSHK advocates for and promotes the use of this romanisation system. The name Jyutping (itself the Jyutping romanisation of its Chinese name, 粵拼) is a contraction consisting of the first Chinese characters of the terms Jyut6jyu5 (粵語, meaning "Yue language") and ping3jam1 (拼音 "phonetic alphabet", also pronounced as "pinyin" in Mandarin)
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Master Of Arts
A Master of Arts (Latin: Magister Artium or Artium Magister; abbreviated MA or AM) is a type of master's degree awarded by universities in many countries. The degree is usually contrasted with the Master of Science. Those admitted to the degree typically study linguistics, history, communication studies, diplomacy, public administration, political science, or other subjects within the scope of the humanities and social sciences; however, different universities have different conventions and may also offer the degree for fields typically considered within the natural sciences and mathematics
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United States
Coordinates: 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 According to the International Monetary Fund, the U.S. GDP of $16.8 trillion constitutes 24% of the gross world product at market exchange rates and over 19% of the gross world product at purchasing power parity.[377][378] The United States is the largest importer of goods and second-largest exporter,[379] though exports per capita are relatively low. In 2010, the total U.S
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