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John Stuart Mill By London Stereoscopic Company, C1870
Stereoscopy
Stereoscopy
(also called stereoscopics, or stereo imaging) is a technique for creating or enhancing the illusion of depth in an image by means of stereopsis for binocular vision[2]. The word stereoscopy derives from Greek στερεός (stereos), meaning 'firm, solid', and σκοπέω (skopeō), meaning 'to look, to see'.[3][4] Any stereoscopic image is called a stereogram. Originally, stereogram referred to a pair of stereo images which could be viewed using a stereoscope. Most stereoscopic methods present two offset images separately to the left and right eye of the viewer. These two-dimensional images are then combined in the brain to give the perception of 3D depth
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Stereographic Projection
In geometry, the stereographic projection is a particular mapping (function) that projects a sphere onto a plane. The projection is defined on the entire sphere, except at one point: the projection point. Where it is defined, the mapping is smooth and bijective. It is conformal, meaning that it preserves angles at which curves meet. It is neither isometric nor area-preserving: that is, it preserves neither distances nor the areas of figures. Intuitively, then, the stereographic projection is a way of picturing the sphere as the plane, with some inevitable compromises. Because the sphere and the plane appear in many areas of mathematics and its applications, so does the stereographic projection; it finds use in diverse fields including complex analysis, cartography, geology, and photography
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Human Brain
The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system. The brain consists of the cerebrum, the brainstem and the cerebellum. It controls most of the activities of the body, processing, integrating, and coordinating the information it receives from the sense organs, and making decisions as to the instructions sent to the rest of the body. The brain is contained in, and protected by, the skull bones of the head. The cerebrum is the largest part of the human brain. It is divided into two cerebral hemispheres. The cerebral cortex is an outer layer of grey matter, covering the core of white matter. The cortex is split into the neocortex and the much smaller allocortex. The neocortex is made up of six neuronal layers, while the allocortex has three or four. Each hemisphere is conventionally divided into four lobes – the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes
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Stereoscopic Acuity
Stereoscopic acuity, also stereoacuity, is the smallest detectable depth difference that can be seen in binocular vision.Contents1 Specification and measurement 2 Tests of stereoacuity 3 Expected performance 4 Factors influencing stereoacuity 5 Perceptual training in stereopsis 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksSpecification and measurement[edit]Howard-Dolman test.Stereoacuity [1] is most simply explained by considering one of its earliest test, a two-peg device, named Howard-Dolman test after its inventors:[2] The observer is shown a black peg at a distance of 6m (=20 feet). A second peg, below it, can be moved back and forth until it is just detectably nearer than the fixed one
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Van Hare Effect
The Van Hare Effect
Van Hare Effect
is a 3D stereoscopic viewing technique for creating or enhancing the illusion of depth in an image by means of stereopsis for binocular vision using psychophysical percepts. The Van Hare Effect creates the illusion of dimensionality, rather than actual dimensionality in the subject being viewed. The Van Hare Effect
Van Hare Effect
is achieved by employing the stereoscopic cross-eyed viewing technique on a pair of identical images placed side-by-side
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Baraboo, Wisconsin
Baraboo is a city in and the county seat of Sauk County, Wisconsin, United States.[5] The largest city in the county, Baraboo is the principal city of the Baraboo Micropolitan Statistical Area. Its 2010 population was 12,048. It is situated on the Baraboo River. Baraboo is home to the Circus World Museum, the former headquarters and winter home of the Ringling Brothers
Ringling Brothers
circus. The Al. Ringling Theatre is an active landmark in the city
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Perspective (visual)
Perspective (from Latin: perspicere "to see through") in the graphic arts is an approximate representation, generally on a flat surface (such as paper), of an image as it is seen by the eye
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Cyan
Cyan
Cyan
(/ˈsaɪ.ən/[4] or /ˈsaɪ.æn/[5]) is a greenish-blue color.[6][7] It is evoked by light with a predominant wavelength of between 490–520 nm, between the wavelengths of blue and green.[8] In the subtractive color system, or CMYK
CMYK
(subtractive), which can be overlaid to produce all colors in paint and color printing, cyan is one of the primary colors, along with magenta, yellow, and black. In the additive color system, or RGB (additive) color model, used to create all the colors on a computer or television display, cyan is made by mixing equal amounts of green and blue light. Cyan
Cyan
is the complement of red; it can be made by the removal of red from white light. Mixing red light and cyan light at the right intensity will make white light. The web color cyan is synonymous with aqua
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Anaglyph 3D
Anaglyph 3D
Anaglyph 3D
is the name given to the stereoscopic 3D effect achieved by means of encoding each eye's image using filters of different (usually chromatically opposite) colors, typically red and cyan. Anaglyph 3D
Anaglyph 3D
images contain two differently filtered colored images, one for each eye. When viewed through the "color-coded" "anaglyph glasses", each of the two images reaches the eye it's intended for, revealing an integrated stereoscopic image. The visual cortex of the brain fuses this into the perception of a three-dimensional scene or composition. Anaglyph images have seen a recent resurgence due to the presentation of images and video on the Web, Blu-ray Discs, CDs, and even in print. Low cost paper frames or plastic-framed glasses hold accurate color filters that typically, after 2002, make use of all 3 primary colors. The current norm is red and cyan, with red being used for the left channel
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Vergence
A vergence is the simultaneous movement of both eyes in opposite directions to obtain or maintain single binocular vision.[1] When a creature with binocular vision looks at an object, the eyes must rotate around a horizontal axis so that the projection of the image is in the centre of the retina in both eyes. To look at an object closer by, the eyes rotate towards each other (convergence), while for an object farther away they rotate away from each other (divergence). Exaggerated convergence is called cross eyed viewing (focusing on the nose for example)
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Autostereogram
An autostereogram is a single-image stereogram (SIS), designed to create the visual illusion of a three-dimensional (3D) scene from a two-dimensional image. In order to perceive 3D shapes in these autostereograms, one must overcome the normally automatic coordination between accommodation (focus) and horizontal vergence (angle of one's eyes). The illusion is one of depth perception and involves stereopsis: depth perception arising from the different perspective each eye has of a three-dimensional scene, called binocular parallax. The simplest type of autostereogram consists of horizontally repeating patterns (often separate images) and is known as a wallpaper autostereogram. When viewed with proper convergence, the repeating patterns appear to float above or below the background. The well-known Magic Eye
Magic Eye
books feature another type of autostereogram called a random dot autostereogram. One such autostereogram is illustrated above right
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Random Dot Stereogram
Random-dot stereogram (RDS) is stereo pair of images of random dots which when viewed with the aid of a stereoscope, or with the eyes focused on a point in front of or behind the images, produces a sensation of depth, with objects appearing to be in front of or behind the display level. The random-dot stereogram technique, known since 1919, was much used by Dr
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Optical Illusion
An optical illusion (also called a visual illusion[2]) is an illusion caused by the visual system and characterized by a visual percept that (loosely said) appears to differ from reality. Illusions come in a wide variety; their categorization is difficult because the underlying cause is often not clear[3] but a classification [1] [4] proposed by Richard Gregory
Richard Gregory
is useful as an orientation. According to that, there are three main classes: physical, physiological, and cognitive illusions, and in each class there are four kinds: Ambiguities, distortions, paradoxes, and fictions. A classical example for a physical distortion would be the apparent bending of a stick half immerged in water; an example for a physiological paradox is the motion aftereffect (where despite movement position remains unchanged). An example for a physiological fiction is an afterimage. Three typical cognitive distortions are the Ponzo, Poggendorff, and Müller-Lyer illusion
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Visual Perception
Visual perception
Visual perception
is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment using light in the visible spectrum reflected by the objects in the environment. The resulting perception is also known as visual perception, eyesight, sight, or vision (adjectival form: visual, optical, or ocular)
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Strabismus
Strabismus, also known as crossed eyes, is a condition in which the eyes do not properly align with each other when looking at an object.[2] The eye which is focused on an object can alternate.[3] The condition may be present occasionally or constantly.[3] If present during a large part of childhood, it may result in amblyopia or loss of depth perception.[3] If onset is during adulthood, it is more likely to result in double vision.[3] Strabismus
Strabismus
can occur due to muscle dysfunction, farsightedness, problems in the brain, trauma, or infections.[3] Risk factors include premature birth, cerebral pa
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Periscope
A periscope is an instrument for observation over, around or through an object, obstacle or condition that prevents direct line-of-sight observation from an observer's current position.[1][2] In its simplest form, it consists of an outer case with mirrors at each end set parallel to each other at a 45° angle. This form of periscope, with the addition of two simple lenses, served for observation purposes in the trenches during World War I. Military personnel also use periscopes in some gun turrets and in armoured vehicles.[1] More complex periscopes, using prisms and/or advanced fiber optics instead of mirrors, and providing magnification, operate on submarines and in various fields of science. The overall design of the classical submarine periscope is very simple: two telescopes pointed into each other
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