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John Stuart Mill By London Stereoscopic Company, C1870
STEREOSCOPY (also called STEREOSCOPICS, or STEREO IMAGING) is a technique for creating or enhancing the illusion of depth in an image by means of stereopsis for binocular vision . The word stereoscopy derives from Greek στερεός (stereos), meaning 'firm, solid', and σκοπέω (skopeō), meaning 'to look, to see'. Any stereoscopic image is called a STEREOGRAM. Originally, stereogram referred to a pair of stereo images which could be viewed using a stereoscope . Most stereoscopic methods present two offset images separately to the left and right eye of the viewer. These two-dimensional images are then combined in the brain to give the perception of 3D depth. This technique is distinguished from 3D displays that display an image in three full dimensions , allowing the observer to increase information about the 3-dimensional objects being displayed by head and eye movements
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Stereographic Projection
In geometry , the STEREOGRAPHIC PROJECTION is a particular mapping (function ) that projects a sphere onto a plane . The projection is defined on the entire sphere, except at one point: the projection point. Where it is defined, the mapping is smooth and bijective . It is conformal , meaning that it preserves angles at which curves meet. It is neither isometric nor area-preserving: that is, it preserves neither distances nor the areas of figures. Intuitively, then, the stereographic projection is a way of picturing the sphere as the plane, with some inevitable compromises. Because the sphere and the plane appear in many areas of mathematics and its applications, so does the stereographic projection; it finds use in diverse fields including complex analysis , cartography , geology , and photography . In practice, the projection is carried out by computer or by hand using a special kind of graph paper called a STEREOGRAPHIC NET, shortened to STEREONET, or WULFF NET
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Aerial Photography
AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY is the taking of photographs of the ground from an elevated/direct-down position. Usually the camera is not supported by a ground-based structure. Platforms for aerial photography include fixed-wing aircraft , helicopters , unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs or "drones"), balloons , blimps and dirigibles , rockets , pigeons , kites , parachutes , stand-alone telescoping and vehicle-mounted poles. Mounted cameras may be triggered remotely or automatically; hand-held photographs may be taken by a photographer. Aerial photography
Aerial photography
should not be confused with air-to-air photography , where one or more aircraft are used as chase planes that "chase" and photograph other aircraft in flight. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Early history * 1.2 World War I * 1.3 Commercial aerial photography * 1.4 World War II * 2 Uses * 3 Platforms * 3.1 Aircraft
Aircraft
* 3.2 Radio-controlled model aircraft * 4 Regulations * 4.1 Australia * 4.2 United States * 4.3 United Kingdom * 5 Types * 5.1 Oblique * 5.2 Vertical * 5.3 Combinations * 5.4 Orthophotos * 6 Aerial video * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links HISTORYEARLY HISTORY _ Honoré Daumier , "Nadar élevant la Photographie à la hauteur de l'Art" (Nadar elevating Photography
Photography
to Art), published in Le Boulevard_, May 25, 1862
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Boston
BOSTON (pronounced /ˈbɒstən/ (_ listen ) BOSS-tən_ ) is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States . It is also the seat of Suffolk County , although the county government was disbanded on July 1, 1999. The city proper covers 48 square miles (124 km2) with an estimated population of 673,184 in 2016, making it the largest city in New England and the 23rd most populous city in the United States. The city is the economic and cultural anchor of a substantially larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston , a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest such area in the country. Alternately, as a Combined Statistical Area (CSA), this wider commuting region is home to some 8.2 million people, making it the sixth-largest in the United States. Boston is one of the oldest cities in the United States, founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from England . It was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution , such as the Boston Massacre , the Boston Tea Party , the Battle of Bunker Hill , and the Siege of Boston . Upon U.S. independence from Great Britain , it continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education and culture
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Kaiserpanorama
The KAISERPANORAMA (or KAISER-PANORAMA) is a form of stereoscopic entertainment medium used chiefly in the 19th and early 20th centuries, a precursor to film , invented by August Fuhrmann (1844 – 1925). It was patented by the inventor ca. 1890. There would be a number of viewing stations through which people would peer through a pair of lenses showing a number of rotating stereoscopic glass slides. By 1910 he is said to have controlled exhibitions in over 250 branches across Europe
Europe
, and in the central archive have up to 100,000 slides stored. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Reconstructions * 3 References * 4 External links DESCRIPTION A kaiserpanorama in Prater
Prater
(1900) A kaiserpanorama would normally have around 25 wooden stations, each with a pair of viewing lenses. Inside the device there would be a rotating mechanism showing numerous stereoscopic images on rear-illuminated glass, giving a 3D effect. Kayserpanorama within the Dubai Moving Image Museum
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Depth Perception
DEPTH PERCEPTION is the visual ability to perceive the world in three dimensions (3D ) and the distance of an object. DEPTH SENSATION is the corresponding term for animals, since although it is known that animals can sense the distance of an object (because of their ability to move accurately, or to respond consistently, according to that distance), it is not known whether they "perceive" it in the same subjective way that humans do. Depth perception arises from a variety of depth cues. These are typically classified into binocular cues that are based on the receipt of sensory information in three dimensions from both eyes and monocular cues that can be represented in just two dimensions and observed with just one eye. Binocular cues include stereopsis , eye convergence, disparity , and yielding depth from binocular vision through exploitation of parallax . Monocular cues include size: distant objects subtend smaller visual angles than near objects, grain, size, and motion parallax . CONTENTS * 1 Monocular cues * 2 Binocular cues * 3 Theories of evolution * 4 In art * 5 Disorders affecting depth perception * 6 See also * 7 References * 7.1 Notes * 8 Bibliography * 9 External links MONOCULAR CUESMonocular cues provide depth information when viewing a scene with one eye
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Stereopsis
STEREOPSIS (from the Greek στερεο- _stereo-_ meaning "solid", and ὄψις _opsis_, "appearance, sight ") is term that is most often used to refer to the perception of depth and 3-dimensional structure obtained on the basis of visual information deriving from two eyes by individuals with normally developed binocular vision . Because the eyes of humans, and many animals, are located at different lateral positions on the head, binocular vision results in two slightly different images projected to the retinas of the eyes. The differences are mainly in the relative horizontal position of objects in the two images. These positional differences are referred to as horizontal disparities or, more generally, binocular disparities . Disparities are processed in the visual cortex of the brain to yield depth perception . While binocular disparities are naturally present when viewing a real 3-dimensional scene with two eyes, they can also be simulated by artificially presenting two different images separately to each eye using a method called stereoscopy . The perception of depth in such cases is also referred to as "stereoscopic depth"
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Binocular Vision
BINOCULAR VISION is vision in which creatures having two eyes use them together. The word binocular comes from two Latin roots, _bini_ for double, and _oculus_ for eye. According to Fahle (1987), having two eyes confers six advantages over having one. * It gives a creature a spare eye in case one is damaged. * It gives a wider field of view . For example, humans have a maximum horizontal field of view of approximately 190 degrees with two eyes, approximately 120 degrees of which makes up the binocular field of view (seen by both eyes) flanked by two uniocular fields (seen by only one eye) of approximately 40 degrees. * It can give stereopsis in which binocular disparity (or parallax ) provided by the two eyes' different positions on the head gives precise depth perception . This also allows a creature to break the camouflage of another creature. * It allows the angles of the eyes' lines of sight, relative to each other (vergence ), and those lines relative to a particular object (gaze angle ) to be determined from the images in the two eyes. These properties are necessary for the third advantage. * It allows a creature to see more of, or all of, an object behind an obstacle
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Greek Language
GREEK ( Modern Greek
Modern Greek
: ελληνικά , _elliniká_, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα (_ listen ), ellinikí glóssa_, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B
Linear B
and the Cypriot syllabary
Cypriot syllabary
, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
Latin
, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems. The Greek language
Greek language
holds an important place in the history of the Western world
Western world
and Christianity
Christianity
; the canon of ancient Greek literature includes seminal works in the Western canon such as the epic poems _ Iliad
Iliad
_ and _ Odyssey
Odyssey
_
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Stereoscope
A STEREOSCOPE is a device for viewing a stereoscopic pair of separate images, depicting left-eye and right-eye views of the same scene, as a single three-dimensional image. A typical stereoscope provides each eye with a lens that makes the image seen through it appear larger and more distant and usually also shifts its apparent horizontal position, so that for a person with normal binocular depth perception the edges of the two images seemingly fuse into one "stereo window". In current practice, the images are prepared so that the scene appears to be beyond this virtual window, through which objects are sometimes allowed to protrude, but this was not always the custom. A divider or other view-limiting feature is usually provided to prevent each eye from being distracted by also seeing the image intended for the other eye. Most people can, with practice and some effort, view stereoscopic image pairs in 3D without the aid of a stereoscope, but the physiological depth cues resulting from the unnatural combination of eye convergence and focus required will be unlike those experienced when actually viewing the scene in reality, making an accurate simulation of the natural viewing experience impossible and tending to cause eye strain and fatigue
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Two-dimensional
In physics and mathematics , TWO-DIMENSIONAL SPACE or BI-DIMENSIONAL SPACE is a geometric model of the planar projection of the physical universe . The two dimensions are commonly called length and width. Both directions lie in the same plane . A sequence of _n_ real numbers can be understood as a location in _n_-dimensional space. When _n_ = 2, the set of all such locations is called two-dimensional space or bi-dimensional space, and usually is thought of as a Euclidean space . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 In geometry * 2.1 Coordinate systems * 2.2 Polytopes * 2.2.1 Convex * 2.2.2 Degenerate (spherical) * 2.2.3 Non-convex * 2.3 Circle * 2.4 Other shapes * 3 In linear algebra * 3.1 Dot product, angle, and length * 4 In calculus * 4.1 Gradient * 4.2 Line integrals and double integrals * 4.3 Fundamental theorem of line integrals * 4.4 Green\'s theorem * 5 In topology * 6 In graph theory * 7 References * 8 See also HISTORYBooks I through IV and VI of Euclid\'s Elements dealt with two-dimensional geometry, developing such notions as similarity of shapes, the Pythagorean theorem (Proposition 47), equality of angles and areas , parallelism, the sum of the angles in a triangle, and the three cases in which triangles are "equal" (have the same area), among many other topics
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Three-dimensional Space
THREE-DIMENSIONAL SPACE (also: 3-SPACE or, rarely, TRI-DIMENSIONAL SPACE) is a geometric setting in which three values (called parameters ) are required to determine the position of an element (i.e., point ). This is the informal meaning of the term dimension . In physics and mathematics , a sequence of n numbers can be understood as a location in n-dimensional space. When n = 3, the set of all such locations is called THREE-DIMENSIONAL EUCLIDEAN SPACE . It is commonly represented by the symbol ℝ3. This serves as a three-parameter model of the physical universe (that is, the spatial part, without considering time) in which all known matter exists. However, this space is only one example of a large variety of spaces in three dimensions called 3-manifolds . In this classical example, when the three values refer to measurements in different directions (coordinates ), any three directions can be chosen, provided that vectors in these directions do not all lie in the same 2-space (plane ). Furthermore, in this case, these three values can be labeled by any combination of three chosen from the terms width , height , depth , and breadth
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Accommodation (eye)
ACCOMMODATION is the process by which the vertebrate eye changes optical power to maintain a clear image or focus on an object as its distance varies. In this, distances vary for individuals from the far point —the maximum distance from the eye for which a clear image of an object can be seen, to the near point—the minimum distance for a clear image. Accommodation acts like a reflex, but can also be consciously controlled. Mammals, birds and reptiles vary the optical power by changing the form of the elastic lens using the ciliary body (in humans up to 15 dioptres ). Fish and amphibians vary the power by changing the distance between a rigid lens and the retina with muscles. Duane's classical curves showing the amplitude or width of accommodation as changing with age. Mean (B) and approximate lower (A) and upper (C) standard deviations are shown ) The young human eye can change focus from distance (infinity) to as near as 6.5 cm from the eye. This dramatic change in focal power of the eye of approximately 15 dioptres (the reciprocal of focal length in metres) occurs as a consequence of a reduction in zonular tension induced by ciliary muscle contraction. This process can occur in as little as 350 milliseconds. The amplitude of accommodation declines with age. By the fifth decade of life the accommodative amplitude can decline so that the near point of the eye is more remote than the reading distance. When this occurs the patient is presbyopic
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Accommodation Of The Eye
ACCOMMODATION is the process by which the vertebrate eye changes optical power to maintain a clear image or focus on an object as its distance varies. In this, distances vary for individuals from the far point —the maximum distance from the eye for which a clear image of an object can be seen, to the near point—the minimum distance for a clear image. Accommodation acts like a reflex, but can also be consciously controlled. Mammals, birds and reptiles vary the optical power by changing the form of the elastic lens using the ciliary body (in humans up to 15 dioptres ). Fish and amphibians vary the power by changing the distance between a rigid lens and the retina with muscles. Duane's classical curves showing the amplitude or width of accommodation as changing with age. Mean (B) and approximate lower (A) and upper (C) standard deviations are shown ) The young human eye can change focus from distance (infinity) to as near as 6.5 cm from the eye. This dramatic change in focal power of the eye of approximately 15 dioptres (the reciprocal of focal length in metres) occurs as a consequence of a reduction in zonular tension induced by ciliary muscle contraction. This process can occur in as little as 350 milliseconds. The amplitude of accommodation declines with age. By the fifth decade of life the accommodative amplitude can decline so that the near point of the eye is more remote than the reading distance. When this occurs the patient is presbyopic
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Photograph
A PHOTOGRAPH or PHOTO is an image created by light falling on a light-sensitive surface, usually photographic film or an electronic medium such as a CCD or a CMOS chip. Most photographs are created using a camera , which uses a lens to focus the scene's visible wavelengths of light into a reproduction of what the human eye would see. The process and practice of creating photographs is called photography . The word "photograph" was coined in 1839 by Sir John Herschel and is based on the Greek φῶς (_phos_), meaning "light", and γραφή (_graphê_), meaning "drawing, writing", together meaning "drawing with light". CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Types of photographs * 3 Preservation * 3.1 Paper folders * 3.2 Polyester enclosures * 3.3 Handling and care * 4 Myths and beliefs * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORY Main article: History of photography The first permanent photograph, a contact-exposed copy of an engraving, was made in 1822 using the bitumen -based "heliography " process developed by Nicéphore Niépce . The first photographs of a real-world scene, made using a camera obscura , followed a few years later, but Niépce's process was not sensitive enough to be practical for that application: a camera exposure lasting for hours or days was required
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Film
A FILM, also called a MOVIE, MOTION PICTURE, THEATRICAL FILM, or PHOTOPLAY, is a series of still images which, when shown on a screen, creates the illusion of moving images due to the phi phenomenon . This optical illusion causes the audience to perceive continuous motion between separate objects viewed rapidly in succession. The process of filmmaking is both an art and an industry . A film is created by photographing actual scenes with a motion picture camera ; by photographing drawings or miniature models using traditional animation techniques; by means of CGI and computer animation ; or by a combination of some or all of these techniques and other visual effects . The word "CINEMA", short for cinematography , is often used to refer to the industry of films and filmmaking or to the art of filmmaking itself. The contemporary definition of cinema is the art of simulating experiences to communicate ideas, stories, perceptions, feelings, beauty or atmosphere by the means of recorded or programmed moving images along with other sensory stimulations. Films were originally recorded onto plastic film through a photochemical process and then shown through a movie projector onto a large screen. The adoption of CGI-based special effects led to the use of digital intermediates . Most contemporary films are now fully digital through the entire process of production, distribution, and exhibition from start to finish