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John III Of Portugal
John III[1] (Portuguese: João III Portuguese pronunciation: [ʒuˈɐ̃w̃]; 7 June 1502 – 11 June 1557) was the King of Portugal and the Algarves from 13 December 1521 to 11 June 1557. He was the son of King Manuel I and Maria of Aragon, the third daughter of King Ferdinand II of Aragon
Ferdinand II of Aragon
and Queen Isabella I of Castile. John succeeded his father in 1521, at the age of nineteen. During his rule, Portuguese possessions were extended in Asia and in the New World
New World
through the Portuguese colonization of Brazil. John III's policy of reinforcing Portugal's bases in India
India
(such as Goa) secured Portugal's monopoly over the spice trade of cloves and nutmeg from the Maluku Islands, as a result of which John III has been called the "Grocer King"
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Maluku Islands
The Maluku Islands
Maluku Islands
or the Moluccas (/məˈlʌkəz/) are an archipelago within Banda Sea, Indonesia. Tectonically they are located on the Halmahera
Halmahera
Plate within the Molucca Sea Collision Zone. Geographically they are located east of Sulawesi, west of New Guinea, and north and east of Timor. The islands were known as the Spice Islands due to the nutmeg, mace and cloves that were originally exclusively found there, the presence of which sparked colonial interest from Europe in the 16th century.[1] The Maluku Islands
Maluku Islands
formed a single province from Indonesian independence until 1999, when it was split into two provinces
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Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(Latin: Sacrum Romanum Imperium; German: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and continued until its dissolution in 1806.[6] The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany, though it also came to include the Kingdom of Bohemia, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, and numerous other territories.[7][8][9] On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor, reviving the title in Western Europe, more than three centuries after the fall of the Western Roman Empire
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Master Of Lourinhã
The Master of Lourinhã (Portuguese: Mestre da Lourinhã) was a Portuguese painter active between 1510 and 1525.[1] He might have been of North Netherlandish origin.[1] He has been named after the church Santa Casa da Misericórdia in Lourinhã, where a number of his paintings are exhibited.[2] References[edit]^ a b Colum Hourihane (6 December 2012). The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture. Oxford University Press. pp. 4–. ISBN 978-0-19-539536-5.  ^ Negócios, LisboaNet.pt - Empresas e. "LisboaNet.com - Concelhos de Lisboa - Lourinhã"
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Rhineland
The Rhineland
Rhineland
(German: Rheinland, French: Rhénanie) is the name used for a loosely defined area of Western Germany along the Rhine, chiefly its middle section.Contents1 Term 2 Geography 3 History3.1 Pre-Roman 3.2 Roman and Frankish conquests 3.3 Holy Roman Empire 3.4 French Revolution 3.5 Prussian influence 3.6 1918–1945 3.7 Post-19464 See also 5 References 6 Further readingTerm[edit]The Rhine Province
Rhine Province
(green) as of 1830 superimposed on modern borders.Historically, the Rhinelands[1] refers (physically speaking) to a loosely defined region embracing the land on the banks of the Rhine
Rhine
in Central Europe, which were settled by Ripuarian and Salian Franks
Salian Franks
and became part of Frankish Austrasia
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Baltic Region
The terms Baltic region, Baltic Rim countries (or simply Baltic Rim), and the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
countries refer to slightly different combinations of countries in the general area surrounding the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
in Nor
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Muslim
65–75% Sunni
Sunni
Islam[22][note 1] 10–13% Shia
Shia
Islam[22] 15–20% Non-denominational Islam[23] ~1% Ahmadiyya[24] ~1% Other Muslim
Muslim
traditions, e.g
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Muromachi Period
The Muromachi period
Muromachi period
(室町時代, Muromachi jidai, also known as the Muromachi era, the Ashikaga era, or the Ashikaga period) is a division of Japanese history running from approximately 1336 to 1573. The period marks the governance of the Muromachi or Ashikaga shogunate (Muromachi bakufu or Ashikaga bakufu), which was officially established in 1338 by the first Muromachi shōgun, Ashikaga Takauji, two years after the brief Kenmu Restoration
Kenmu Restoration
(1333–36) of imperial rule was brought to a close
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Ming Dynasty
The Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
(/mɪŋ/)[2] was the ruling dynasty of China
China
– then known as the Great Ming Empire
Empire
– for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming, described by Edwin O. Reischauer, John K. Fairbank and Albert M. Craig as "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history",[3] was the last imperial dynasty in China ruled by ethnic Han Chinese
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Astrologer
Expand list for reference▼ Astrology► Astrology
Astrology
images► Astrology
Astrology
stubs► Astrologers► Astrological ages► Astrological data collectors► Astrological organizations► Astrological signs► History of astrology►
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Nutmeg
Nutmeg
Nutmeg
refers to the seed or ground spice of several species of the Myristica
Myristica
genus. Myristica
Myristica
fragrans (fragrant nutmeg or true nutmeg) is a dark-leaved evergreen tree cultivated for two spices derived from its fruit: nutmeg and mace
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Cloves
Cloves are the aromatic flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae, Syzygium
Syzygium
aromaticum. They are native to the Maluku Islands
Maluku Islands
(or Moluccas) in Indonesia, and are commonly used as a spice. Cloves are commercially harvested primarily in Bangladesh, Indonesia, India, Madagascar, Zanzibar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Tanzania. Cloves are available throughout the year.Contents1 Botanical features 2 Uses2.1 Non-culinary uses 2.2 Traditional medicinal uses 2.3 Potential medicinal uses3 Adulteration 4 History 5 Chemical compounds 6 See also 7 References 8 Further readingBotanical features[edit] The clove tree is an evergreen that grows up to 8–12 m tall, with large leaves and crimson flowers grouped in terminal clusters. The flower buds initially have a pale hue, gradually turn green, then transition to a bright red when ready for harvest
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Spice Trade
The spice trade refers to the trade between historical civilizations in Asia, Northeast Africa
Africa
and Europe. Spices such as cinnamon, cassia, cardamom, ginger, pepper, and turmeric were known and used in antiquity for commerce in the Eastern World.[1] Opium
Opium
was a part of the spice trade and some people involved in the spice trade were driven by opium addiction.[2][3] These spices found their way into the Middle East
Middle East
before the beginning of the Christian era, where the true sources of these spices were withheld by the traders and associated with fantastic tales.[1] Early writings and stone age carvings of neolithic age obtained indicates that India's southwest coastal port Muziris, in Kerala, had established itself as a major spice trade centre from as early as 3000 BC, which marked the beginning of the spice trade
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Goa
Goa
Goa
/ˈɡoʊ.ə/ ( listen) is a state in India
India
within the coastal region known as the Konkan, in Western India. It is bounded by Maharashtra
Maharashtra
to the north and Karnataka
Karnataka
to the east and south, with the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
forming its Western coast. It is India's smallest state by area and the fourth smallest by population. Goa
Goa
has the highest GDP per capita among all Indian states,[3] that is two and a half times that of the country.[4] It was ranked the 'best placed State' by the "Eleventh Finance Commission" for its infrastructure and ranked on top for the 'best quality of life' in India
India
by the National Commission on Population based on the 12 Indicators.[4] Panaji
Panaji
is the state's capital, while Vasco da Gama is its largest city
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Portuguese Colonization Of The Americas
Portugal
Portugal
was the leading country in the European exploration of the world in the 15th century
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Isabella I Of Castile
Isabella I (Spanish: Isabel, 22 April 1451 – 26 November 1504) reigned as Queen of Castile
Queen of Castile
from 1474 until her death. Her marriage to Ferdinand II of Aragon
Ferdinand II of Aragon
became the basis for the political unification of Spain
Spain
under their grandson, Charles I. After a struggle to claim her right to the throne, she reorganized the governmental system, brought the crime rate to the lowest it had been in years, and unburdened the kingdom of the enormous debt her brother had left behind. Her reforms and those she made with her husband had an influence that extended well beyond the borders of their united kingdoms
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