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John I Of Portugal
John I (Portuguese: João,[1] [ʒuˈɐ̃w̃]; 11 April 1357 – 14 August 1433) was King of Portugal
King of Portugal
and the Algarve in 1385–1433. He was referred to as "the Good" (sometimes "the Great") or "of Happy Memory" in Portugal. More rarely, and especially in Spain, he was sometimes referred to as "the Bastard". He is recognized chiefly for his role in preserving the independence of the Kingdom of Portugal from the Kingdom of Castile. As part of his efforts to acquire Portuguese territories in Africa, he became the first king of Portugal to use the title "Lord of Ceuta".Contents1 Early life 2 Acclamation 3 Reign 4 Marriages and descendants 5 Ancestry 6 Notes 7 ReferencesEarly life[edit] John was born in Lisbon
Lisbon
as the natural son of King Peter I of Portugal by a woman named Teresa, who, according to the royal chronicler Fernão Lopes, was a noble Galician
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João I Of Kongo
João I of Kongo
João I of Kongo
(died 1509), alias Nzinga a Nkuwu or Nkuwu Nzinga, was ruler of the Kingdom of Kongo
Kingdom of Kongo
between 1470 and 1509. He was baptized as João on 3 May 1491 by Portuguese missionaries. Due to his interest in Portugal and its culture, he initiated a major cultural initiative in 1485 upon the arrival of Diogo Cão. It was under these conditions that the first Atlantic Creole emerged, forming in both Central Africa and in Portugal.Contents1 Early reign 2 Arrival of the Portuguese2.1 Baptisms and later relations3 Later life 4 See also 5 ReferencesEarly reign[edit] King Nzinga a Nkuwu was the seventh ruler of Kongo.[1] He was married to Queen Nzinga a Nlaza, a first cousin.[2] She had a son by the king named Nzinga Mbemba
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Lille
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Lille
Lille
(French pronunciation: [lil] ( listen); Dutch: Rijsel pronounced [ˈrɛi̯səl]; West Flemish: Rysel) is a city at the northern tip of France, in French Flanders
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Kingdom Of Castile
The Kingdom of Castile
Kingdom of Castile
(/kæˈstiːl/; Spanish: Reino de Castilla, Latin: Regnum Castellae) was a large and powerful state on the Iberian Peninsula during the Middle Ages. Its name comes from the host of castles constructed in the region. It began in the 9th century as the County of Castile
County of Castile
(Condado de Castilla), an eastern frontier lordship of the Kingdom of León. During the 10th century its counts increased their autonomy, but it was not until 1065 that it was separated from León and became a kingdom in its own right. Between 1072 and 1157 it was again united with León, and after 1230 this union became permanent. Throughout this period the Castilian kings made extensive conquests in southern Iberia at the expense of the Islamic principalities
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Royal Bastard
A royal bastard is a child of a reigning monarch born out of wedlock. The king might have a child with a mistress, or the legitimacy of a marriage might be questioned for reasons concerning succession. Notable royal bastards include Henry FitzRoy, son of King Henry VIII of England, and the Duke of Monmouth, son of Charles II. The surname "Fitzroy" means "son of a king" and was used by various illegitimate royal offspring, and by others who claimed to be such. In medieval England, a bastard's coat of arms was marked with a "bend" or "baton sinister."[1] The stereotypical royal bastard is Edmund in Shakespeare's King Lear, intelligent, but villainous. Edmund says of his legitimate half brother Edgar:I must have your land. Our father’s love is to the bastard Edmond As to th’ legitimate. Fine word, ‘legitimate’ Well, my legitimate, if this letter speed And my invention thrive, Edmond the base Shall to the legitimate: I grow, I prosper
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Arquivo Nacional Da Torre Do Tombo
The National Archive
National Archive
of Torre do Tombo (Portuguese: Arquivo Nacional da Torre do Tombo, [ɐɾˈkivu nɐsjuˈnaɫ dɐ ˈtoʁɨ ðu ˈtõbu]) is the Portuguese national archive established in 1378, located in center-north Lisbon, and renamed the Instituto dos Arquivos Nacionais (Institute of the National Archives) in 2009.Contents1 History 2 Collections 3 See also 4 References 5 Further readingHistory[edit]An oblique perspective of the symmetrical facade of the archiveThe lateral facade of the National Archive
National Archive
buildingOne of the gargoyles designed by José AurélioThe archive is one of the oldest institutions in Portugal, since its installation in one of the towers of the castle in Lisbon, occurring during the reign of Ferdinand I, and likely in 1378 (the date where the first testimonal originated)
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Heir Presumptive
An heir presumptive or heiress presumptive is the person entitled to inherit a throne, peerage, or other hereditary honour, but whose position can be displaced by the birth of an heir apparent, male or female, or of a new heir presumptive with a better claim to the position in question.[1][2] The position is however subject to law and/or conventions that may alter who is entitled to be heir presumptive. Depending on the rules of the monarchy the heir presumptive might be the daughter of a monarch (if males take priority over females and the monarch has no sons), or the senior member of a collateral line (if the monarch is childless); the birth of a legitimate child to the monarch will displace the former heir presumptive by a new heir apparent or heir presumptive
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Manuscript Illuminator
An illuminated manuscript is a manuscript in which the text is supplemented with such decoration as initials, borders (marginalia) and miniature illustrations. In the strictest definition, the term refers only to manuscripts decorated with gold or silver; but in both common usage and modern scholarship, the term refers to any decorated or illustrated manuscript from Western traditions. Comparable Far Eastern and Mesoamerican works are described as painted. Islamic manuscripts may be referred to as illuminated, illustrated or painted, though using essentially the same techniques as Western works. This article covers the technical, social and economic history of the subject; for an art-historical account, see miniature. The earliest surviving substantive illuminated manuscripts are from the period 400 to 600, produced in the Kingdom of the Ostrogoths and the Eastern Roman Empire
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Master Of Wavrin
The Maître de Wavrin, Master of Wavrin or Master of Jean Wavrin, Wavrin Master (and other variants), was a French painter and manuscript illuminator active in the region of Lille in the third quarter of the fifteenth century. His name is derived from that of Jean de Wavrin, counselor to Philip III of Burgundy, for whom he seems to have worked. His illustrations, on paper or card, are colored with watercolor, and are held in the Bibliothèque nationale de France as well as in collections in Lille, Brussels, and Ghent. He is not to be confused with another illuminator known as the Master of the London Wavrin. Style[edit]Gerard de Nevers, illustrated by the Wavrin MasterUnlike most of the illuminators of the time, who painted on parchment, the Master of Wavrin uses, with one exception, only paper and watercolor. His images are very restrained in colour tones, much less richly coloured than contemporary illuminations, and recall comic strips
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Coimbra
Coimbra
Coimbra
(Portuguese pronunciation: [kuˈĩbɾɐ, ˈkwĩbɾɐ]; Proto-Celtic: *Corumbriga)[1]) is a city and a municipality in Portugal. The population at the 2011 census was 143,397,[2] in an area of 319.40 square kilometres (123.3 sq mi).[3] The fourth-largest urban centre in Portugal
Portugal
(after Lisbon, Porto, Braga), it is the largest city of the district of Coimbra, the Centro region and the Baixo Mondego
Baixo Mondego
subregion. About 460,000 people live in the Região de Coimbra, comprising 19 municipalities and extending into an area 4,336 square kilometres (1,674 sq mi). Among the many archaeological structures dating back to the Roman era, when Coimbra
Coimbra
was the settlement of Aeminium, are its well-preserved aqueduct and cryptoporticus
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Roman Catholic Church
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.29 billion members worldwide.[4] As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation.[5] Headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the Pope, the church's doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed
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Entre-Douro-e-Minho Province
Entre Douro
Douro
e Minho is one of the historical provinces of Portugal which encompassed the country's northern Atlantic
Atlantic
seaboard between the Douro
Douro
and Minho rivers. Contemporaries often referred to the province as simply "Minho"
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Hundred Years' War
House of Valois Kingdom of France Duchy of Burgundy[1] Duchy of Brittany[2] (County of Flanders)*[3] Kingdom of Scotland Kingdom of Bohemia Duchy of Lorraine Republic of Genoa Crown of Castile Crown of Aragon Kingdom of Majorca Avignon Papacy[4] House of Plantagenet Kingdom of England Principality of Wales Duchy of Aquitaine English Kingdom of France[5] Duchy of Burgundy County of Flanders County of Hainaut Duchy of Brittany[6] Kingdom of Portugal Kingdom of Navarre Papal States[7]Commanders and leaders Philip VI (1337–1350) John II (1350–1364) Charles V (1364–1380) Charles VI (1380–1422) Charles VII (1422–1453) Edward III
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Constable
A constable is a person holding a particular office, most commonly in criminal law enforcement. The office of constable can vary significantly in different jurisdictions. A constable is commonly the rank of an officer within the police
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Santarém, Portugal
Santarém (Portuguese pronunciation: [sɐ̃tɐˈɾɐ̃j]) is a city and municipality located in the district of Santarém in Portugal. The population in 2011 was 61,752,[1][2] in an area of 552.54 km².[2][3] The population of the city proper was 29,929 in 2012. The Mayor is Ricardo Gonçalves (PSD). The municipal holiday is March 19, day of Saint Joseph (São José). The city is on the Portuguese Way variant of the Way of Saint James.Contents1 History 2 Geography2.1 Parishes 2.2 Climate 2.3 Sister cities3 Architecture 4 Notable citizens 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit]Main portal of Igreja da GraçaThe Tagus River
Tagus River
as seen from Portas do SolSince prehistory, the region of Santarém has been inhabited, first by the Lusitani
Lusitani
people and then by the Greeks, Romans, Visigoths, Moors and later Portuguese Christians
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Torres Novas
Torres Novas (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈtoʁɨʒ ˈnɔvɐʃ]) is a Portuguese municipality in the district of Santarém, in the Médio Tejo of the Centro region
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