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John Henry Newman
John Henry Newman, Cong. Orat. (21 February 1801 – 11 August 1890) was a poet and theologian, first an Anglican priest and later a Catholic priest and cardinal, who was an important and controversial figure in the religious history of England in the 19th century. He was known nationally by the mid-1830s.[5] Originally an evangelical Oxford University
Oxford University
academic and priest in the Church of England, Newman then became drawn to the high-church tradition of Anglicanism. He became known as a leader of, and an able polemicist for, the Oxford
Oxford
Movement, an influential and controversial grouping of Anglicans who wished to return to the Church of England many Catholic beliefs and liturgical rituals from before the English Reformation. In this the movement had some success
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Clement Of Alexandria
Titus Flavius Clemens, also known as Clement of Alexandria
Alexandria
(Greek: Κλήμης ὁ Ἀλεξανδρεύς; c. 150 – c. 215),[1] was a Christian theologian who taught at the Catechetical School of Alexandria. A convert to Christianity, he was an educated man who was familiar with classical Greek philosophy and literature. As his three major works demonstrate, Clement was influenced by Hellenistic philosophy to a greater extent than any other Christian thinker of his time, and in particular by Plato
Plato
and the Stoics.[2] His secret works, which exist only in fragments, suggest that he was also familiar with pre-Christian Jewish esotericism and Gnosticism
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Empiricism
In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.[1] It is one of several views of epistemology, the study of human knowledge, along with rationalism and skepticism. Empiricism
Empiricism
emphasizes the role of empirical evidence in the formation of ideas, over the idea of innate ideas or traditions;[2] empiricists may argue however that traditions (or customs) arise due to relations of previous sense experiences.[3] Empiricism
Empiricism
in the philosophy of science emphasizes evidence, especially as discovered in experiments
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Western Philosophy
Western philosophy
Western philosophy
is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world. Historically, the term refers to the philosophical thinking of Western culture, beginning with Greek philosophy
Greek philosophy
of the Pre-Socratics such as Thales
Thales
(c. 624 – c. 546 BC) and Pythagoras (c. 570 BC – c. 495 BC), and eventually covering a large area of the globe.[1][2] The word philosophy itself originated from the Ancient Greek: philosophia (φιλοσοφία), literally, "the love of wisdom" (φιλεῖν philein, "to love" and σοφία sophia, "wisdom"). The scope of philosophy in the ancient understanding, and the writings of (at least some of) the ancient philosophers, were all intellectual endeavors
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19th-century Philosophy
In the 19th century
19th century
the philosophies of the Enlightenment began to have a dramatic effect, the landmark works of philosophers such as Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
and Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
influencing new generations of thinkers. In the late 18th century a movement known as Romanticism began; it validated strong emotion as an authentic not of aesthetic experience, placing new emphasis on such emotions as trepidation, horror and terror and awe. Key ideas that sparked changes in philosophy were the fast progress of science; evolution, as postulated by Vanini, Diderot, Lord Monboddo, Erasmus Darwin, Lamarck, Goethe, and Charles Darwin; and what might now be called emergent order, such as the free market of Adam Smith
Adam Smith
within nation states
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Faith And Rationality
Faith
Faith
and rationality are two ideologies that exist in varying degrees of conflict or compatibility. Rationality is based on reason or facts. Faith
Faith
is belief in inspiration, revelation, or authority
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Religious Epistemology
Religious epistemology as a broad label covers any approach to epistemological questions from a religious perspective, or attempts to understand the epistemological issues that come from religious belief. The questions which epistemologists may ask about any particular belief also apply to religious beliefs and propositions: whether they seem rational, justified, warranted, reasonable, based on evidence and so on. Religious views also influence epistemological theories, such as in the case of Reformed epistemology.[1] Reformed epistemology has developed in contemporary Christian religious epistemology, as in the work of Alvin Plantinga (born 1932), William P. Alston (1921-2009), Nicholas Wolterstorff (born 1932) and Kelly James Clark,[2] as a critique of and alternative to the idea of "evidentialism" of the sort proposed by W. K
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Historical Theology
Historical theology as a branch of theology investigates the socio-historical and cultural mechanisms that give rise to theological ideas, statements, and systems. The field focuses on the relationship between theology and its contexts, as well as on the major theological or philosophical influences upon the figures and topics studied. Its methodological foundation and aims are similar to those used by intellectual historians researching historical epistemology, particularly those such as Matthew Daniel Eddy, who investigate the cultural connections between theology and other disciplines that existed in the past.[1]Contents1 See also 2 Further reading 3 References 4 External linksSee also[edit]History of Christianity Alister McGrathFurther reading[edit]Finlayson, R. A. The Story of Theology. Second ed. London: Tyndale Press, 1969. 70 p. SBN 85111-029-0 Richardson, Alan. Creeds in the Making: a Short Introduction to the History of Christian Doctrine. Reissued
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Alma Mater
Alma mater
Alma mater
(Latin: alma "nourishing/kind", mater "mother"; pl. [rarely used] almae matres) is an allegorical Latin
Latin
phrase for a university or college. In English, this is largely a U.S. usage referring to a school or university from which an individual has graduated or to a song or hymn associated with a school.[1] The phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students.[2] Fine arts will often depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, Alma mater
Alma mater
was an honorific title for various Latin
Latin
mother goddesses, especially Ceres or Cybele,[3] and later in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary
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Christian Apologetics
Christian apologetics
Christian apologetics
(Greek: ἀπολογία, "verbal defence, speech in defence")[1] is a branch of Christian theology
Christian theology
that aims to present historical, reasoned, and evidential bases for Christianity, defending it against objections.[2] Christian apologetics
Christian apologetics
have taken many forms over the centuries, starting with Paul the Apostle
Paul the Apostle
in the early church and Patristic writers such as Origen, Augustine of Hippo, Justin Martyr
Justin Martyr
and Tertullian, then continuing with writers such as Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas
and Anselm of Canterbury
Anselm of Canterbury
during Scholasticism
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Rednal
Rednal is a residential suburb on the south western edge of metropolitan Birmingham, West Midlands, England, 9 miles (14.2 kilometres) south west of Birmingham city centre and forming part of Longbridge parish and electoral ward. Rednal is home to approximately 2,000 residents. The suburb is located in a triangle formed by Rubery and the Bristol Road South to the north and north west, the former MG Rover car factory to the south east and the Lickey Hills and Cofton Hackett Park just south
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Philosophy Of Education
Philosophy
Philosophy
of education can refer either to the application of philosophy to the problem of education, examining definitions, goals and chains of meaning used in education by teachers, administrators or policymakers. It can involve the examination of particular visions or approaches by researchers and policy-makers in education that often address contemporary debates and assumptions about innovations and practices in teaching and learning by considering the profession within broader philosophical or sociocultural contexts.[1] As an academic field, study involves "the philosophical study of education and its problems...its central subject matter is education, and its methods are those of philosophy".[2] "The philosophy of education may be either the philosophy of the process of education or the philosophy of the discipline of education
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United Kingdom Of Great Britain And Ireland
The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland
Ireland
was a sovereign country in western Europe, the predecessor to the modern United Kingdom of Great Britain
Kingdom of Great Britain
and Northern Ireland. It was established on 1 January 1801 by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland. Britain financed the European coalition that defeated France in 1815 in the Napoleonic Wars. Britain, with its unsurpassed Royal Navy
Royal Navy
and British Empire, became the foremost world power for the next century. The Crimean War
Crimean War
with Russia and the Boer wars were relatively small operations in a largely peaceful century.[1] Rapid industrialisation that began in the decades prior to the state's formation continued up until the mid-19th century
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Catholic Church
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.29 billion members worldwide.[4] As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation.[5] Headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the Pope, the church's doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed
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Aristotelianism
Aristotelianism
Aristotelianism
(/ˌærɪstəˈtiːliənɪzəm/ ARR-i-stə-TEE-lee-ə-niz-əm) is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle. This school of thought is in the modern sense of philosophy, covering existence, ethics, mind and related subjects. In Aristotle's time, philosophy included natural philosophy, which was replaced by modern science during the Scientific Revolution. The works of Aristotle
Aristotle
were initially defended by the members of the Peripatetic school
Peripatetic school
and later on by the Neoplatonists, who produced many commentaries on Aristotle's writings
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