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John Ellis (naturalist)
John Ellis FRS (c. 1710 – 15 October 1776) was a British linen merchant and naturalist. Ellis was the first to have a published written description of the Venus flytrap
Venus flytrap
and its botanical name. Ellis specialised in the study of corals. He was elected a member of the Royal Society
Royal Society
in 1754 and in the following year published An essay towards the Natural History of the Corallines. He was awarded the Copley Medal in 1767. His A Natural History of Many Uncommon and Curious Zoophytes, written with Daniel Solander, was published posthumously in 1776. Ellis was appointed Royal Agent for British West Florida
British West Florida
in 1764, and for British Dominica in 1770. He exported many seeds and native plants from North America to England
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Royal Society
The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society
Royal Society
of London for Improving Natural Knowledge,[1] commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society. Founded in November 1660, it was granted a royal charter by King Charles II as "The Royal Society".[1] It is the oldest national scientific institution in the world.[2] The society is the United Kingdom's and Commonwealth of Nations' Academy of Sciences
Academy of Sciences
and fulfils a number of roles: promoting science and its benefits, recognising excellence in science, supporting outstanding science, providing scientific advice for policy, fostering international and global co-operation, education and public engagement. The society is governed by its Council, which is chaired by the Society's President, according to a set of statutes and standing orders
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Botanist
Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
word βοτάνη (botanē) meaning "pasture", "grass", or "fodder"; βοτάνη is in turn derived from βόσκειν (boskein), "to feed" or "to graze".[1][2][3] Traditionally, botany has also included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists respectively, with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress
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Linda Hall Library
The Linda Hall Library
Library
is a privately endowed American library of science, engineering and technology located in Kansas City, Missouri, sitting "majestically on a 14-acre (5.7 ha) urban arboretum." [1] It is the "largest independently funded public library of science, engineering and technology in North America"[2] and "among the largest science libraries in the world."[1]Contents1 Description 2 Collections 3 Rare Book Collection 4 Grounds and arboretum 5 References 6 External linksDescription[edit] Established in 1946 through the philanthropy of Linda (1859–1938) and Herbert F. Hall (1858–1941), of the Hall-Bartlett Grain Co.,[3] the library has achieved global recognition and stature. The library is open to the public with individual researchers, academic institutions and companies from Kansas City
Kansas City
and around the world using the library’s extensive research-level collection
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International Plant Names Index
The International Plant Names Index (IPNI) describes itself as "a database of the names and associated basic bibliographical details of seed plants, ferns and lycophytes." Coverage of plant names is best at the rank of species and genus.[2] It includes basic bibliographical details, associated with the names, and its goals include eliminating the need for repeated reference to primary sources for basic bibliographic information about plant names.[3][4] The IPNI also maintains a list of standardized author abbreviations. These were initially based on Brummitt & Powell (1992), but new names and abbreviations are constantly added.Contents1 Description 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksDescription[edit] IPNI is the product of a collaboration between The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Index Kewensis), The
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Peter Collinson (botanist)
Peter Collinson (January 1694 – 11 August 1768) was a Fellow of the Royal Society, an avid gardener, and the middleman for an international exchange of scientific ideas in mid-18th century London. He is best known for his horticultural friendship with John Bartram and his correspondence with Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
about electricity.Contents1 Life and work 2 References2.1 Notes3 External linksLife and work[edit] Born the son of a London woolen draper, Collinson entered his father's business and developed an interest in botany. His family belonged to the Gracechurch Street
Gracechurch Street
Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends (i.e
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Botanical Name
A botanical name is a formal scientific name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants
International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants
(ICN) and, if it concerns a plant cultigen, the additional cultivar or Group epithets must conform to the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP). The code of nomenclature covers "all organisms traditionally treated as algae, fungi, or plants, whether fossil or non-fossil, including blue-green algae (Cyanobacteria), chytrids, oomycetes, slime moulds and photosynthetic protists with their taxonomically related non-photosynthetic groups (but excluding Microsporidia)."[1] The purpose of a formal name is to have a single name that is accepted and used worldwide for a particular plant or plant group
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Author Citation (botany)
In botanical nomenclature, author citation refers to citing the person or group of people who validly published a botanical name, i.e. who first published the name while fulfilling the formal requirements as specified by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN).[1] In cases where a species is no longer in its original generic placement (i.e. a new combination of genus and specific epithet), both the author(s) of the original genus placement and those of the new combination are given (the former in parentheses). In botany, it is customary (though not obligatory) to abbreviate author names according to a recognised list of standard abbreviations. There are differences between the botanical code and the normal practice in zoology. In zoology, the publication year is given following the author name(s) and the authorship of a new combination is normally omitted
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List Of Botanists By Author Abbreviation (A)
An abbreviation (from Latin
Latin
brevis, meaning short [1]) is a shortened form of a word or phrase. It consists of a group of letters taken from the word or phrase. For example, the word abbreviation can itself be represented by the abbreviation abbr., abbrv., or abbrev. In strict analysis, abbreviations should not be confused with contractions, crasis, acronyms, or initialisms, with which they share some semantic and phonetic functions, though all four are connected by the term "abbreviation" in loose parlance.[2]:p167An abbreviation is a shortening by any method; a contraction is a reduction of size by the drawing together of the parts. A contraction of a word is made by omitting certain letters or syllables and bringing together the first and last letters or elements; an abbreviation may be made by omitting certain portions from the interior or by cutting off a part. A contraction is an abbreviation, but an abbreviation is not necessarily a contraction
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Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
Linnaeus
(/lɪˈniːəs, lɪˈneɪəs/;[1][2] 23 May[note 1] 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné[3] (Swedish pronunciation: [kɑːɭ fɔn lɪˈneː] ( listen)), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist, who formalised the modern system of naming organisms called binomial nomenclature. He is known by the epithet "father of modern taxonomy".[4] Many of his writings were in Latin
Latin
and his name is rendered in Latin
Latin
as Carolus Linnæus (after 1761 Carolus a Linné). Linnaeus
Linnaeus
was born in the countryside of Småland, in southern Sweden. He received most of his higher education at Uppsala University
Uppsala University
and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730
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Native Plant
Native plants are plants indigenous to a given area in geologic time. This includes plants that have developed, occur naturally, or existed for many years in an area (trees, flowers, grasses, and other plants). Some native plants have adapted to very limited, unusual environments or very harsh climates or exceptional soil conditions. Although some types of plants for these reasons exist only within a very limited range (endemism), others can live in diverse areas or by adaptation to different surroundings
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British Dominica
The Arawaks were guided to Dominica, and other islands of the Caribbean, by the South Equatorial Current from the waters of the Orinoco River. These descendants of the early Taínos were overthrown by the Kalinago tribe of the Caribs. The Caribs, who settled here in the 14th century, called the island Waitikubuli, which means 'tall is her body'. Christopher Columbus named the island after the day of the week on which he spotted it - a Sunday ('Doménica' in Italian) - which fell on 3 November 1493 on his second voyage. Daunted by fierce resistance from the Caribs and discouraged by the absence of gold, the Spanish did not settle the island
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British West Florida
Flag of Great BritainBritish West Florida
West Florida
in 1767.Capital Pensacola (1763)Governor •  1763 George JohnstoneHistory •  Treaty of Paris (1763) 10 February 1763 •  Peace of Paris (1783) 1783 West Florida
West Florida
was a colony of the Kingdom of Great Britain
Kingdom of Great Britain
from 1763 until 1783 when it was ceded to Spain as part of the Peace of Paris. British West Florida
West Florida
comprised parts of the modern U.S. states of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama
Alabama
and Florida. Effective British control ended in 1781 when Spain captured Pensacola
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Daniel Solander
Daniel Carlsson Solander or Daniel Charles Solander (19 February 1733 – 13 May 1782) was a Swedish naturalist and an Apostle of Carl Linnaeus.[1] Solander was the first university educated scientist to set foot on Australian soil.Contents1 Biography 2 Legacy 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksBiography[edit] Solander was born in Piteå, Norrbotten, Sweden, to Rev. Carl Solander[1] a Lutheran principal, and Magdalena née Bostadia.[1] Solander enrolled at Uppsala University
Uppsala University
in July 1750 and initially studied languages, the humanities and law. The professor of botany was the celebrated Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
who was soon impressed by young Solander's ability and accordingly persuaded his father to let him study natural history. Solander traveled to England
England
in June 1760 to promote the new Linnean system of classification
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Coral
Corals are marine invertebrates in the class Anthozoa
Anthozoa
of phylum Cnidaria. They typically live in compact colonies of many identical individual polyps. The group includes the important reef builders that inhabit tropical oceans and secrete calcium carbonate to form a hard skeleton. A coral "group" is a colony of myriad genetically identical polyps. Each polyp is a sac-like animal typically only a few millimeters in diameter and a few centimeters in length. A set of tentacles surround a central mouth opening. An exoskeleton is excreted near the base. Over many generations, the colony thus creates a large skeleton characteristic of the species. Individual heads grow by asexual reproduction of polyps
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Naturalist
Natural history
Natural history
is the research and study of organisms including animals, fungi and plants in their environment, leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study. A person who studies natural history is known as a naturalist or natural historian. Natural history encompasses scientific research but is not limited to it, with articles nowadays more often published in science magazines than in academic journals.[1] Grouped among the natural sciences, natural history is the systematic study of any category of natural objects or organisms.[2] That is a very broad designation in a world filled with many narrowly focused disciplines
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