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John Ellis (naturalist)
JOHN ELLIS FRS (c. 1710 – 15 October 1776) was a British linen merchant and naturalist . Ellis specialised in the study of corals . He was elected a member of the Royal Society in 1754 and in the following year published An essay towards the Natural History of the Corallines. He was awarded the Copley Medal in 1767. His A Natural History of Many Uncommon and Curious Zoophytes, written with Daniel Solander , was published posthumously in 1776. Ellis was appointed Royal Agent for British West Florida in 1764, and for British Dominica in 1770. He exported many seeds and native plants from North America to England. He corresponded with many botanists , including Carl Linnaeus . His essay Directions for bringing over seeds and plants, from the East Indies (1770) included the first illustration of a Venus Flytrap plant
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Royal Society
THE PRESIDENT, COUNCIL AND FELLOWS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON FOR IMPROVING NATURAL KNOWLEDGE, commonly known as the ROYAL SOCIETY, is a learned society for science and is possibly the oldest such society still in existence. Founded in November 1660, it was granted a royal charter by King Charles II as "The Royal Society". The Society is the United Kingdom 's and Commonwealth of Nations ' Academy of Sciences and fulfills a number of roles; promoting science and its benefits, recognising excellence in science, supporting outstanding science, providing scientific advice for policy, fostering international and global co-operation, education and public engagement. The society is governed by its Council, which is chaired by the Society's President, according to a set of statutes and standing orders
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Copley Medal
The COPLEY MEDAL is a scientific award given by the Royal Society
Royal Society
, London, for "outstanding achievements in research in any branch of science." It alternates between the physical and the biological sciences. Given every year, the medal is the oldest Royal Society medal still awarded, and probably the oldest surviving scientific award in the world, having first been given in 1731 to Stephen Gray , for "his new Electrical Experiments: – as an encouragement to him for the readiness he has always shown in obliging the Society with his discoveries and improvements in this part of Natural Knowledge". The Copley Medal
Copley Medal
awarded to Mendeleev in 1905
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Kingdom Of Great Britain
The KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN, officially GREAT BRITAIN, was a sovereign state in western Europe
Europe
from 1 May 1707 to 31 December 1800. The state came into being following the Treaty of Union
Treaty of Union
in 1706, ratified by the Acts of Union 1707 , which united the kingdoms of England
England
and Scotland
Scotland
to form a single kingdom encompassing the whole island of Great Britain
Great Britain
and its outlying islands. It did not include Ireland
Ireland
, which remained a separate realm. The unitary state was governed by a single parliament and government that was based in Westminster
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Naturalist
NATURAL HISTORY is the research and study of organisms including animals , fungi and plants in their environment, leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study. It encompasses scientific research but is not limited to it, with articles nowadays more often published in science magazines than in academic journals . Grouped among the natural sciences , natural history is the systematic study of any category of natural objects or organisms. That is a very broad designation in a world filled with many narrowly focused disciplines. So while natural history dates historically from studies in the ancient Greco-Roman world and the mediaeval Arabic
Arabic
world , through to European Renaissance
Renaissance
naturalists working in near isolation, today's field is more of a cross discipline umbrella of many specialty sciences
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Coral
CORALS are marine invertebrates in the class Anthozoa of phylum Cnidaria . They typically live in compact colonies of many identical individual polyps . The group includes the important reef builders that inhabit tropical oceans and secrete calcium carbonate to form a hard skeleton. A coral "group" is a colony of myriad genetically identical polyps. Each polyp is a sac-like animal typically only a few millimeters in diameter and a few centimeters in length. A set of tentacles surround a central mouth opening. An exoskeleton is excreted near the base. Over many generations, the colony thus creates a large skeleton that is characteristic of the species. Individual heads grow by asexual reproduction of polyps. Corals also breed sexually by spawning: polyps of the same species release gametes simultaneously over a period of one to several nights around a full moon
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Daniel Solander
DANIEL CARLSSON SOLANDER or DANIEL CHARLES SOLANDER (19 February 1733 – 13 May 1782) was a Swedish naturalist and an Apostle of Carl Linnaeus . Solander was the first university educated scientist to set foot on Australian soil. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Legacy * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links BIOGRAPHYSolander was born in Piteå , Norrbotten
Norrbotten
, Sweden, to Rev. Carl Solander a Lutheran principal, and Magdalena née Bostadia. Solander enrolled at Uppsala University in July 1750 and initially studied languages, the humanities and law. The professor of botany was the celebrated Carl Linnaeus who was soon impressed by young Solander's ability and accordingly persuaded his father to let him study natural history. Solander traveled to England
England
in June 1760 to promote the new Linnean system of classification
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British West Florida
Flag of Great Britain British West Florida in 1767. CAPITAL Pensacola (1763) GOVERNOR • 1763 George Johnstone HISTORY • Treaty of Paris (1763)
Treaty of Paris (1763)
10 February 1763 • Peace of Paris (1783)
Peace of Paris (1783)
1783 Britain formed West Florida from part of Spanish Florida , as well as territory received from French Louisiana
Louisiana
WEST FLORIDA was a colony of the Kingdom of Great Britain from 1763 until 1783 when it was ceded to Spain as part of the Peace of Paris . British West Florida comprised parts of the modern U.S. states of Louisiana
Louisiana
, Mississippi
Mississippi
, Alabama
Alabama
and Florida
Florida
. Effective British control ended in 1781 when Spain captured Pensacola
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British Dominica
The Arawaks were guided to Dominica , and other islands of the Caribbean, by the South Equatorial Current from the waters of the Orinoco River . These descendants of the early Taínos were overthrown by the Kalinago tribe of the Caribs. The Caribs , who settled here in the 14th century, called the island Waitikubuli, which means 'tall is her body'. Christopher Columbus named the island after the day of the week on which he spotted it - a Sunday ('Doménica' in Italian) - which fell on 3 November 1493 on his second voyage . Daunted by fierce resistance from the Caribs and discouraged by the absence of gold, the Spanish did not settle the island. Many of the remaining Carib people live in Dominica's Carib Territory , a 3,700-acre (15 km2) district on Dominica's east coast
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Native Plant
NATIVE PLANTS are plants indigenous to a given area in geologic time . This includes plants that have developed, occur naturally, or existed for many years in an area (trees , flowers , grasses , and other plants). Some native plants have adapted to very limited, unusual environments or very harsh climates or exceptional soil conditions. Although some types of plants for these reasons exist only within a very limited range (endemism ), others can live in diverse areas or by adaptation to different surroundings. Research has found that insects depend on native plants. An alternative but potentially conflicting usage is to describe plants (and animals) that are indigenous to a geographical area, even if they are known to have self-introduced in historical times such as the silvereye (_Zosterops lateralis_) of New Zealand, which was first recorded in the 30th anniversary
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Botanist
BOTANY, also called PLANT SCIENCE(S), PLANT BIOLOGY or PHYTOLOGY, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology . A BOTANIST or PLANT SCIENTIST is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
word βοτάνη (botanē) meaning "pasture ", "grass", or "fodder "; βοτάνη is in turn derived from βόσκειν (boskein), "to feed" or "to graze". Traditionally, botany has also included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists respectively, with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress . Nowadays, botanists (in the strict sense) study approximately 410,000 species of land plants of which some 391,000 species are vascular plants (including ca 369,000 species of flowering plants ), and ca 20,000 are bryophytes
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Carl Linnaeus
CARL LINNAEUS (/lɪˈniːəs, lɪˈneɪəs/ ; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as CARL VON LINNé (Swedish pronunciation: ( listen )), was a Swedish botanist , physician , and zoologist , who formalised the modern system of naming organisms called binomial nomenclature . He is known by the epithet "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin , and his name is rendered in Latin as CAROLUS LINNæUS (after 1761 CAROLUS A LINNé). Linnaeus was born in the countryside of Småland , in southern Sweden . He received most of his higher education at Uppsala University , and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730. He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and also published a first edition of his _ Systema Naturae _ in the Netherlands. He then returned to Sweden, where he became professor of medicine and botany at Uppsala
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Venus Flytrap
The VENUS FLYTRAP (also referred to as VENUS\'S FLYTRAP or VENUS\' FLYTRAP), _DIONAEA MUSCIPULA_, is a carnivorous plant native to subtropical wetlands on the East Coast of the United States in North Carolina and South Carolina
South Carolina
. It catches its prey—chiefly insects and arachnids —with a trapping structure formed by the terminal portion of each of the plant's leaves, which is triggered by tiny hairs on their inner surfaces. When an insect or spider crawling along the leaves contacts a hair, the trap prepares to close, snapping shut only if another contact occurs within approximately twenty seconds of the first strike. The requirement of redundant triggering in this mechanism serves as a safeguard against wasting energy by trapping objects with no nutritional value, and the plant will only begin digestion after five more stimuli to ensure it has caught a live bug worthy of consumption
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List Of Botanists By Author Abbreviation
This is an incomplete list of botanists by their author abbreviation , which is designed for citation with the botanical names or works that they have published. This list follows that established by Brummitt "> Order Of EntriesThe list here is maintained strictly in order of the alphabetic characters in the abbreviation; thus "A.B.Jacks." appears under "A" not "J", and is located as if the characters were "ABJACKS". Capitalization is ignored as are all non-alphabetic characters such as "." and a space. Diacritical marks are also ignored, so that, e.g., "ü" is treated as if it were "u". NavigationBecause of its length, the list is split across separate pages. All alphabetic sections can be accessed from the short table of contents; the vertical bars show the page divisions. Searching will only find an entry within a page
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Author Citation (botany)
In botanical nomenclature , AUTHOR CITATION refers to citing the person or group of people who validly published a botanical name , i.e. who first published the name while fulfilling the formal requirements as specified by the _International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants _ (_ICN_). In cases where a species is no longer in its original generic placement (i.e. a new combination of genus and specific epithet), both the author(s) of the original genus placement and those of the new combination are given (the former in parentheses). In botany , it is customary (though not obligatory) to abbreviate author names according to a recognised list of standard abbreviations . There are differences between the botanical code and the normal practice in zoology . In zoology, the publication year is given following the author name(s) and the authorship of a new combination is normally omitted
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Botanical Name
A BOTANICAL NAME is a formal scientific name conforming to the _ International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants _ (ICN) and, if it concerns a plant cultigen , the additional cultivar or Group epithets must conform to the _International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants _ (ICNCP). The code of nomenclature covers "all organisms traditionally treated as algae, fungi , or plants, whether fossil or non-fossil, including blue-green algae ( Cyanobacteria ), chytrids , oomycetes , slime moulds and photosynthetic protists with their taxonomically related non-photosynthetic groups (but excluding Microsporidia )." The purpose of a formal name is to have a single name that is accepted and used worldwide for a particular plant or plant group
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